Si Young Cho

Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Seoul, South Korea

Are you Si Young Cho?

Claim your profile

Publications (16)56.15 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in rodents decreases lipid accumulation and body weight. Melanocortin receptor 2 (MC2R) and MC2R accessory protein (MRAP) are specific receptors for ACTH in adipocytes. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) plays a role in the transcriptional regulation of metabolic pathways such as adipogenesis and β-oxidation of fatty acids. In this study we investigated the transcriptional regulation of MRAP expression during differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Stimulation with ACTH affected lipolysis in murine mature adipocytes via MRAP. Putative peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE) was identified in the MRAP promoter region. In chromatin immunoprecipitation and reporter assays, we observed binding of PPARγ to the MRAP promoter. The mutagenesis experiments showed that the -1209/-1198 region of the MRAP promoter could function as a PPRE site. These results suggest that PPARγ is required for transcriptional activation of the MRAP gene during adipogenesis, which contributes to understanding of the molecular mechanism of lipolysis in adipocytes.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 08/2013; · 2.41 Impact Factor
  • Si Young Cho, Dae-Bang Seo, Wan Gk, Sang-Jun Lee
    Journal of Investigative Dermatology 08/2013; · 6.19 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although Artemisia iwayomogi (AI) has been shown to improve the lipid metabolism, its mode of action is poorly understood. In this study, a 95% ethanol extract of AI (95EEAI) was identified as a potent ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorδ (PPARδ) using ligand binding analysis and cell-based reporter assay. In cultured primary human skeletal muscle cells, treatment of 95EEAI increased expression of two important PPARδ-regulated genes, carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-1 (CPT1) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isozyme 4 (PDK4), and several genes acting in lipid efflux and energy expenditure. Furthermore, 95EEAI stimulated fatty acid oxidation in a PPARδ-dependent manner. High-fat diet-induced obese mice model further indicated that administration of 95EEAI attenuated diet-induced obesity through the activation of fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. These results suggest that a 95% ethanol extract of AI may have a role as a new functional food material for the prevention and/or treatment of hyperlipidermia and obesity.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(3):e33815. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: By catabolizing glucose and lipids, mitochondria produce ATPs to meet energy demands. When the number and activity of mitochondria are not sufficient, the human body becomes easily fatigued due to the lack of ATP, thus the control of the quantity and function of mitochondria is important to optimize energy balance. By increasing mitochondrial capacity? it may be possible to enhance energy metabolism and improve exercise endurance. Here, through the screening of various functional food ingredients, we found that chitooligosaccharide (COS) is an effective inducer of mitochondrial biogenesis. In rodents, COS increased the mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle and enhanced exercise endurance. In cultured myocytes, the expression of major regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and key components of mitochondrial electron transfer chain was increased upon COS treatment. COS-mediated induction of mitochondrial biogenesis was achieved in part by the activation of silent information regulator two ortholog 1 (Sirt1) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Taken together, our data suggest that COS could act as an exercise mimetic by inducing mitochondrial biogenesis and enhancing exercise endurance through the activation of Sirt1 and AMPK.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(7):e40073. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chitooligosaccharides (COS), a kind of oligosaccharide made from chitin or chitosan, have been used a popular remedy for hangovers. In this study we investigated the in vitro effect of COS lactate salt on ethanol-induced cytotoxicity and the in vivo effect of short-term COS lactate salt feeding on ethanol-induced hangover. Pretreatment of HepG2 cells with COS lactate salt significantly reduced ethanol-induced cytotoxicity and suppressed generation of reactive oxygen species. In addition, COS lactate salt dose-dependently increased acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity in vitro and reversed the ALDH inhibition induced by daidzin. Furthermore, oral administration of COS lactate salt (200 mg/kg) for 5 days significantly decreased the blood levels of alcohol and acetaldehyde in ethanol-treated mice. It was also demonstrated that hepatic mitochondrial ALDH activity was significantly increased in COS lactate salt-treated mice. Taken together, these findings indicate that COS lactate salt may have efficacy for the management of alcoholic hangovers.
    Journal of medicinal food 10/2010; 13(5):1061-8. · 1.39 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chitooligosaccharides (COS), oligosaccharides composed of two to seven glucosamine residues, are known to exhibit various biological activities. In this study, we investigated the effects of COS in an in vivo mouse sleep deprivation-induced fatigue model in an effort to develop a functional food with anti-fatigue efficacy. Male Balb/c mice were orally administered 500 mg (kg d)(-1) of COS lactate or COS HCl for 2 weeks, and severe fatigue was induced by sleep deprivation. To evaluate the extent of fatigue, the swimming time, representing the immobility time, was measured in a forced swim test. As a result, oral intake of COS lactate-manifested anti-fatigue effects could be observed by the attenuation of fatigue-induced body weight loss and shorter immobility period. In addition, COS lactate was shown to alleviate the fatigue-induced increase in cortisol and lipid peroxidation and a decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Of particular note, the oral administration of COS lactate increased the mitochondrial membrane potential and the mitochondrial number significantly, indicating that COS lactate may enhance mitochondrial function. In support of this, COS lactate increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) and cytochrome c (Cyt C) mRNA, indicating that it may increase mitochondrial biogenesis. These results suggest that COS lactate can be an effective anti-fatigue functional food, and this anti-fatigue effect may result from, at least in part, the enhancement of mitochondrial biogenesis and the inhibition of free radical generation.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 01/2010; 33(7):1128-32. · 1.85 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The regulation of adipocyte lipolysis is increasingly believed to influence insulin resistance, in a process that may be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. However, the molecular basis of the relationship between mitochondrial protein expression, lipolytic responsiveness, and insulin resistance remains unknown. A set of proteins that shows altered abundances in the mitochondria of untreated and treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes with TNF-alpha or isoproterenol was identified. These include the proteins associated with energy production, including fatty acid oxidation, TCA cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. Proteins associated with oxidative stress dissipation were down-regulated in lipolytically stimulated adipocytes. Lipolytic stimulation with isoproterenol and TNF-alpha, which is also a potent proinflammatory cytokine, showed some noticeable differences in mitochondrial protein expression. For example, isoproterenol markedly enhanced the expression of prohibitin which is involved in the integrity of mitochondria but TNF-alpha did not. These results provide valuable information on mitochondrial dysfunction associated with oxidative stress induced by lipolytic stimulation.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 01/2009; 106(2):257-66. · 3.06 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cidec is a lipid droplet-associated protein, which inhibits lipolysis, leading to the accumulation of triglycerides in adipocytes. However, the transcriptional regulation of Cidec in adipocyte remains unknown. In the present study we investigated that the mouse Cidec transcript is regulated by PPARgamma2. After the differentiation of adipocyte, the expression pattern of Cidec was similar to that of PPARgamma2. In the presence of a PPARgamma agonist, the level of Cidec mRNA was highly increased. In addition, putative PPRE sites were identified in the Cidec promoter. By chromatin immunoprecipitation assay and reporter assay, we observed the binding of PPARgamma2 to the promoter of Cidec. Gel shift assay and the mutagenesis study were showed that the -219/-207 region of the Cidec promoter could function as a PPRE of the Cidec promoter. These results suggest that PPARgamma2 is required for the transcriptional activity of Cidec during adipogenesis, which could be contributed to understand the molecular mechanism of lipid droplet formation in adipocytes.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 11/2008; 377(1):297-302. · 2.41 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have shown that glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is an effectual therapeutic target for metabolic disorders, including obesity and diabetes. In this study, we used in silico and conventional screening approaches to identify putative inhibitors of G6PD and found that gallated catechins (EGCG, GCG, ECG, CG), but not ungallated catechins (ECG, GC, EC, C), were NADP(+)-competitive inhibitors of G6PD and other enzymes that employ NADP(+) as a coenzyme, such as IDH and 6PGD.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 05/2008; 16(7):3580-6. · 2.82 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prp19p is a protein found in the nucleus, cytosol or lipid droplets depending on the cell type. Prp19p participates in pre-mRNA splicing, in neuronal/astroglial cell fate decisions or in adipocyte lipid droplet biogenesis. In this study, the motifs of Prp19p that are necessary for its localization to lipid droplets or the nucleus in 3T3-L1 adipocytes are investigated using a series of truncated mutants of Prp19p that were fused to EGFP and transiently introduced into differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that a domain of amino acids 167-250 is necessary for the recruitment of Prp19p to lipid droplets and that a domain of amino acids 1-166 is necessary for the recruitment of Prp19p to a nucleus.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 01/2008; 364(4):844-9. · 2.41 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To develop an anti-obesity agent containing dietary components, we focused on the mechanisms that enhance both lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation. Caffeine and arginine (CA), a nonselective adenosine-receptor antagonist and an inducer of lipolytic hormone, respectively, were used to stimulate lipolysis. Soy isoflavones and L-carnitine (SL), stimulators of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1A and a cofactor for beta-oxidation of fatty acids, respectively, were used to enhance fatty acid oxidation. Effects of a combination of CA and SL (CASL) on lipid metabolism were studied in vitro and in vivo. During 3T3-L1 differentiation, lipid accumulation was significantly lower in cells treated with CASL (50 micromol/L, 1 mmol/L, 1 micromol/L, and 1 mmol/L, respectively) compared with each alone. Lipolysis was also significantly greater in 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with CASL (50 micromol/L, 1 mmol/L, 10 micromol/L and 0.5 mmol/L, respectively) compared with each alone. In addition, treatment with higher concentrations of CASL (2 mmol/L, 1 mmol/L, 10 micromol/L, and 1 mmol/L, respectively) significantly enhanced beta-oxidation in HepG2 cells. The effects of CASL-containing diets (250 mg, 6 g, 200 mg, and 1.5 g/kg diet, respectively) were studied in vivo. When KK mice were food deprived for 48 h and subsequently refed a fat-free diet for 72 h, hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation was significantly lower in mice fed CASL compared with the control mice. In addition, after obese KK mice were fed a low-fat diet for 2 wk, adipose tissue weights were significantly lower in those fed CASL, but not CA or SL alone, compared with the control mice. Plasma and liver TG levels were also lower in mice fed CASL than in the control mice. These results suggest that CASL is effective for controlling obesity.
    Journal of Nutrition 11/2007; 137(10):2252-7. · 4.20 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Genistein is one of the most abundant isoflavones in soy. The effects of genistein on cholesterol synthesis and fatty acid oxidation have been well documented, but the effect of genistein on fatty acid synthesis remains unclear. Thus, we investigated the effect of genistein on fatty acid synthase (FAS) expressions in HepG2 cells. In HepG2 cells treated with 10 micromol/L genistein, mRNA and protein expressions of FAS, as well as FAS activity, were significantly decreased. The promoter region of FAS contains binding sites for the transcription factor called sterol regulated element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1); SREBP-1 must be processed by site-1 (S1P) and site-2 proteases to be activated. We also investigated the effects of genistein on S1P, SREBP-1 expression, and subsequent SREBP-1 processing by S1P in HepG2 cells. Genistein reduced the expression of S1P and the processing of SREBP-1 but did not change the expression of SREBP-1 mRNA. SREBP-1 is also a transcription factor for lipogenic genes, such as stearoyl coenzyme-A desaturase1 (SCD1), glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)1, and ACC2. Genistein also significantly inhibited the expression of these lipogenic genes. Thus, genistein treatment of HepG2 cells decreased the expression of lipogenic genes such as FAS, SCD1, GPAT, and ACC, which is, at least in part, mediated through the downregulation of S1P expression and subsequent SREBP-1 proteolytic cleavage.
    Journal of Nutrition 06/2007; 137(5):1127-31. · 4.20 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Yeast Prp19 has been shown to involve in pre-mRNA splicing and DNA repair as well as being an ubiquitin ligase. Mammalian homologue of yeast Prp19 also plays on similar functional activities in cells. In the present study, we isolated mouse SUG1 (mSUG1) as binding partner of mouse Prp19 (mPrp19) by the yeast two-hybrid system. We confirmed the interaction of mPrp9 with mSUG1 by GST pull-down assay and co-immunoprecipitation assay. The N-terminus of mPrp19 including U-box domain was associated with the C-terminus of mSUG1. Although, mSUG1 is a regulatory subunit of 26S proteasome, mPrp19 was not degraded in the proteasome-dependent pathway. Interestingly, GFP-mPrp19 fusion protein was co-localized with mSUG1 protein in cytoplasm as the formation of the speckle-like structures in the presence of a proteasome inhibitor MG132. In addition, the activity of proteasome was increased in cells transfected with mPrp19. Taken together, these results suggest that mPrp19 involves the regulation of protein turnover and may transport its substrates to 26S proteasome through mSUG1 protein.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 05/2007; 356(1):175-80. · 2.41 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adiponectin is an adipocyte-specific secretory hormone that can increase insulin sensitivity and promote adipocyte differentiation. Administration of adiponectin to obese or diabetic mice reduces plasma glucose and free fatty acid levels. Green tea polyphenols possess many pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiobesity, and antidiabetic activities. To investigate whether green tea polyphenols have an effect on the regulation of adiponectin, we measured expression and secretion levels of adiponectin protein after treatment of each green tea polyphenols in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We found that (-)-catechin enhanced the expression and secretion of adiponectin protein in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, treatment of (-)-catechin increased insulin-dependent glucose uptake in differentiated adipocytes and augmented the expression of adipogenic marker genes, including PPARgamma, CEBPalpha, FAS, and SCD-1, when (-)-catechin was treated during adipocyte differentiation. In search of the molecular mechanism responsible for inducible effect of (-)-catechin on adiponectin expression, we found that (-)-catechin markedly suppresses the expression of Kruppel-like factor 7 (KLF7) protein, which has recently been reported to inhibit the expression of adiponectin and other adipogenesis related genes, including leptin, PPARgamma, C/EBPalpha, and aP2 in adipocytes. KLF7 is a transcription factor in adipocyte and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Taken together, these data suggest that the upregulation of adiponectin protein by (-)-catechin may involve, at least in part, suppression of KLF7 in 3T3-L1 cells.
    AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 05/2007; 292(4):E1166-72. · 4.51 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prp19p is an integral component of the heteromeric protein complex (the NineTeen complex) in the nucleus, and it is essential for the structural integrity of NineTeen complex and its subsequent activation of the spliceosome. We identified Prp19p, which has never been reported in relation to any function outside of the nucleus, as a member of proteins associated with lipid droplets. Down-regulation of Prp19p expression with RNA interference in 3T3-L1 cells repressed lipid droplet formation with the reduction in the level of expression of perilipin and S3-12. The levels of expression of SCD1 (stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1), DGAT-1 (acyl-CoA diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1), and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase were also reduced in Prp19p down-regulated cells, and a significant decrease in triglycerides was observed. Unlike perilipin, which is one of the most extensively studied lipid droplet-associated proteins, Prp19p is not essential for cAMP- and hormone-sensitive lipase-dependent lipolysis pathways, even though Prp19p is a component of the lipid droplet phospholipid monolayer, and down-regulation of Prp19p represses fat accretion significantly. These results suggest that Prp19p or Prp19-interacting proteins during lipid droplet biogenesis in adipocytes may be considered as another class of potential targets for attacking obesity and obesity-related problems.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2007; 282(4):2456-65. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ginsenosides, the major active ingredients of ginseng, show a variety of biomedical efficacies such as antiaging and antioxidation. Here, we investigate the protective activity of the ginsenoside F1, an enzymatically modified derivative of ginsenoside Rg1, against ultraviolet-B-induced damage in human HaCaT keratinocytes. Ginsenoside F1 significantly reduced ultraviolet-B-induced cell death and protected HaCaT cells from apoptosis caused by ultraviolet B irradiation. Furthermore, ginsenoside F1 prevented ultraviolet-B-induced cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in HaCaT cells. In search of the molecular mechanism responsible for the antiapoptotic effect of ginsenoside F1, we find that protection from ultraviolet-B-induced apoptosis is tightly correlated with ginsenoside-F1-mediated inhibition of ultraviolet-B-induced downregulation of Bcl-2 and Brn-3a expression.
    Journal of Investigative Dermatology 10/2003; 121(3):607-13. · 6.19 Impact Factor