Glyn W Humphreys

The Psychonomic Society, Society Hill, New Jersey, United States

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Publications (675)2095.57 Total impact

  • Theresa Wildegger, Jane Riddoch, Glyn W Humphreys
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    ABSTRACT: We used signal detection analysis to examine the effects of stored color-form knowledge on visual search. Across four experiments, we showed robust effects of stored color-form knowledge on perceptual sensitivity, whereas the effects on response criteria varied. The effects on perceptual sensitivity were stronger when multiple items were present and when the color fell on the surface of the object. The benefit was found even when the correctly colored target had a low probability of occurrence in the experiment. In addition, the benefit was present across different display sizes, and the effects of increasing the exposure duration on detecting correctly colored targets were equal across different sizes of the display. The data suggest that color-form conjunctions are detected efficiently to activate stored color-form knowledge, and that this knowledge then influences early perceptual processing in a bottom-up manner. We discuss the implications for understanding the coding of conjunctive relations.
    Attention Perception & Psychophysics 03/2015; DOI:10.3758/s13414-015-0853-1 · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is currently no existing freely available short screen for cognitive problems that targets stroke survivors specifically. We have developed a short cognitive screen, the Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS), to be completed in 15-20 min, designed for use with stroke patients. To maximize inclusion, the test is aphasia- and neglect friendly and covers domains of cognition where deficits frequently occur after stroke, including apraxia and unilateral neglect as well as memory, language, executive function, and number abilities. Domain-specific scores are returned to help direct rehabilitation. This article presents the normative data in a large sample of 140 neurologically healthy participants, a report on incidences of impairments in a sample of 208 acute stroke patients (within 3 weeks of stroke onset), measures of test-retest reliability on an alternate form and convergent and divergent validity. In addition, the full test materials are made freely available for clinical use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
  • Yi-Shin Lin, Dietmar Heinke, Glyn W Humphreys
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we applied Bayesian-based distributional analyses to examine the shapes of response time (RT) distributions in three visual search paradigms, which varied in task difficulty. In further analyses we investigated two common observations in visual search-the effects of display size and of variations in search efficiency across different task conditions-following a design that had been used in previous studies (Palmer, Horowitz, Torralba, & Wolfe, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 37, 58-71, 2011; Wolfe, Palmer, & Horowitz, Vision Research, 50, 1304-1311, 2010) in which parameters of the response distributions were measured. Our study showed that the distributional parameters in an experimental condition can be reliably estimated by moderate sample sizes when Monte Carlo simulation techniques are applied. More importantly, by analyzing trial RTs, we were able to extract paradigm-dependent shape changes in the RT distributions that could be accounted for by using the EZ2 diffusion model. The study showed that Bayesian-based RT distribution analyses can provide an important means to investigate the underlying cognitive processes in search, including stimulus grouping and the bottom-up guidance of attention.
    Attention Perception & Psychophysics 02/2015; DOI:10.3758/s13414-014-0825-x · 2.15 Impact Factor
  • Dana Samson, Sarah Houthuys, Glyn W Humphreys
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding other people's point of view is crucial for successful social interaction but can be particularly challenging in situations where the other person's point view conflicts with our own view. Such situations require executive control processes that help us resist interference from our own perspective. In this study, we examined how domain-general these executive processes are. We report the performance of two pairs of brain-damaged patients who had sustained lesions in different areas of the prefrontal cortex and who showed deficits in classic executive function tasks. The patients were presented with desire reasoning tasks in which two sources of executive control were manipulated: the need to resist interference from one's own desire when inferring someone else's conflicting desire and the need to resist interference from the ascription of an approach motivation when inferring an avoidance-desire. The pattern of performance of the two pairs of patients conformed to a classic double dissociation with one pair of patients showing a deficit in resisting interference from their own perspective but not from the ascription of an approach motivation while the other pair of patients showed the opposite profile. The results are discussed in relation to the specificity of the processes recruited when we resist interference from our own perspective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Cortex 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.cortex.2014.12.021 · 6.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ability to draw objects is a complex process depending on an array of cognitive mechanisms including routines for spatial coding, attention and the processing of both local and global features. Previous studies using both neuropsychological and neuroimaging data have reported hemispheric asymmetries in attending to local versus global features linked to a variety of cortical loci. However, it has not been examined to date whether such asymmetries exist at the level of white matter pathways sub-serving global/local attention. The current study provides a comprehensive analysis of brain-behaviour relationships in the processing of local versus global features based on data from a large cohort of sub-acute stroke patients (n = 248) and behavioural measures from a complex figure copy task. The data analysis used newly developed methods for automated delineation of stroke lesions combined with track-wise lesion deficits procedures. We found (i) that reproduction of local features in figure copying was supported by a neural network confined to the left hemisphere, consisting of cortical loci within parietal, occipital and insular lobes and interconnected by the inferior-fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), and (ii) that global feature processing was associated with a right hemisphere network interconnected by the third branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus and the long segment of the perisylvian network. The data support the argument that asymmetrical white matter disconnections within long-range association pathways predict poor complex figure drawing resulting from deficits in hierarchical representation. We conclude that hemispheric asymmetries in attending to local versus global features exist on the level of both cortical loci and the supporting white matter pathways. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
    Cortex 02/2015; 30. DOI:10.1016/j.cortex.2015.01.022 · 6.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a lesion–symptom mapping analysis of visual speech production deficits in a large group (280) of stroke patients at the sub-acute stage (<120 days post-stroke). Performance on object naming was evaluated alongside three other tests of visual speech production, namely sentence production to a picture, sentence reading and nonword reading. A principal component analysis was performed on all these tests' scores and revealed a ‘shared’ component that loaded across all the visual speech production tasks and a ‘unique’ component that isolated object naming from the other three tasks. Regions for the shared component were observed in the left fronto-temporal cortices, fusiform gyrus and bilateral visual cortices. Lesions in these regions linked to both poor object naming and impairment in general visual–speech production. On the other hand, the unique naming component was potentially associated with the bilateral anterior temporal poles, hippocampus and cerebellar areas. This is in line with the models proposing that object naming relies on a left-lateralised language dominant system that interacts with a bilateral anterior temporal network. Neuropsychological deficits in object naming can reflect both the increased demands specific to the task and the more general difficulties in language processing.
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    ABSTRACT: Hemispatial neglect due to right parieto-temporo-frontal lesions has a negative impact on the success of rehabilitation, resulting in poor functional gain. Recent research has shown that different types of neglect can impact in a different way on rehabilitation outcomes. The availability of a sensitive test, useful for distinguishing egocentric and allocentric forms of neglect, may be clinically important as all current clinical instruments fail to distinguish between these forms of disturbance, yet they differentially predict outcome. The Apples Test is a new instrument useful to evaluate both egocentric and allocentric forms of neglect. In order to establish Italian norms for this diagnostic instrument the test was administered to a sample of 412 healthy people of both genders (201 M and 211 F), aged from 20 to 80 years enrolled from 14 different rehabilitation centers in Italy. Based on the data, we established pathological performance cut-offs for the accuracy score (total omission errors), the asymmetry score for egocentric neglect (omission error difference), the asymmetry score for allocentric neglect (commission error difference) and execution time. The usefulness of the Apples Test for diagnostic purposes is illustrated by presenting three patients with different forms of neglect (egocentric, allocentric and mixed neglect).
