Glyn W Humphreys

The Psychonomic Society, Society Hill, New Jersey, United States

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Publications (692)2140.61 Total impact

  • Giles M Anderson, Glyn W Humphreys
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    ABSTRACT: We assessed the effects of pairing a target object with its familiar color on eye movements in visual search, under conditions where the familiar color could or could not be predicted. In Experiment 1 participants searched for a yellow- or purple-colored corn target amongst aubergine distractors, half of which were yellow and half purple. Search was more efficient when the color of the target was familiar and early eye movements more likely to be directed to targets carrying a familiar color than an unfamiliar color. Experiment 2 introduced cues which predicted the target color at 80 % validity. Cue validity did not affect whether early fixations were to the target. Invalid cues, however, disrupted search efficiency for targets in an unfamiliar color whilst there was little cost to search efficiency for targets in their familiar color. These results generalized across items with different colors (Experiment 3). The data are consistent with early processes in selection being automatically modulated in a bottom-up manner to targets in their familiar color, even when expectancies are set for other colors.
    Attention Perception & Psychophysics 07/2015; DOI:10.3758/s13414-015-0960-z · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are biases in perceptual matching between shapes and labels referring to familiar others, compared with when the labels refer to unfamiliar people. We assessed whether these biases could be affected by differential feedback (using the differential outcomes procedure [DOP]) compared with when feedback is provided using a nondifferential outcomes procedure (NOP). Participants formed associations between simple geometric shapes and labels referring to people the participant did or did not know (self, best friend, other). Subsequently, the task was to match a label to one of two shapes shown on a trial. When feedback for correct responses was given following the NOP condition, matches were faster to known people (self and friend) compared with those to an unknown person (stranger). However, this advantage for known personal relations was eliminated when participants were given feedback for correct responses following the DOP condition. The data are consistent with prior work showing that the DOP can facilitate the learning of taxing associations (for the stranger stimuli relative to the familiar self and friend stimuli). In addition, the results suggest that the facilitated perceptual matching for stimuli associated to individuals known personally may reflect better individuation of the association between the shape stimulus and the label, a process enhanced by using a DOP for associations with unfamiliar people.
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    ABSTRACT: Cognitive problems following stroke are typically analysed using either short but relatively uninformative general tests or through detailed but time consuming tests of domain specific deficits (e.g., in language, memory, praxis). Here we present an analysis of neuropsychological deficits detected using a screen designed to fall between other screens by being ‘broad’ (testing multiple cognitive abilities) but ‘shallow’ (sampling the abilities briefly, to be time efficient) – the BCoS. Assessment using the BCoS enables the relations between ‘domain specific’ and ‘domain general’ cognitive deficits to be evaluated as the test generates an overall cognitive profile for individual patients. We analysed data from 287 patients tested at a sub-acute stage of stroke (<3 months). Graphical modelling techniques were used to investigate the associative structure and conditional independence between deficits within and across the domains sampled by BCoS (attention and executive functions, language, memory, praxis and number processing). The patterns of deficit within each domain conformed to existing cognitive models. However, these within-domain patterns underwent substantial change when the whole dataset was modelled, indicating that domain-specific deficits can only be understood in relation to linked changes in domain-general processes. The data point to the importance of using over-arching cognitive screens, measuring domain-general as well as domain-specific processes, in order to account for neuropsychological deficits after stroke. The paper also highlights the utility of using graphical modelling to understand the relations between cognitive components in complex datasets.
    Cortex 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.cortex.2015.06.006 · 6.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The dynamic nature of the world requires that our visual representations are continuously updated. These representations are more precise if there is a narrow time window over which information is averaged. We assess the neural processes of visual updating by testing patients with lesions including inferior parietal cortex, control patients and healthy adults on a continuous visual monitoring task. In Experiment 1, observers kept track of the changing spatial period of a luminance grating and identified the final spatial period after the stimulus disappeared. Healthy older adults and neurological controls were able to perform better than simulated guesses, but only 3 of 11 patients with damage including parietal cortex were able to reach performance that differed from simulated guesses. The effects were unrelated to lesion size. Poor performance on this task is consistent with an inability to selectively attend to the final moment at which the stimulus was seen. To investigate the temporal limits of attention, we varied the rate of stimulus change in Experiment 2. Performance remained poor for some patients even with slow 2.5 Hz change rates. The performance of 4 patients with parietal damage displayed poor temporal precision, namely recovery of performance with slower rates of change. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:
    Cerebral Cortex 06/2015; DOI:10.1093/cercor/bhv101 · 8.67 Impact Factor
  • Glyn W Humphreys, Magdalena Chechlacz
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    ABSTRACT: The ability to search efficiently for visual targets among distractors can break down after a variety of brain lesions, but the specific processes affected by the lesions are unclear. We examined search over space (conjunction search) and over time plus space (preview search) in a consecutive series of patients with acquired brain lesions. We also assessed performance on standard neuropsychological measures of visuospatial STM (Corsi Block), sustained attention and memory updating (the contrast between forward and backward digit span), and visual neglect. Voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed regions in the occipital (middle occipital gyrus), posterior parietal (angular gyrus), and temporal cortices (superior and middle temporal gyri extending to the insula), along with underlying white matter pathways, associated with poor search. Going beyond standard voxel-based morphometry analyses, we then report correlation measures of structural damage in these regions and the independent neuropsychological measures of other cognitive functions. We find distinct patterns of correlation in areas linked to poor search, suggesting that the areas play functionally different roles in search. We conclude that neuropsychological disorders of search can be linked to necessary and distinct cognitive functions, according to the site of lesion.
    Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 05/2015; DOI:10.1162/jocn_a_00828 · 4.69 Impact Factor
  • Jie Sui, Florence Enock, Jane Ralph, Glyn W. Humphreys
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    ABSTRACT: Biases to favour self-related information over information related to other people have been demonstrated across a range of both high- and low-level tasks, but it is unclear whether these tasks 'tap' the same types of self representation. Here we assess results from two patients with damage primarily to (i) left ventro-medial prefrontal (vmPFC) cortex and the insula (patient SC), and (ii) temporo-parietal (TP) cortex (patient RR). We report evidence from both low-level perceptual matching tasks and episodic memory showing that SC has a hypoself bias across the tasks. RR in contrast had a hyperself bias confined to perceptual matching. Both patients also showed hypobias effects for reward. We argue that the different brain lesions compromise (i) the use of a core self-representation which modulates both perceptual and memorial levels of processing (the vmPFC), and (ii) attentional responses to social cues (the TP cortex), and, furthermore, these effects can dissociate from those of reward and general effects of brain lesion and/or impaired executive control. We suggest that the vmPFC is critical for access to a core self-representation while TP damage can reduce top-down control of attention to salient stimuli and exaggerates the effects of strong (self-related) attentional signals. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Cortex 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.cortex.2015.04.024 · 6.04 Impact Factor
  • Shan Xu, Glyn W Humphreys, Dietmar Heinke
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence from experiments with single objects indicates that perceiving objects leads to automatic extraction of affordances. Here we examined the influence of implied between-object actions on affordance processing. Images of task-irrelevant object pairs (e.g., a spoon and a bowl) were followed by imperative central targets. Participants made speeded left/right responses to targets, and the responses randomly aligned with the affordance of one of the objects. The orientation of one object was manipulated across trials, leaving the colocation between objects correct or incorrect for potential interaction. Four experiments demonstrated that positioning the objects correctly for between-object actions led to a prioritization of the object active in the action (e.g., the spoon) over the passive (e.g., the bowl) object. Moreover, there was an inhibitory effect on responses to the passive object: responses congruent with the passive object were slower when pairs of objects were shown as if in interaction, compared with when they were not. The effects did not change in the single-hand response task but disappeared when the passive objects were absent-though an affordance should still have been presented by the active object. These results present evidence for affordance selection in action-related object pairs, and suggest inhibition of the action afforded by the passive objects under conditions of affordance competition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    Journal of Experimental Psychology Human Perception & Performance 05/2015; DOI:10.1037/xhp0000059 · 3.11 Impact Factor
  • Glyn W Humphreys, Jie Sui
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    ABSTRACT: Although there is strong evidence that human decision making is frequently self-biased, it remains unclear whether self-biases mediate attention. Here we review evidence on the relations between self-bias effects in decision making and attention. We ask: does self-related information capture attention? Do self-biases modulate pre-attentive processes or do they depend on attentional resources being available? We review work on (i) own-name effects, (ii) own-face effects and (iii) self-biases in associative matching. We argue that self-related information does have a differential impact on the allocation of attention and that it can alter the saliency of a stimulus in a manner that mimics the effects of perceptual-saliency. However, there is also evidence that self-biases depend on the availability of attentional resources and attentional expectancies for upcoming stimuli. We propose a new processing framework, the Self Attention Network (SAN), in which neural circuits responding to self-related stimuli interact with circuits supporting attentional control, to determine our emergent behavior. We also discuss how these-bias effects may extend beyond the self to be modulated by the broader social context-for example by cultural experience, by an in-group as opposed to an out-group stimulus, and by whether we are engaged in joint actions. Self-biases on attention are modulated by social context.
    Cognitive neuroscience 05/2015; DOI:10.1080/17588928.2015.1044427 · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We assessed the factors which affect the selection of objects for action, focusing on the role of action knowledge and its modulation by distracters. Fourteen neuropsychological patients and 10 healthy aged-matched controls selected pairs of objects commonly used together among distracters in two contexts: with real objects and with pictures of the same objects presented sequentially on a computer screen. Across both tasks, semantically related distracters led to slower responses and more errors than unrelated distracters and the object actively used for action was selected prior to the object that would be passively held during the action. We identified a sub-group of patients (N = 6) whose accuracy was 2SDs below the controls performances in the real object task. Interestingly, these impaired patients were more affected by the presence of unrelated distracters during both tasks than intact patients and healthy controls. Note that the impaired patients had lesions to left parietal, right anterior temporal and bilateral pre-motor regions. We conclude that: (1) motor procedures guide object selection for action, (2) semantic knowledge affects action-based selection, (3) impaired action decision making is associated with the inability to ignore distracting information and (4) lesions to either the dorsal or ventral visual stream can lead to deficits in making action decisions. Overall, the data indicate that impairments in everyday tasks can be evaluated using a simulated computer task. The implications for rehabilitation are discussed.
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 04/2015; 9(199). · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite being one of the direct causes of depression, whether stroke-induced neuroanatomical deterioration actually plays an important role in the onset of poststroke depression (PSD) is controversial. We assessed the structural basis of PSD, particularly with regard to white matter connectivity. We evaluated lesion index, fractional anisotropy (FA) reduction and brain structural networks and then analyzed whole brain voxel-based lesions and FA maps. To understand brain damage in the context of brain connectivity, we used a graph theoretical approach. We selected nodes whose degree correlated with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score (p < 0.05, false discovery rate-corrected), after controlling for age, sex, years of education, lesion size, Mini Mental State Examination score and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score. We used Poisson regression with robust standard errors to assess the contribution of the identified network toward poststroke major depression. We included 116 stroke patients in the study. Fourteen patients (12.1%) had diagnoses of major depression and 26 (22.4%) had mild depression. We found that lesions in the right insular cortex, left putamen and right superior longitudinal fasciculus as well as FA reductions in broader areas were all associated with major depression. Seventeen nodes were selected to build the depression-related subnetwork. Decreased local efficiency of the subnetwork was a significant risk factor for poststroke major depression (relative risk 0.84, 95% confidence interval 0.72-0.98, p = 0.027). The inability of DTI tractography to process fibre crossings may have resulted in inaccurate construction of white matter networks and affected statistical findings. The present study provides, to our knowledge, the first graph theoretical analysis of white matter networks linked to poststroke major depression. These findings provide new insights into the neuroanatomical substrates of depression that develops after stroke.
    Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience: JPN 04/2015; 40(2):140086. · 7.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Information of which observers are not consciously aware can nevertheless influence perceptual processes. Whether subliminal information might exert an influence on working memory (WM) representations is less clear, and relatively few studies have examined the interactions between subliminal and supraliminal information in WM. We present 3 experiments examining this issue. Experiments 1a and b replicated the finding that orientation stimuli can influence behavior subliminally in a visuomotor priming task. Experiments 2 and 3 used the same orientation stimuli, but participants had to remember a target orientation and report it back by adjusting a probe orientation after a memory delay. Before or after presentation of the target orientation, a subliminal or supraliminal distracter orientation was presented that was either irrelevant for task completion and never had to be reported (Experiment 2), or was relevant for task completion because it had to be reported on some trials (Experiment 3). In both experiments, presentation of a supraliminal distracter influenced WM recall of the target orientation. When the distracter was presented subliminally, however, there was no bias in orientation recall. These results suggest that information stored in WM is protected from influences of subliminal stimuli, while online information processing is modulated by subliminal information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    Journal of Experimental Psychology Human Perception & Performance 04/2015; 41(3). DOI:10.1037/xhp0000052 · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Motivational objects attract attention due to their rewarding properties, but less is known about the role that top-down cognitive processes play in the attention paid to motivationally relevant objects and how this is affected by relevant behaviour traits. Here we assess how thinking about food affects attentional guidance to food items and how this is modulated by traits relating to dietary self-control. Participants completed two tasks in which they were presented with an initial cue (food or non-food) to either hold in working memory (memory task) or to merely attend to (priming task). Holding food items in working memory strongly affected attention when the memorized cue re-appeared in the search display. Tendency towards disinhibited eating was associated with greater attention to food versus non-food pictures in both the priming and working memory tasks, consistent with greater attention to food cues per se. Successful dieters, defined as those high in dietary restraint and low in tendency to disinhibition, showed reduced attention to food when holding food-related information in working memory. These data suggest a strong top-down effect of thinking about food on attention to food items and indicate that the suppression of food items in working memory could be a marker of dieting success.
    Frontiers in Psychology 04/2015; 6. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00427 · 2.80 Impact Factor
  • Jie Sui, Glyn W Humphreys
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    ABSTRACT: The perceptual matching of shapes and labels can be affected by both self- and reward-biases when shapes are linked either to labels referring to particular individuals (you, friend, stranger) or to different reward values (£8, £2, £0). We investigated the relations between these biases by varying the reward value associated with particular shape-label pairs (circle-you, square-friend, triangle-stranger). Self shape-label pairs (circle-you) always received no reward, while friend shape-label pairs (square-friend) received high reward and stranger shape-label pairs low reward (triangle-stranger), or the reverse (friend-low reward; stranger-high reward). Despite receiving no reward, responses to self-related pairs were advantaged relative to those to low-reward stimuli and did not differ from those to high-reward items. There was also an advantage for responses to high-reward friend pairs relative to low-reward stranger stimuli, and for high-reward stranger stimuli compared to low-reward friends. Correlations across individuals were found across trial blocks for both the self-advantage and the high-reward advantage, but the self- and reward-advantages were uncorrelated. This suggests that the self- and reward-advantage effects have different origins. In addition, the magnitude of the self-advantage varied according to the rated personal distance between a participant and a stranger. For individuals manifesting a close personal distance to strangers, the self-advantage was smaller, and sensitivity to reward influenced the difference between the self- and high-reward conditions. For individuals manifesting a large personal distance to strangers, sensitivity to reward did not affect self-matching. We suggest that self-advantages on perceptual matching arise independent of reward for individuals with a large personal distance to strangers. On the other hand, in individuals with a weak self-bias, high reward and the self modulate a common subjective value system.
    Quarterly journal of experimental psychology (2006) 04/2015; DOI:10.1080/17470218.2015.1023207 · 1.73 Impact Factor
  • Theresa Wildegger, Jane Riddoch, Glyn W Humphreys
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    ABSTRACT: We used signal detection analysis to examine the effects of stored color-form knowledge on visual search. Across four experiments, we showed robust effects of stored color-form knowledge on perceptual sensitivity, whereas the effects on response criteria varied. The effects on perceptual sensitivity were stronger when multiple items were present and when the color fell on the surface of the object. The benefit was found even when the correctly colored target had a low probability of occurrence in the experiment. In addition, the benefit was present across different display sizes, and the effects of increasing the exposure duration on detecting correctly colored targets were equal across different sizes of the display. The data suggest that color-form conjunctions are detected efficiently to activate stored color-form knowledge, and that this knowledge then influences early perceptual processing in a bottom-up manner. We discuss the implications for understanding the coding of conjunctive relations.
    Attention Perception & Psychophysics 03/2015; 77(4). DOI:10.3758/s13414-015-0853-1 · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is currently no existing freely available short screen for cognitive problems that targets stroke survivors specifically. We have developed a short cognitive screen, the Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS), to be completed in 15-20 min, designed for use with stroke patients. To maximize inclusion, the test is aphasia- and neglect friendly and covers domains of cognition where deficits frequently occur after stroke, including apraxia and unilateral neglect as well as memory, language, executive function, and number abilities. Domain-specific scores are returned to help direct rehabilitation. This article presents the normative data in a large sample of 140 neurologically healthy participants, a report on incidences of impairments in a sample of 208 acute stroke patients (within 3 weeks of stroke onset), measures of test-retest reliability on an alternate form and convergent and divergent validity. In addition, the full test materials are made freely available for clinical use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    Psychological Assessment 03/2015; DOI:10.1037/pas0000082 · 2.99 Impact Factor
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    Yi-Shin Lin, Dietmar Heinke, Glyn W Humphreys
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we applied Bayesian-based distributional analyses to examine the shapes of response time (RT) distributions in three visual search paradigms, which varied in task difficulty. In further analyses we investigated two common observations in visual search-the effects of display size and of variations in search efficiency across different task conditions-following a design that had been used in previous studies (Palmer, Horowitz, Torralba, & Wolfe, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 37, 58-71, 2011; Wolfe, Palmer, & Horowitz, Vision Research, 50, 1304-1311, 2010) in which parameters of the response distributions were measured. Our study showed that the distributional parameters in an experimental condition can be reliably estimated by moderate sample sizes when Monte Carlo simulation techniques are applied. More importantly, by analyzing trial RTs, we were able to extract paradigm-dependent shape changes in the RT distributions that could be accounted for by using the EZ2 diffusion model. The study showed that Bayesian-based RT distribution analyses can provide an important means to investigate the underlying cognitive processes in search, including stimulus grouping and the bottom-up guidance of attention.
    Attention Perception & Psychophysics 02/2015; 77(3). DOI:10.3758/s13414-014-0825-x · 2.15 Impact Factor
  • Dana Samson, Sarah Houthuys, Glyn W Humphreys
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding other people's point of view is crucial for successful social interaction but can be particularly challenging in situations where the other person's point view conflicts with our own view. Such situations require executive control processes that help us resist interference from our own perspective. In this study, we examined how domain-general these executive processes are. We report the performance of two pairs of brain-damaged patients who had sustained lesions in different areas of the prefrontal cortex and who showed deficits in classic executive function tasks. The patients were presented with desire reasoning tasks in which two sources of executive control were manipulated: the need to resist interference from one's own desire when inferring someone else's conflicting desire and the need to resist interference from the ascription of an approach motivation when inferring an avoidance-desire. The pattern of performance of the two pairs of patients conformed to a classic double dissociation with one pair of patients showing a deficit in resisting interference from their own perspective but not from the ascription of an approach motivation while the other pair of patients showed the opposite profile. The results are discussed in relation to the specificity of the processes recruited when we resist interference from our own perspective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Cortex 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.cortex.2014.12.021 · 6.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ability to draw objects is a complex process depending on an array of cognitive mechanisms including routines for spatial coding, attention and the processing of both local and global features. Previous studies using both neuropsychological and neuroimaging data have reported hemispheric asymmetries in attending to local versus global features linked to a variety of cortical loci. However, it has not been examined to date whether such asymmetries exist at the level of white matter pathways sub-serving global/local attention. The current study provides a comprehensive analysis of brain-behaviour relationships in the processing of local versus global features based on data from a large cohort of sub-acute stroke patients (n = 248) and behavioural measures from a complex figure copy task. The data analysis used newly developed methods for automated delineation of stroke lesions combined with track-wise lesion deficits procedures. We found (i) that reproduction of local features in figure copying was supported by a neural network confined to the left hemisphere, consisting of cortical loci within parietal, occipital and insular lobes and interconnected by the inferior-fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), and (ii) that global feature processing was associated with a right hemisphere network interconnected by the third branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus and the long segment of the perisylvian network. The data support the argument that asymmetrical white matter disconnections within long-range association pathways predict poor complex figure drawing resulting from deficits in hierarchical representation. We conclude that hemispheric asymmetries in attending to local versus global features exist on the level of both cortical loci and the supporting white matter pathways. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
    Cortex 02/2015; 30. DOI:10.1016/j.cortex.2015.01.022 · 6.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a lesion–symptom mapping analysis of visual speech production deficits in a large group (280) of stroke patients at the sub-acute stage (<120 days post-stroke). Performance on object naming was evaluated alongside three other tests of visual speech production, namely sentence production to a picture, sentence reading and nonword reading. A principal component analysis was performed on all these tests' scores and revealed a ‘shared’ component that loaded across all the visual speech production tasks and a ‘unique’ component that isolated object naming from the other three tasks. Regions for the shared component were observed in the left fronto-temporal cortices, fusiform gyrus and bilateral visual cortices. Lesions in these regions linked to both poor object naming and impairment in general visual–speech production. On the other hand, the unique naming component was potentially associated with the bilateral anterior temporal poles, hippocampus and cerebellar areas. This is in line with the models proposing that object naming relies on a left-lateralised language dominant system that interacts with a bilateral anterior temporal network. Neuropsychological deficits in object naming can reflect both the increased demands specific to the task and the more general difficulties in language processing.
    01/2015; 214. DOI:10.1016/j.nicl.2015.01.015
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    ABSTRACT: Hemispatial neglect due to right parieto-temporo-frontal lesions has a negative impact on the success of rehabilitation, resulting in poor functional gain. Recent research has shown that different types of neglect can impact in a different way on rehabilitation outcomes. The availability of a sensitive test, useful for distinguishing egocentric and allocentric forms of neglect, may be clinically important as all current clinical instruments fail to distinguish between these forms of disturbance, yet they differentially predict outcome. The Apples Test is a new instrument useful to evaluate both egocentric and allocentric forms of neglect. In order to establish Italian norms for this diagnostic instrument the test was administered to a sample of 412 healthy people of both genders (201 M and 211 F), aged from 20 to 80 years enrolled from 14 different rehabilitation centers in Italy. Based on the data, we established pathological performance cut-offs for the accuracy score (total omission errors), the asymmetry score for egocentric neglect (omission error difference), the asymmetry score for allocentric neglect (commission error difference) and execution time. The usefulness of the Apples Test for diagnostic purposes is illustrated by presenting three patients with different forms of neglect (egocentric, allocentric and mixed neglect).
    Neurological Sciences 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10072-015-2088-2 · 1.50 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

19k Citations
2,140.61 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • The Psychonomic Society
      Society Hill, New Jersey, United States
  • 2001–2015
    • University of Oxford
      • Department of Experimental Psychology
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 1991–2015
    • University of Birmingham
      • School of Psychology
      Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • Tsinghua University
      • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      Peping, Beijing, China
    • Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg
      Bamberg, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2012
    • Durham University
      • Department of Psychology
      Durham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2011
    • The University of Western Ontario
      • Department of Psychology
      London, Ontario, Canada
  • 2009
    • University of Hull
      • Department of Psychology
      Kingston upon Hull, England, United Kingdom
  • 1998–2009
    • Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati di Trieste
      Trst, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy
    • Technische Universität Ilmenau
      Stadt Ilmenau, Thuringia, Germany
    • University of Liverpool
      • School of Psychology
      Liverpool, England, United Kingdom
  • 2008
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • Department of Psychology
      Birmingham, Alabama, United States
    • University of Murcia
      • Department of Basic Psychology and Methodology
      Murcia, Murcia, Spain
  • 2004–2007
    • Goldsmiths, University of London
      • Department of Psychology
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • Brunel University
      • Centre for Cognition and Neuroimaging (CCNI)
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
    • VU University Amsterdam
      • Department of Cognitive Psychology
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2006
    • Duke University Medical Center
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
    • University of Burgundy
      Dijon, Bourgogne, France
  • 2002–2005
    • The University of Warwick
      • Department of Psychology
      Coventry, England, United Kingdom
    • University of California, Davis
      Davis, California, United States
    • National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    • Aston University
      • School of Life and Health Sciences
      Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
  • 1999
    • Universidad de Almería
      Unci, Andalusia, Spain
  • 1996
    • Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham
      Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
  • 1994
    • Université René Descartes - Paris 5
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1981–1994
    • Birkbeck, University of London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1992
    • University of Kent
      Cantorbery, England, United Kingdom
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1988
    • University of Waterloo
      Ватерлоо, Ontario, Canada
  • 1984–1987
    • University of London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom