Glyn W Humphreys

University of Oxford, Oxford, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (637)1838.87 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Studies from our laboratory have shown that, relative to neutral objects, food-related objects kept in working memory (WM) are particularly effective in guiding attention to food stimuli (Higgs et al. in Appetite, 2012). Here, we used electrophysiological measurements to investigate the neural representation of food versus non-food items in WM. Subjects were presented with a cue (food or non-food item) to either attend to or hold in WM. Subsequently, they had to search for a target, while the target and distractor were each flanked by a picture of a food or non-food item. Behavioural data showed that a food cue held in WM modulated the deployment of visual attention to a search target more than a non-food cue, even though the cue was irrelevant for target selection. Electrophysiological measures of attention, memory and retention of memory (the P3, LPP and SPCN components) were larger when food was kept in WM, compared to non-food items. No such effect was observed in a priming task, when the initial cue was merely identified. Overall, our electrophysiological data are consistent with the suggestion that food stimuli are particularly strongly represented in the WM system.
    Experimental Brain Research 10/2014; · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    Lara Harris, Glyn Humphreys
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    ABSTRACT: The current study assessed the performance of a patient with right neglect (M.A.H.) across various manipulations of the flanker paradigm. When required to identify a central target in the presence of a unilateral flanker, M.A.H. responded to the flanking distractor on the left (ipsilesional) side as if it were the target, even when the flanker appeared at left peripheral locations. A right (contralesional) flanker did not affect central identification performance (Experiment 1). The "ipsilesional capture" effect persisted when pretrial location markers were introduced to make the flanker and target locations more clearly defined (Experiment 2). However, when the ipsilesional flanker appeared simultaneously with a contralesional flanker, central target detection improved to ceiling (Experiment 3). Interestingly, with these three-stimulus displays, congruency effects in reaction time only occurred in relation to the flanker on the contralesional side (Experiment 3), suggesting impaired response selectivity to ipsilesional stimuli. Congruency effects were produced on both sides only when the two flanking distractors grouped together (by both onset and offset, Experiment 4) and when the ipsilesional flanking distractor grouped with the target by onset (lone contra offset, Experiment 4). The results are attributed to ipsilesional capture in central target detection, which is offset by temporal grouping processes when another stimulus appears on the contralateral side.
    Cognitive Neuropsychology 10/2014; 31(7-8):584-605. · 1.52 Impact Factor
  • Magdalena Chechlacz, Pia Rotshtein, Glyn W. Humphreys
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    ABSTRACT: Spatial working memory problems are frequently reported following brain damage within both left and right hemispheres but with the severity often being grater in individuals with right hemisphere lesions. Clinically, deficits in spatial working memory have also been noted in patients with visuospatial disorders such as unilateral neglect. Here, we examined neural substrates of short-term memory for spatial locations based on the Corsi Block tapping task and the relationship with the visuospatial deficits of neglect and extinction in a group of chronic neuropsychological patients. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to distinguish shared and dissociate functional components. The neural substrates of spatial short-term memory deficits and the components identified by PCA were examined using whole brain voxel-based morphometry and tract-wise lesion deficits analyses. We found that bilateral lesions within occipital cortex (middle occipital gyrus) and right posterior parietal cortex, along with disconnection of the right parieto-temporal segment of arcuate fasciculus, were associated with low spatial memory span. A single component revealed by PCA accounted for over half of the variance and was linked to damage to right posterior brain regions (temporo-parietal junction, the inferior parietal lobule and middle temporal gyrus extending into middle occipital gyrus). We also found link to disconnections within several association pathways including the superior longitudinal fasciculus, arcuate fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and inferior longitudinal fasciculus. These results indicate that different visuospatial deficits converge into a single component mapped within posterior parietal areas and fronto-parietal white matter pathways. Furthermore, the data presented here fit with the role of posterior parietal cortex/temporo-parietal junction in maintaining a map of salient locations in space, with Corsi Block performance being impaired when the spatial map is damaged.
    Neuropsychologia 09/2014; · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    Xun He, Natalie Sebanz, Jie Sui, Glyn W. Humphreys
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    ABSTRACT: Recently it has been shown that the allocation of attention by a participant in a visual search task can be affected by memory items that have to be maintained by a co-actor, when similar tasks are jointly engaged by dyads (He, Lever, & Humphreys, 2011). In the present study we examined the contribution of individualism-collectivism to this ‘interpersonal memory guidance’ effect. Actors performed visual search while a preview image was either held by the critical participant, held by a co-actor or was irrelevant to either participant. Attention during search was attracted to stimuli that matched the contents of the co-actor’s memory. This interpersonal effect correlated with the collectivism scores, and was enhanced by priming with a collectivistic scenario. The dimensions of individualism, however, did not contribute to performance. These data suggest that collectivism, but not individualism, modulates interpersonal influences on memory and attention in joint action.
    Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 09/2014; 54(102):114. · 2.22 Impact Factor
  • Jie Sui, Glyn W Humphreys
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    ABSTRACT: Prior work has shown that simple perceptual match responses to pairings of shapes and labels are more efficient if the pairing is associated with the participant (e.g., circle-you) than if it is associated with another familiar person (e.g., square-friend). There is a similar advantage for matching associations with high-value rewards (circle-£9) versus low-value rewards (square-£1) (Sui, He, & Humphreys Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38, 1105-1117, 2012). Here we evaluated the relations between the self- and reward-bias effects by introducing occasional trials in which the size of a shape was varied unexpectedly (large or small vs. a standard medium). Participants favored stimuli that were larger than the standard when stimuli were associated with the self, and this enhancement of self bias was predicted by the degree of self bias that participants showed to standard (medium) sized stimuli. Although we observed a correlation between the magnitudes of the self and reward biases over participants, reward-bias effects were not increased to large stimuli. The data suggest both overlapping and independent components of the self and reward biases, and that self biases are uniquely enhanced when stimuli increase in size, consistent with previously reported motivational biases favoring large stimuli.
    Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 08/2014; · 2.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuropsychological tests of visual perception mostly assess high-level processes like object recognition. Object recognition, however, relies on distinct mid-level processes of perceptual organization that are only implicitly tested in classical tests. Furthermore, the psychometric properties of the existing instruments are limited. To fill this gap, the Leuven perceptual organization screening test (L-POST) was developed, in which a wide range of mid-level phenomena are measured in 15 subtests. In this study, we evaluated reliability and validity of the L-POST. Performance on the test is evaluated relative to a norm sample of more than 1,500 healthy control participants. Cronbach's alpha of the norm sample and test–retest correlations for 20 patients provide evidence for adequate reliability of L-POST performance. The convergent and discriminant validity of the test was assessed in 40 brain-damaged patients, whose performance on the L-POST was compared with standard clinical tests of visual perception and other measures of cognitive function. The L-POST showed high sensitivity to visual dysfunction and decreased performance was specific to visual problems. In conclusion, the L-POST is a reliable and valid screening test for perceptual organization. It offers a useful online tool for researchers and clinicians to get a broader overview of the mid-level processes that are preserved or disrupted in a given patient.
    Journal of Neuropsychology 07/2014; · 3.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Deficits in the ability to draw objects, despite apparently intact perception and motor abilities, are defined as constructional apraxia. Constructional deficits, often diagnosed based on performance on copying complex figures, have been reported in a range of pathologies, perhaps reflecting the contribution of several underlying factors to poor figure drawing. The current study provides a comprehensive analysis of brain-behavior relationships in drawing disorders based on data from a large cohort of subacute stroke patients (n = 358) using whole-brain voxel-wise statistical analyses linked to behavioral measures from a complex figure copy task. We found that (i) overall poor performance on figure copying was associated with subcortical lesions (BG and thalamus), (ii) lateralized deficits with respect to the midline of the viewer were associated with lesions within the posterior parietal lobule, and (iii) spatial positioning errors across the entire figure were associated with lesions within visual processing areas (lingual gyrus and calcarine) and the insula. Furthermore, deficits in reproducing global aspects of form were associated with damage to the right middle temporal gyrus, whereas deficits in representing local features were linked to the left hemisphere lesions within calcarine cortex (extending into the cuneus and precuneus), the insula, and the TPJ. The current study provides strong evidence that impairments in separate cognitive mechanisms (e.g., spatial coding, attention, motor execution, and planning) linked to different brain lesions contribute to poor performance on complex figure copying tasks. The data support the argument that drawing depends on several cognitive processes operating via discrete neuronal networks and that constructional problems as well as hierarchical and spatial representation deficits contribute to poor figure copying.
    Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 06/2014; · 4.49 Impact Factor
  • Alla Yankouskaya, Glyn W Humphreys, Pia Rotshtein
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    ABSTRACT: We examined relations between the processing of facial identity and emotion in own- and other-race faces, using a fully crossed design with participants from 3 different ethnicities. The benefits of redundant identity and emotion signals were evaluated and formally tested in relation to models of independent and coactive feature processing and measures of processing capacity for the different types of stimuli. There was evidence for coactive processing of identity and emotion that was linked to super capacity for own-race but not for other-race faces. In addition, the size of the redundancy gain for other-race faces varied with the amount of social contact participants had with individuals from the other race. The data demonstrate qualitative differences in the processing of facial identity and emotion cues in own and other races. The results also demonstrate that the level of integration of identity and emotion cues in faces may be determined by life experience and exposure to individuals of different ethnicities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Journal of Experimental Psychology Learning Memory and Cognition 04/2014; · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    Kevin Dent, Glyn W. Humphreys, Xun He, Jason J. Braithwaite
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    ABSTRACT: In preview search when an observer ignores an early appearing set of distractors, there can subsequently be impeded detection of new targets that share the colour of this preview. This “negative carry-over effect” has been attributed to an active inhibitory process targeted against the old items and inadvertently their features. Here we extend negative carry-over effects to the case of stereoscopically defined surfaces of coplanar elements without common features. In Experiment 1 observers previewed distractors in one surface (1000 ms), before being presented with the target and new distractors divided over the old and a new surface either above or below the old one. Participants were slower and less efficient to detect targets in the old surface. In Experiment 2 in both the first and second display the items were divided over two planes in the proportion 66 / 33% such that no new planes appeared following the preview, and there was no majority of items in any one plane in the final combined display. The results showed that participants were slower to detect the target when it occurred in the old majority surface. Experiment 3 held constant the 2D properties of the stimuli while varying the presence of binocular depth cues. The carry-over effect only occurred in the presence of binocular depth cues, ruling out any account of the results in terms of 2-D cues. The results suggest well formed surfaces in addition to simple features may be targets for inhibition in search.
    Vision research 04/2014; 97:89-99. · 2.29 Impact Factor
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    Lara Harris, Andrew Olson, Glyn Humphreys
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    ABSTRACT: A memory rehabilitation study was conducted with two patients with contrasting impairments in verbal short-term memory (STM): one with impaired phonological STM (pSTM) and one with impaired semantic STM (sSTM). Two treatments were employed, each designed to improve separate aspects of STM: phonological and semantic. The pSTM treatment selectively improved sensitivity to phonological effects in STM, and the sSTM treatment brought about increased lexical effects on verbal STM performance. There was also some evidence of type-specific generalisation to sentence comprehension, in that the pSTM patient showed post-treatment improvement on sentence repetition after the pSTM treatment, and the sSTM patient showed improved sentence anomaly judgement after the sSTM but not the pSTM treatment. The findings are discussed in relation to theories on the components involved in STM, and the role of STM in sentence processing.
    Neuropsychological Rehabilitation 03/2014; · 2.01 Impact Factor
  • Jie Sui, Yang Sun, Kaiping Peng, Glyn W Humphreys
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    ABSTRACT: Attentional control over prepotent responses has previously been shown by manipulating the probability with which stimuli appear. Here, we examined whether prepotent responses to self-associated stimuli can be modulated by their frequency of occurrence. Participants were instructed to associate geometric shapes with the self, their mother, or a stranger before having to judge whether the sequential shape-label pairs matched or mismatched the instruction. The probability of the different shape-label pairs was varied. There was a robust advantage to self-related stimuli in all cases. Reducing the proportion of matched self pairs did not weaken performance with self-related stimuli, whereas reducing the frequency of either matched mother or stranger pairs hurt performance, relative to when the different match trials were equiprobable. In addition, while mother and stranger pairs jointly benefitted when they both occurred frequently, there were benefits only to self pairs when the frequency of self trials increased along with either mother or stranger trials. The results suggest that biases favoring self-related stimuli occur automatically, even when self-related stimuli have a low probability of occurrence, and that expectations to frequent, self-related stimuli operate in a relatively exclusive manner, minimizing biases to high-probability stimuli related to other people. In contrast, biases to high-familiarity stimuli (mother pairs) can be reduced when the items occur infrequently and they do not dominate expectations over other high-frequency stimuli.
    Attention Perception & Psychophysics 02/2014; · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The current research examined the influence of ingroup/outgroup categorization on brain event-related potentials measured during perceptual processing of own- and other-race faces. White participants performed a sequential matching task with upright and inverted faces belonging either to their own race (White) or to another race (Black) and affiliated with either their own university or another university by a preceding visual prime. Results demonstrated that the right-lateralized N170 component evoked by test faces was modulated by race and by social category: the N170 to own-race faces showed a larger inversion effect (i.e., latency delay for inverted faces) when the faces were categorized as other-university rather than own-university members; the N170 to other-race faces showed no modulation of its inversion effect by university affiliation. These results suggest that neural correlates of structural face encoding (as evidenced by the N170 inversion effects) can be modulated by both visual (racial) and nonvisual (social) ingroup/outgroup status.
    Social neuroscience 02/2014; · 3.17 Impact Factor
  • Amara Gul, Glyn W. Humphreys
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    ABSTRACT: There is evidence for cultural differences in how people respond to basic properties of faces. We examined task switching between two properties of faces, emotion and gender, for individuals drawn from Western (White UK citizens) and Asian (Pakistani) cultures. There were three main results of interest. First, there was a double dissociation between gender and emotion classification across the participant populations – Western participants were faster to make gender than emotion classifications while Asian participants were faster to make emotion than gender classifications. It is argued that the different patterns of results reflect the greater attentional weight given to contrasting face dimensions in the different cultures, and the dependence on using different attributes to make gender discriminations in individuals from varying cultures. Second, Asian participants showed smaller switch costs overall than did White British participants. This result may be attributed to effects of bilingualism in the Asian participants, which results in their having greater executive resources. Third, emotion decisions showed larger switch costs than gender decisions but essentially because emotion decisions benefited from priming on non-switch trials. It is argued that emotion decisions benefit from the activation of a specific processing module across consecutive trials.
    Asian Journal Of Social Psychology 02/2014; · 0.83 Impact Factor
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    Progress Njomboro, Glyn W Humphreys, Shoumitro Deb
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    ABSTRACT: Research on cognition in apathy has largely focused on executive functions. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have investigated the relationship between apathy symptoms and processes involved in social cognition. Apathy symptoms include attenuated emotional behaviour, low social engagement and social withdrawal, all of which may be linked to underlying socio-cognitive deficits. We compared patients with brain damage who also had apathy symptoms against similar patients with brain damage but without apathy symptoms. Both patient groups were also compared against normal controls on key socio-cognitive measures involving moral reasoning, social awareness related to making judgements between normative and non-normative behaviour, Theory of Mind processing, and the perception of facial expressions of emotion. We also controlled for the likely effects of executive deficits and depressive symptoms on these comparisons. Our results indicated that patients with apathy were distinctively impaired in making moral reasoning decisions and in judging the social appropriateness of behaviour. Deficits in Theory of Mind and perception of facial expressions of emotion did not distinguish patients with apathy from those without apathy. Our findings point to a possible socio-cognitive profile for apathy symptoms and provide initial insights into how socio-cognitive deficits in patients with apathy may affect social functioning.
    BMC Neurology 01/2014; 14(1):18. · 2.56 Impact Factor
  • Nele Demeyere, Pia Rotshtein, Glyn W Humphreys
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    ABSTRACT: An fMRI pair-adaptation paradigm was used to identify the brain regions linked to the apprehension of small and large numbers of items. Participants classified stimuli on the basis of their numerosities (fewer or more than five dots). We manipulated the type of repetition within pairs of dot arrays. Overall processing of pairs with small as opposed to large quantities was associated with a decreased BOLD response in the midline structures and inferior parietal cortex. The opposite pattern was observed in middle cingulate cortex. Pairs in which the same numerosity category was repeated, were associated with a decreased signal in the left prefrontal and the left inferior parietal cortices, compared with when numerosities changed. Repetitions of exact numerosities irrespective of sample size were associated with decreased responses in bi-lateral prefrontal, sensory-motor regions, posterior occipital and left intraparietal sulcus (IPS). More importantly, we found value-specific adaptation specific to repeated small quantity in the left lateral occipito-temporal cortex, irrespective of whether the exact same stimulus pattern repeated. Our results indicate that a large network of regions (including the IPS) support visual quantity processing independent of the number of items present; however assimilation of small quantities is associated with additional support from regions within the left occipito-temporal cortex. We propose that processing of small quantities is aided by a subitizing-specific network. This network may account for the increased processing efficiency often reported for numerosities in the subitizing range. Hum Brain Mapp, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Human Brain Mapping 01/2014; · 6.88 Impact Factor
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    Carmel Mevorach, Yehoshua Tsal, Glyn W Humphreys
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    ABSTRACT: According to perceptual load theory (Lavie, 2005) distractor interference is determined by the availability of attentional resources. If target processing does not exhaust resources (with low perceptual load) distractor processing will take place resulting in interference with a primary task; however, when target processing uses-up attentional capacity (with high perceptual load) interference can be avoided. An alternative account (Tsal and Benoni, 2010a) suggests that perceptual load effects can be based on distractor dilution by the mere presence of additional neutral items in high-load displays so that the effect is not driven by the amount of attention resources required for target processing. Here we tested whether patients with unilateral neglect or extinction would show dilution effects from neutral items in their contralesional (neglected/extinguished) field, even though these items do not impose increased perceptual load on the target and at the same time attract reduced attentional resources compared to stimuli in the ipsilesional field. Thus, such items do not affect the amount of attention resources available for distractor processing. We found that contralesional neutral elements can eliminate distractor interference as strongly as centrally presented ones in neglect/extinction patients, despite contralesional items being less well attended. The data are consistent with an account in terms of perceptual dilution of distracters rather than available resources for distractor processing. We conclude that distractor dilution can underlie the elimination of distractor interference in visual displays.
    Frontiers in Psychology 01/2014; 4:966. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    Alla Yankouskaya, Pia Rotshtein, Glyn W Humphreys
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    ABSTRACT: We tested how aging affects the integration of visual information from faces. Three groups of participants aged 20-30, 40-50, and 60-70 performed a divided attention task in which they had to detect the presence of a target facial identity or a target facial expression. Three target stimuli were used: (1) with the target identity but not the target expression, (2) with the target expression but not the target identity, and (3) with both the target identity and target expression (the redundant target condition). On nontarget trials the faces contained neither the target identity nor expression. All groups were faster in responding to a face containing both the target identity and emotion compared to faces containing either single target. Furthermore the redundancy gains for combined targets exceeded performance limits predicted by the independent processing of facial identity and emotion. These results are held across the age range. The results suggest that there is interactive processing of facial identity and emotion which is independent of the effects of cognitive aging. Older participants demonstrated reliably larger size of the redundancy gains compared to the young group that reflect a greater experience with faces. Alternative explanations are discussed.
    Journal of aging research 01/2014; 2014:136073.
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    Magdalena Chechlacz, Glyn W Humphreys
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 01/2014; 8:123. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ability to reproduce visually presented actions has been studied through neuropsychological observations of patients with ideomotor apraxia. These studies include attempts to understand the neural basis of action reproduction based on lesion–symptom mapping in different patient groups. While there is a convergence of evidence that areas in the parietal and frontal lobes within the left hemisphere are involved in the imitation of a variety of actions, questions remain about whether the results generalize beyond the imitation of tool use and whether the presence of a strong grasp component of the action is critical. Here we used voxel-based lesion–symptom mapping to assess the neural substrates of imitating meaningful (familiar, MF) and meaningless (unfamiliar, ML) tool-related (transitive) and non-tool related (intransitive) actions. The analysis showed that the left parietal cortex was involved in the imitation of transitive gestures, regardless of whether they were meaningful or not. In addition there was poor reproduction of meaningless actions (both transitive and intransitive) following damage of the right frontal cortex. These findings suggest a role of right frontal regions in processing of unfamiliar actions.
    NeuroImage: Clinical. 01/2014;
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    Alla Yankouskaya, Glyn W Humphreys, Pia Rotshtein
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    ABSTRACT: Facial identity and emotional expression are two important sources of information for daily social interaction. However the link between these two aspects of face processing has been the focus of an unresolved debate for the past three decades. Three views have been advocated: (1) separate and parallel processing of identity and emotional expression signals derived from faces; (2) asymmetric processing with the computation of emotion in faces depending on facial identity coding but not vice versa; and (3) integrated processing of facial identity and emotion. We present studies with healthy participants that primarily apply methods from mathematical psychology, formally testing the relations between the processing of facial identity and emotion. Specifically, we focused on the "Garner" paradigm, the composite face effect and the divided attention tasks. We further ask whether the architecture of face-related processes is fixed or flexible and whether (and how) it can be shaped by experience. We conclude that formal methods of testing the relations between processes show that the processing of facial identity and expressions interact, and hence are not fully independent. We further demonstrate that the architecture of the relations depends on experience; where experience leads to higher degree of inter-dependence in the processing of identity and expressions. We propose that this change occurs as integrative processes are more efficient than parallel. Finally, we argue that the dynamic aspects of face processing need to be incorporated into theories in this field.
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 01/2014; 8:920. · 2.91 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

12k Citations
1,838.87 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2014
    • University of Oxford
      • Department of Experimental Psychology
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
    • The University of Western Ontario
      London, Ontario, Canada
    • Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM)
      • School of Cognitive Sciences
      Tehrān, Ostan-e Tehran, Iran
    • National Distance Education University
      • Facultad de Psicología
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 1990–2014
    • University of Birmingham
      • School of Psychology
      Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • Tsinghua University
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2011–2013
    • Leeds Metropolitan University
      • • School of Rehabilitation and Health Sciences
      • • Department of Rehabilitation Sciences
      Leeds, England, United Kingdom
  • 2008–2013
    • University of Leuven
      • Research unit for Experimental Psychology
      Louvain, Flanders, Belgium
    • Hebrew University of Jerusalem
      • School of Education
      Jerusalem, Jerusalem District, Israel
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • Department of Psychology
      Birmingham, Alabama, United States
    • Rice University
      Houston, Texas, United States
    • Durham University
      • Department of Psychology
      Durham, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2012
    • University College London
      • Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
    • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
      • Department of Psychology
      Urbana, IL, United States
  • 2006–2012
    • University of Essex
      • Department of Psychology
      Colchester, ENG, United Kingdom
    • Duke University Medical Center
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • Center for Brain Mind Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States
    • University of Burgundy
      Dijon, Bourgogne, France
  • 2003–2012
    • VU University Amsterdam
      • Department of Cognitive Psychology
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
    • University of Wales
      • Department of Psychology
      Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom
    • University of Leipzig
      Leipzig, Saxony, Germany
  • 2010–2011
    • University of Barcelona
      • Departament de Psicologia Bàsica
      Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    • Università degli Studi di Torino
      • Center for Cognitive Science
      Torino, Piedmont, Italy
    • Northumbria University
      Newcastle-on-Tyne, England, United Kingdom
  • 2008–2011
    • Imperial College London
      • Faculty of Medicine
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
    • University of Leeds
      • Institute of Psychological Sciences
      Leeds, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2009–2010
    • University of Granada
      • Facultad de Psicología
      Granata, Andalusia, Spain
  • 2007–2009
    • University of Hull
      • Department of Psychology
      Kingston upon Hull, England, United Kingdom
    • University of Angers
      • Faculté des lettres, langues et sciences humaines
      Angers, Pays de la Loire, France
    • University Pompeu Fabra
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2000–2008
    • The University of Warwick
      • Department of Psychology
      Warwick, ENG, United Kingdom
    • UCL Eastman Dental Institute
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • Harvard Medical School
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Université Pierre Mendès France - Grenoble 2
      Grenoble, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 2004–2007
    • Goldsmiths, University of London
      • Department of Psychology
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • Brunel University
      • Centre for Cognition and Neuroimaging (CCNI)
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2002–2007
    • Peking University
      • Department of Psychology
      Beijing, Beijing Shi, China
    • Catholic University of Louvain
      Walloon Region, Belgium
  • 2002–2006
    • National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
  • 2005
    • Université de Montréal
      • Centre de Recherche en Neuropsychologie et Cognition (CERNEC)
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2000–2005
    • Aston University
      • School of Life and Health Sciences
      Birmingham, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2002–2003
    • Unité Inserm U1077
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France
  • 2001–2003
    • University of Leicester
      • School of Psychology
      Leicester, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1999
    • University of Science and Technology of China
      • School of Life Sciences
      Luchow, Anhui Sheng, China
  • 1998
    • Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati di Trieste
      Trst, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy
    • Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham
      Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
  • 1997
    • University of Kent
      • School of Psychology
      Canterbury, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1992–1994
    • Université René Descartes - Paris 5
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1982–1994
    • Birkbeck, University of London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • Newcastle University
      • School of Psychology
      Newcastle upon Tyne, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1993
    • The University of York
      • Department of Psychology
      York, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1983–1987
    • University of London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom