[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Synovial sarcoma (SS), 3-5% of which occurs in the head and neck region, has generally been regarded as high grade sarcoma. Recent analysis of clinical, morphological, and molecular characteristics of SS, however, identified low and high risk group of patients, resulting in important implications for the treatment of patients diagnosed with SS. We describe the case of a 31-year-old male who presented with biphasic SS with poorly differentiated areas (clinical stage IIA) in a palatine tonsil, an extremely rare site of SS. Molecular analyses revealed typical t(X;18) translocation of the SYT gene and a SYT/SSX1 fusion type. The tumor was surgically resected with free margins. Adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy was not considered indicated. To date, the patient has remained free of tumor for 4 years after surgery. Literature review reveals that primary tonsillar HNSS has previously been documented only in three patients. In all of these patients the tumor was histologically biphasic; however only one published case and the case presented here showed areas of poor differentiation. We discuss the relevance of the presented findings with regard to prognostic and therapeutic considerations in SS in the head and neck region.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the absence of preoperative somatostatin receptor ( SST) scans, knowledge of immunohistochemical SST2 tumor expression may help predicting the success of somatostatin analogue-based follow-up studies and treatment of neuroendocrine tumors (NET). We studied the association between SST immunostaining and tracer uptake in [(111)In]-DTPA octreotide (DTPAOC) scintigraphy and [(68)Ga]-DOTA-D-Phe(1)-Tyr(3)-octreotide (DOTATOC) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). Retrospective analy-sis of 36 NET patients was carried out. In 40 tumors, immunohistochemical SST2, SST3, and SST5 expressions were analyzed using a pathological scoring, applying monoclonal ( SST2) or polyclonal antibodies (SST3, SST5). In 14 lesions, [(111)In]-DTPAOC uptake was assessed by a semiquantitative score. In 26 tumors, [(68)Ga]-DOTATOC PET/CT was quantified using an uptake score and maximal standard uptake value (SUV(max)). Combined and separate qualitative analysis of SST scans revealed significant associations between increased tracer uptake and immunohistochemical SST2 detection (combined: rho=0.56, p=0.0002, [(111)In]-DTPAOC: rho=0.63, p=0.0152, and [(68)Ga]-DOTATOC: rho=0.52, p=0.0065, respectively). In contrast, SST3 and SST5 immunostaining was not associated with tracer uptake (all p>0.14). The semiquantitative immunohistochemical score for SST2 was associated with the [(68)Ga]-DOTATOC uptake score and SUV (max) values (rho=0.67, p=0.0002 and rho=0.63, p=0.0010, respectively), but not with the [(111)In]-DTPAOC uptake score (rho=0.24, p=0.4). In patients without preoperative SST scans, knowledge of immunohistochemical SST2 expression may help estimating the value of SST imaging in the clinical follow-up, in particular in those lesions with positive SST2 immunostaining. Negativity for SST2, however, does not rule out tracer uptake in some patients, with heterogeneous SST2 expression within the tumor as a potential explanation.
Hormone and Metabolic Research 07/2010; 42(8):599-606. · 2.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With the introduction of non-myeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation, acute graft-versus-host-disease (GvHD) is frequently observed beyond the traditional 100 days cut-off. The aim of this study was to describe and compare CT features of gastrointestinal early and late-onset GvHD and to correlate findings with clinical and pathology grading.
Abdominal CT scans were obtained in 20 patients with early and 15 with late-onset GvHD. Examinations were assessed for intestinal and extraintestinal abnormalities and findings compared between the two subgroups of GvHD. Distinct CT abnormalities as well as a CT-score integrating multiple pathologies were correlated with gut, clinical or pathology grading.
Frequent intestinal abnormalities included wall thickening, abnormal enhancement, and excessive fluid-filling (94%, 89%, and 94%). 86% of patients showed concomitant small and large bowel involvement. A discontinuous distribution was observed in 54%. Bile tract abnormality was the most common extra-intestinal finding (74%). The distribution of pathologies was equal between subgroups of early or late-onset disease. Wall thickening and mucosal attenuation in non-enhanced scans were significantly related to clinical and pathology scores (P</=0.018). Number of abnormal segments, small bowel dilatation, engorgement of the vasa recta, mesenteric fat stranding and ascites were linked to clinical grading (P</=0.019). A CT-score integrating multiple abnormalities was correlated to gut, overall clinical and pathology grading (r=0.64, 0.57, 0.50).
CT morphology of acute GvHD is independent of its time of onset and, thus, facilitates differential diagnosis of late-onset acute GvHD. Correlation of CT morphology with clinical and pathological grading is important in terms of prognosis and may help guiding the therapeutic approach.
European journal of radiology 02/2009; 73(3):594-600. · 2.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 54-year-old female patient presented with increasing somnolence since two days. Furthermore, the patient reported left-sided mid-abdominal pain and obstipation for one week. Immediately prior to admission, the patient had returned from a 14-day beach holiday on the Azores. Physical examination of the somnolent patient revealed a sun-tanned skin, signs of exsiccosis, and tachycardia with 116 beats per minute.
Laboratory studies showed marked hypercalcemia due to primary hyperparathyroidism and acute renal failure. Neck ultrasonography revealed a hypoechogenic, 5.8 x 3.5 x 3.1 cm-measuring mass behind the lower pole of the right thyroid lobe.
Serum calcium levels significantly decreased after immediate rehydration, bisphosphonate administration, and continuous hemodialysis that was also indicated because of acute renal failure with anuria. After knowledge of increased parathormone levels the patient underwent rapidly resection of the parathyroid adenoma which was histologically confirmed.
Hypercalcemic crisis is often associated with acute renal failure due to calcium-induced polyuria.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastrinomas are the most frequent hormonally-active neuroendocrine tu-mours in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1).
We report on the diagnostic difficulties in a 62-year-old female patient with MEN1 and lymph node gastrinoma. At six and twelve months after resection of a lymph node gastrinoma, no signs of recurrence were observed. Basal and peak gastrin levels during secretin stimulation test were normalized. Extensive explorations, including gastrointesinal endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasonography, and Ga-68-DOTATOC-PET/CT, did not reveal a primary duodenal or pancreatic tumour.
Localization of gastrinomas in patients with MEN1 is challenging due to their small size, frequent duodenal location, and multiplicity. Therefore, while some studies support the existence of primary lymph node gastrinoma in patients with sporadic disease, this diagnosis should not be made in MEN1 patients. In both cases, however, extensive follow-ups are required.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypercalcaemic crisis is a rare endocrine emergency. Often, an acute renal failure develops due to hypercalcaemia-induced polyuria. The molecular causes comprise stimulation of the calcium-sensing receptor in the ascending Henle loop and a reduced aquaporin expression in the collecting ducts. We report on a 54-year-old woman who was admitted for hypercalcaemic crisis and acute renal failure. Immediate rehydratation, bisphosphonate administration, and slow-extended daily dialysis (SLEDD) were initiated leading to a marked reduction of serum calcium. Endocrine work-up revealed primary hyperparathyroidism due to a parathyroid adenoma, which was treated by emergency surgery. Haemodialysis was continued in the first post-operative weeks for prolonged acute renal failure.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of granulocytic sarcoma exclusively manifesting as diffuse intramuscular infiltration of the proximal upper and lower limb girdle and the torso muscles in a patient with previous history of acute myelogenous leukemia 5a. Whole-body CT showed widespread distribution of ill-defined intramuscular, homogeneously enhancing lesions. On whole-body MRI, lesions were homogeneously hyperintense on fat saturated T2-weighted images, isointense on T1-weighted images and strongly enhancing after intravenous gadolinium contrast administration. Histopathology revealed muscular infiltration of blast cells with identical immunochemistry to the initial manifestation of leukemia, diagnostic for an extramedullary relapse manifesting as granulocytic sarcoma. CT and MRI characteristics of this previously undocumented manifestation of granulocytic sarcoma should assist in the identification of such cases.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ectopic ACTH syndrome is a rare differential diagnosis of hypokalemic hypertension. Patients with ectopic ACTH syndrome due to small cell lung cancer have a poor prognosis. We report on a 68-year-old female patient who presented with dyspnea and hypokalemic hypertension. Endocrine testing was consistent with ectopic ACTH syndrome due to small cell lung cancer. After initiation of chemotherapy with etoposide and carboplatin ACTH and cortisol levels normalized and clinical symptoms impressively improved.
Der Internist 11/2007; 48(10):1145-50. · 0.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a case of unusual distribution of red marrow in a patient with extramedullary acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). In adults, hematopoietic marrow is usually located in the axial skeleton and the proximal aspects of the limbs, except for the epiphyses. Nodular islets of red marrow located in the epiphyseal and distal parts of the limbs may mimic tumoral infiltration and be mistaken for chloroma in a patient with AML.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wound-healing mechanisms change during transition from prenatal to postnatal stage. Cytokines are known to play a key role in this process. The current study investigated the differential cytokine activity and healing morphology during healing of incisional skin wounds in rats of the ages neonatal (p0), 3 days old (p3) and adult, after six different healing times (2 hrs to 30 days). All seven tested cytokines (Transforming Growth Factor (TGF) alpha, TGFbeta1, -beta2 and -beta3, IGF 1, Platelet Derived Growth Factor A (PDGF A), basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) exhibited higher expression in the adult wounds than at the ages p0 and p3. Expression typically peaked between 12 hrs and 3 days post-wounding, and was not detectable any more at days 10 and 30. The neonate specimen showed more rapid re-epithelialization, far less inflammation and scarring, and larger restitution of original tissue architecture than their adult counterparts, resembling a prenatal healing pattern. The results may encourage the use of neonatal rat skin as a wound-healing model for further studies, instead of the more complicated prenatal animal models. Secondly, the data may recommend inhibition of PDGF A, basic FGF or TGF-beta1 as therapeutic targets in efforts to optimize wound healing in the adult organism.
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 01/2007; 11(6):1342-51. · 4.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Zusammenfassung Das ektope ACTH-Syndrom stellt eine seltene Differenzialdiagnose der hypokaliämischen Hypertonie dar. Patienten mit einem
ektopen ACTH-Syndrom infolge eines kleinzelligen Bronchialkarzinoms haben eine ungünstige Prognose. Wir berichten über eine
68-jährige Patientin, die sich mit Dyspnoe und einer hypokaliämischen Hypertonie vorstellte. Die endokrine Abklärung ergab
ein ektopes ACTH-Syndrom infolge eines kleinzelligen Bronchialkarzinoms. Nach Beginn der Chemotherapie mit Etoposid und Carboplatin
normalisierten sich die ACTH- und Kortisolspiegel, und die klinische Symptomatik verbesserte sich eindrucksvoll.
Der Internist 01/2007; 48(10):1145-1150. · 0.33 Impact Factor