    Neurological Sciences 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10072-015-2088-2 · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Cognitive impairment is well recognized in Parkinson's disease (PD), but when it begins to develop is unclear. The aim of this study was to identify early signs of cognitive impairment along with abnormalities in saccadic behavior in newly diagnosed unmedicated PD patients.Methods Nineteen drug-naive PD patients and 20 controls were examined using a battery of tests, including an antisaccade task, phonemic and semantic verbal fluencies, and a switching and rule finding task.ResultsWith simple tasks, no differences were found between the two groups. However, cognitive performance of the two groups diverged with more complex tasks, occurring independently of PD-related motor impairment. Patients exhibited higher antisaccadic error rates and switch costs in the task switching test, and performed significantly worse in the rule finding task.Conclusions Certain cognitive domains and saccadic parameters are already significantly impoverished in newly diagnosed Parkinson's patients, even before the initiation of medication. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society
    Movement Disorders 01/2015; DOI:10.1002/mds.26134 · 5.63 Impact Factor
  • Jie Sui, Alla Yankouskaya, Glyn W Humphreys
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    ABSTRACT: Participants are biased in responding to stimuli associated with themselves compared with stimuli related to other people. This self-bias may reflect the reward value of self-related stimuli (Sui, He, & Humphreys, 2012). In this article, we examined the identification of self- and reward-associated stimuli under conditions in which either single or redundant stimuli were presented. The redundant stimuli could be the same shape or they could be different shapes both associated with either the self or a friend or high or low reward. We formally tested whether the redundant stimuli violated the independent race model for the identification of multiple stimuli (Miller, 1982) and whether the redundant stimuli were processed with super- or limited-capacity (Townsend & Eidels, 2011). We found that redundant self stimuli alone both violated the independent race model and were processed with super-capacity. In contrast, the redundant high reward stimuli did not show race inequality and were associated with limited capacity processing. The data advance our theoretical understanding of self bias both by demonstrating that it can be distinguished from effects of reward, and by suggesting that self-bias can result from the enhanced integration of stimuli associated with the self. The implications for understanding self bias effects are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    Journal of Experimental Psychology Human Perception & Performance 01/2015; DOI:10.1037/a0038288 · 3.11 Impact Factor
  • Glyn W Humphreys
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The Treisman Bartlett lecture, reported in the Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology in 1988, provided a major overview of the Feature Integration Theory of attention, which has continued to be a dominant account of human visual attention to this day. The current paper provides a summary of the work reported in the lecture and an update on critical aspects of the theory as applied to visual object perception. The paper highlights the emergence of findings that pose significant challenges to the theory and which suggest that revisions are required that allow for (i) several rather than a single form of feature integration, (ii) some forms of feature integration to operate pre-attentively, (iii) a role for stored knowledge about single objects and interactions between objects to modulate perceptual integration, (iv) the application of feature-based inhibition to object files where visual features are specified which generates feature-based spreading suppression and scene segmentation, and (v) a role for attention in feature confirmation rather than feature integration in visual selection. A feature confirmation account of attention in object perception is outlined.
    Quarterly journal of experimental psychology (2006) 01/2015; DOI:10.1080/17470218.2014.988736 · 1.73 Impact Factor
  • Zargol Moradi, Jie Sui, Miles Hewstone, Glyn W Humphreys
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    ABSTRACT: We report a novel effect of in-group bias on a task requiring simple perceptual matching of stimuli. Football fans were instructed to associate the badges of their favorite football team (in-group), a rival team (out-group), and neutral teams with simple geometric shapes. Responses to matching in-group stimuli were more efficient, and discriminability was enhanced, as compared to out-group stimuli (rival and neutral)-a result that occurred even when participants responded only to the (equally familiar) geometric shapes. Across individuals, the in-group bias on shape matching was correlated with measures of group satisfaction, and similar results were found when football fans performed the task, in the context of both the football ground and a laboratory setting. We also observed effects of in-group bias on the response criteria in some but not all of the experiments. In control studies, the advantage for in-group stimuli was not found in an independent sample of participants who were not football fans. This indicates that there was not an intrinsic advantage for the stimuli that were "in-group" for football fans. Also, performance did not differ for familiar versus unfamiliar stimuli without in-group associations. These findings indicate that group identification can affect simple shape matching.
    Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 01/2015; DOI:10.3758/s13423-014-0798-8 · 2.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: We examined the utility of the Birmingham Cognitive Screen (BCoS) in discriminating cognitive profiles and recovery of function across stroke survivors. BCoS was designed for stroke-specific problems across 5 cognitive domains: (a) controlled and spatial attention, (b) language, (c) memory, (d) number processing, and (e) praxis. Method: On the basis of specific inclusion criteria, this cross-section observational study analyzed cognitive profiles of 657 subacute stroke patients, 331 of them reassessed at 9 months. Impairments on 32 measures were evaluated by comparison with 100 matched healthy controls. Measures of affect, apathy, and activities of daily living were also taken. Between-subjects group comparisons of mean performance scores and impairment rates and within-subject examination of impairment rates over time were conducted. Logistic regressions and general linear modeling were used for multivariate analysis of domain-level effects on outcomes. Results: Individuals with repeated stroke experienced significantly less cognitive recovery at 9 months than those with a first stroke despite similar initial level of cognitive performance. Individuals with left hemisphere lesions performed more poorly than those with right hemisphere lesions, but both groups showed similar extent of recovery at 9 months. BCoS also revealed lesion-side-specific deficits and common areas of persistent problems. Functional outcome at 9 months correlated with domain-level deficits in controlled attention, spatial attention, and praxis over and above initial dependency and concurrent levels of affect and apathy. Conclusion: The study demonstrates how BCoS can identify differential cognitive profiles across patient groups. This can potentially help predict outcomes and inform rehabilitation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Neuropsychology 12/2014; DOI:10.1037/neu0000160 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    Alla Yankouskaya, Glyn W Humphreys, Pia Rotshtein
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    ABSTRACT: Facial identity and emotional expression are two important sources of information for daily social interaction. However the link between these two aspects of face processing has been the focus of an unresolved debate for the past three decades. Three views have been advocated: (1) separate and parallel processing of identity and emotional expression signals derived from faces; (2) asymmetric processing with the computation of emotion in faces depending on facial identity coding but not vice versa; and (3) integrated processing of facial identity and emotion. We present studies with healthy participants that primarily apply methods from mathematical psychology, formally testing the relations between the processing of facial identity and emotion. Specifically, we focused on the "Garner" paradigm, the composite face effect and the divided attention tasks. We further ask whether the architecture of face-related processes is fixed or flexible and whether (and how) it can be shaped by experience. We conclude that formal methods of testing the relations between processes show that the processing of facial identity and expressions interact, and hence are not fully independent. We further demonstrate that the architecture of the relations depends on experience; where experience leads to higher degree of inter-dependence in the processing of identity and expressions. We propose that this change occurs as integrative processes are more efficient than parallel. Finally, we argue that the dynamic aspects of face processing need to be incorporated into theories in this field.
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 11/2014; 8:920. DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00920 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies from our laboratory have shown that, relative to neutral objects, food-related objects kept in working memory (WM) are particularly effective in guiding attention to food stimuli (Higgs et al. in Appetite, 2012). Here, we used electrophysiological measurements to investigate the neural representation of food versus non-food items in WM. Subjects were presented with a cue (food or non-food item) to either attend to or hold in WM. Subsequently, they had to search for a target, while the target and distractor were each flanked by a picture of a food or non-food item. Behavioural data showed that a food cue held in WM modulated the deployment of visual attention to a search target more than a non-food cue, even though the cue was irrelevant for target selection. Electrophysiological measures of attention, memory and retention of memory (the P3, LPP and SPCN components) were larger when food was kept in WM, compared to non-food items. No such effect was observed in a priming task, when the initial cue was merely identified. Overall, our electrophysiological data are consistent with the suggestion that food stimuli are particularly strongly represented in the WM system.
    Experimental Brain Research 10/2014; 233(2). DOI:10.1007/s00221-014-4132-5 · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    Lara Harris, Glyn Humphreys
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    ABSTRACT: The current study assessed the performance of a patient with right neglect (M.A.H.) across various manipulations of the flanker paradigm. When required to identify a central target in the presence of a unilateral flanker, M.A.H. responded to the flanking distractor on the left (ipsilesional) side as if it were the target, even when the flanker appeared at left peripheral locations. A right (contralesional) flanker did not affect central identification performance (Experiment 1). The "ipsilesional capture" effect persisted when pretrial location markers were introduced to make the flanker and target locations more clearly defined (Experiment 2). However, when the ipsilesional flanker appeared simultaneously with a contralesional flanker, central target detection improved to ceiling (Experiment 3). Interestingly, with these three-stimulus displays, congruency effects in reaction time only occurred in relation to the flanker on the contralesional side (Experiment 3), suggesting impaired response selectivity to ipsilesional stimuli. Congruency effects were produced on both sides only when the two flanking distractors grouped together (by both onset and offset, Experiment 4) and when the ipsilesional flanking distractor grouped with the target by onset (lone contra offset, Experiment 4). The results are attributed to ipsilesional capture in central target detection, which is offset by temporal grouping processes when another stimulus appears on the contralateral side.
    Cognitive Neuropsychology 10/2014; 31(7-8):584-605. DOI:10.1080/02643294.2014.969691 · 1.96 Impact Factor
  • Magdalena Chechlacz, Pia Rotshtein, Glyn W. Humphreys
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    ABSTRACT: Spatial working memory problems are frequently reported following brain damage within both left and right hemispheres but with the severity often being grater in individuals with right hemisphere lesions. Clinically, deficits in spatial working memory have also been noted in patients with visuospatial disorders such as unilateral neglect. Here, we examined neural substrates of short-term memory for spatial locations based on the Corsi Block tapping task and the relationship with the visuospatial deficits of neglect and extinction in a group of chronic neuropsychological patients. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to distinguish shared and dissociate functional components. The neural substrates of spatial short-term memory deficits and the components identified by PCA were examined using whole brain voxel-based morphometry and tract-wise lesion deficits analyses. We found that bilateral lesions within occipital cortex (middle occipital gyrus) and right posterior parietal cortex, along with disconnection of the right parieto-temporal segment of arcuate fasciculus, were associated with low spatial memory span. A single component revealed by PCA accounted for over half of the variance and was linked to damage to right posterior brain regions (temporo-parietal junction, the inferior parietal lobule and middle temporal gyrus extending into middle occipital gyrus). We also found link to disconnections within several association pathways including the superior longitudinal fasciculus, arcuate fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and inferior longitudinal fasciculus. These results indicate that different visuospatial deficits converge into a single component mapped within posterior parietal areas and fronto-parietal white matter pathways. Furthermore, the data presented here fit with the role of posterior parietal cortex/temporo-parietal junction in maintaining a map of salient locations in space, with Corsi Block performance being impaired when the spatial map is damaged.
    Neuropsychologia 09/2014; 64. DOI:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2014.09.038 · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ability to reproduce visually presented actions has been studied through neuropsychological observations of patients with ideomotor apraxia. These studies include attempts to understand the neural basis of action reproduction based on lesion–symptom mapping in different patient groups. While there is a convergence of evidence that areas in the parietal and frontal lobes within the left hemisphere are involved in the imitation of a variety of actions, questions remain about whether the results generalize beyond the imitation of tool use and whether the presence of a strong grasp component of the action is critical. Here we used voxel-based lesion–symptom mapping to assess the neural substrates of imitating meaningful (familiar, MF) and meaningless (unfamiliar, ML) tool-related (transitive) and non-tool related (intransitive) actions. The analysis showed that the left parietal cortex was involved in the imitation of transitive gestures, regardless of whether they were meaningful or not. In addition there was poor reproduction of meaningless actions (both transitive and intransitive) following damage of the right frontal cortex. These findings suggest a role of right frontal regions in processing of unfamiliar actions.
    09/2014; 6. DOI:10.1016/j.nicl.2014.09.010
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    Xun He, Natalie Sebanz, Jie Sui, Glyn W. Humphreys
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    ABSTRACT: Recently it has been shown that the allocation of attention by a participant in a visual search task can be affected by memory items that have to be maintained by a co-actor, when similar tasks are jointly engaged by dyads (He, Lever, & Humphreys, 2011). In the present study we examined the contribution of individualism-collectivism to this ‘interpersonal memory guidance’ effect. Actors performed visual search while a preview image was either held by the critical participant, held by a co-actor or was irrelevant to either participant. Attention during search was attracted to stimuli that matched the contents of the co-actor’s memory. This interpersonal effect correlated with the collectivism scores, and was enhanced by priming with a collectivistic scenario. The dimensions of individualism, however, did not contribute to performance. These data suggest that collectivism, but not individualism, modulates interpersonal influences on memory and attention in joint action.
    Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 09/2014; 54(102):114. DOI:10.1016/j.jesp.2014.04.010 · 2.22 Impact Factor
  • S. Xu, D. Heinke, G. Humphreys
    Journal of Vision 08/2014; 14(10):827-827. DOI:10.1167/14.10.827 · 2.73 Impact Factor
  • Jie Sui, Glyn W Humphreys
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    ABSTRACT: Prior work has shown that simple perceptual match responses to pairings of shapes and labels are more efficient if the pairing is associated with the participant (e.g., circle-you) than if it is associated with another familiar person (e.g., square-friend). There is a similar advantage for matching associations with high-value rewards (circle-£9) versus low-value rewards (square-£1) (Sui, He, & Humphreys Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38, 1105-1117, 2012). Here we evaluated the relations between the self- and reward-bias effects by introducing occasional trials in which the size of a shape was varied unexpectedly (large or small vs. a standard medium). Participants favored stimuli that were larger than the standard when stimuli were associated with the self, and this enhancement of self bias was predicted by the degree of self bias that participants showed to standard (medium) sized stimuli. Although we observed a correlation between the magnitudes of the self and reward biases over participants, reward-bias effects were not increased to large stimuli. The data suggest both overlapping and independent components of the self and reward biases, and that self biases are uniquely enhanced when stimuli increase in size, consistent with previously reported motivational biases favoring large stimuli.
    Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 08/2014; 22(2). DOI:10.3758/s13423-014-0690-6 · 2.99 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

18k Citations
2,095.57 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • The Psychonomic Society
      Society Hill, New Jersey, United States
  • 2001–2015
    • University of Oxford
      • Department of Experimental Psychology
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 1991–2015
    • University of Birmingham
      • School of Psychology
      Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • Tsinghua University
      • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      Peping, Beijing, China
    • Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg
      Bamberg, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2012
    • Durham University
      • Department of Psychology
      Durham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2011
    • The University of Western Ontario
      • Department of Psychology
      London, Ontario, Canada
  • 2009
    • University of Hull
      • Department of Psychology
      Kingston upon Hull, England, United Kingdom
  • 1998–2009
    • Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati di Trieste
      Trst, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy
    • University of Liverpool
      • School of Psychology
      Liverpool, England, United Kingdom
  • 2008
    • University of Murcia
      • Department of Basic Psychology and Methodology
      Murcia, Murcia, Spain
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • Department of Psychology
      Birmingham, Alabama, United States
  • 2004–2007
    • Goldsmiths, University of London
      • Department of Psychology
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • VU University Amsterdam
      • Department of Cognitive Psychology
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
    • Brunel University
      • Centre for Cognition and Neuroimaging (CCNI)
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2006
    • Duke University Medical Center
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
    • University of Burgundy
      Dijon, Bourgogne, France
  • 2002–2005
    • The University of Warwick
      • Department of Psychology
      Coventry, England, United Kingdom
    • University of California, Davis
      Davis, California, United States
    • National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    • Aston University
      • School of Life and Health Sciences
      Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
  • 1999
    • Universidad de Almería
      Unci, Andalusia, Spain
  • 1996
    • Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham
      Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
  • 1994
    • Université René Descartes - Paris 5
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1981–1994
    • Birkbeck, University of London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1992
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1988
    • University of Waterloo
      Ватерлоо, Ontario, Canada
  • 1984–1987
    • University of London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom