Chae-Gwan Kong

Catholic University of Korea, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

Are you Chae-Gwan Kong?

Claim your profile

Publications (19)20.24 Total impact

  • Source
    Asian spine journal 10/2014; 8(5):543-8.
  • Chae-Gwan Kong, Se-Wook Park, Hyo Yang, Yong In
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Genesis II knee system incorporates 3° of external rotation into the femoral component and the femoral component is implanted in neutral rotation to the femur. The purpose of this study was to compare patellar tracking of the Genesis II knee system with that of the Vanguard knee system, in which the femoral component is routinely implanted in a 3° externally rotated position to the posterior condylar axis (PCA) of the femur. One hundred consecutive knees scheduled to undergo total knee arthroplasty (TKA) were enrolled. Fifty knees underwent TKA with the posterior-stabilized (PS) Genesis II prosthesis and 50 knees underwent TKA with the PS Vanguard prosthesis. Rotation of the femoral component was calculated by measuring the acute angle between the transepicondylar axis (TEA) and the PCA on axial computed tomography (CT) images. The postoperative patellar tilt and displacement were compared between groups. The range of motion and Knee Society scores were also compared. Forty-eight knees in each group were followed up for 2 years. There was no difference in the angle between the PCA and the TEA on postoperative CT scans between the two designs. There was also no difference in patellar tracking between groups. Both the Genesis II and Vanguard knee systems showed good clinical results at 2 years postoperatively. The patellar tracking of the Genesis II prosthesis was comparable to that of the Vanguard prosthesis. Prospective cohort study, Level II.
    Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery 02/2014; · 1.36 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The surgical wound of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) needs continuous flexion and extension movement. Silicone gel treatment is widely used to treat hypertrophic scars and keloids since it is easily applied and prevents scar pain and itching. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of silicone gel applied to surgical scars of TKA on postoperative scar pain and pruritus. One hundred TKAs were randomized into a silicone gel group (silicone gel was applied to the wound after stitch-out for 1 month) or a placebo group. The postoperative scar pain and pruritus were evaluated with the use of a visual analog scale (VAS) at postoperative 3 months, 6 months and 1 year. Scar assessment was done using the Vancouver scar scale by evaluating scar pigmentation, vascularity, pliability, and height. Although silicone gel group showed better pigmentation and height scales than placebo group (P < 0.05), there were no significant differences in the postoperative scar pain and pruritus VAS scores between the groups (P > 0.05). Application of silicone gel had no beneficial effects on scar pain and itching relief during the early postoperative period of TKA. I-Randomized Controlled Trial.
    Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery 02/2014; · 1.36 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prospective study. We investigated normative temporal levels of white blood cell (WBC) and absolute neutrophil count (ANC) in uncomplicated anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using allograft and demineralized bone matrix (DBM). No study has investigated the diagnostic usefulness of WBC and ANC for postoperative infection following ACDF using allograft and DBM. Blood samples of 85 patients, who underwent one or two-level ACDF, were obtained and evaluated before surgery and on the first, third, fifth, seventh, fourteenth, thirtieth, and ninetieth postoperative days. No infection was found in all patients for at least one year follow-up period. Mean WBC and ANC values increased significantly and reached peak levels on the first postoperative day. The peaked levels rapidly decreased but still remained elevated above the preoperative levels on the third postoperative day. The levels returned close to the preoperative levels on the fifth postoperative day. The mean WBC and ANC values did not get out of their normal reference ranges throughout the follow-up periods. One-level and two-level ACDF exhibited a similar course of postoperative changes in WBC and ANC values and no significant difference in mean levels of WBC and ANC throughout the follow-up periods. Uncomplicated ACDF using allograft and DBM showed normal values of WBC and ANC during the early postoperative period. Therefore, significant abnormal values of WBC and ANC at an early postoperative period suggest the possibility of the development of acute postoperative infection after ACDF using allograft and DBM.
    Asian spine journal 09/2013; 7(3):173-7.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Postoperative urinary retention (POUR) may cause bladder dysfunction, urinary tract infection, and catheter-related complications. It is important to be aware and to be able to identify patients at risk of developing POUR. However, there has been no study that has investigated the incidence and risk factors for the development of POUR following anterior cervical spine surgery for degenerative cervical disc disease. We included 325 patients (164 male and 161 female), who underwent anterior cervical spine surgery for cervical radiculopathy or myelopathy due to primary cervical disc herniation and/or spondylosis, in the study. We did not perform en bloc catheterization in our patients before the operation. There were 36 patients (27 male and 9 female) that developed POUR with an overall incidence of 11.1%. The mean numbers of postoperative in-and-out catheterizations was 1.6 times and mean urine output was 717.7 mL. Thirteen out of 36 POUR patients (36%) underwent indwelling catheterization for a mean 4.3 days after catheterization for in-and-out surgery, because of persisting POUR. Seven out of 36 POUR patients (19%) were treated for voiding difficulty, urinary tract irritation, or infection. Chi-square test showed that patients who were male, had diabetes mellitus, benign prostate hypertrophy or myelopathy, or used Demerol were at higher risk of developing POUR. The mean age of POUR patients was higher than non-POUR patients (68.5 years vs. 50.8 years, p < 0.01). To avoid POUR and related complications as a result of anterior cervical spine surgery for degenerative cervical disc disease, we recommend that a catheter be placed selectively before the operation in at-risk patients, the elderly in particular, male gender, diabetes mellitus, benign prostate hypertrophy, and myelopathy. We recommend that Demerol not be used for postoperative pain control.
    Clinics in orthopedic surgery 06/2013; 5(2):134-7.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite the importance of soft tissue balancing during total knee arthroplasty (TKA), all estimating techniques are dependent on a surgeon's manual distraction force or subjective feeling based on experience. We developed a new device for dynamic gap balancing, which can offer constant load to the gap between the femur and tibia, using pneumatic pressure during range of motion. To determine the amount of distraction force for the new device, 3 experienced surgeons' manual distraction force was measured using a conventional spreader. A new device called the consistent load pneumatic tensor was developed on the basis of the biomechanical tests. Reliability testing for the new device was performed using 5 cadaveric knees by the same surgeons. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated. The distraction force applied to the new pneumatic tensioning device was determined to be 150 N. The interobserver reliability was very good for the newly tested spreader device with ICCs between 0.828 and 0.881. The new pneumatic tensioning device can enable us to properly evaluate the soft tissue balance throughout the range of motion during TKA with acceptable reproducibility.
    Clinics in orthopedic surgery 09/2012; 4(3):188-92.
  • Chae-Gwan Kong, Young-Yul Kim, Jong-Beom Park
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We investigated sequential levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in uncomplicated ACDF (anterior cervical discectomy and fusion) using allograft and DBM (demineralised bone matrix) for primary cervical spondylosis and/or disc herniation. To our knowledge, there has been no study to investigate the diagnostic value of CRP and ESR for postoperative infection in ACDF using allograft and DBM. Blood samples of 85 patients, who underwent one- (n = 51) or two-level (n = 34) ACDF, were obtained and evaluated before surgery and on the first, third, fifth, seventh, 14th, 30th, and 90th postoperative days. No infection was found in any patient for at least one year follow-up period. Mean CRP value increased significantly on the first postoperative day and reached a peak on the third postoperative day. The peak level rapidly decreased but remained elevated on the fifth, seventh, and 14th postoperative days. Mean ESR value increased significantly and reached a peak on the third postoperative day. The peak level gradually decreased but remained elevated on the fifth and seventh postoperative days. One- and two-level ACDF exhibited similar postoperative changes in CRP and ESR values and no significant difference in mean levels of CRP and ESR throughout the follow-up periods. This study demonstrates that uncomplicated ACDF using allograft and DBM showed significant abnormal values of CRP and ESR during the early postoperative period. This result suggests that abnormal values of CRP and ESR in the early postoperative period do not indicate acute postoperative infection after ACDF using allograft and DBM. Straying from the normal course, such as a second rise or a failure to decrease, of CRP and ESR is more important to signpost acute postoperative infection in ACDF using allograft and DBM.
    International Orthopaedics 08/2012; 36(11):2293-7. · 2.32 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We aimed to compare cross-pin fixation and Endobutton femoral fixation for hamstring anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with respect to clinical and radiographic results, including tunnel widening and the progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Between August 2002 and August 2005, 126 autogenous hamstring ACL reconstructions were performed using either cross pins or Endobutton for femoral fixation. Fifty-six of 75 patients in the cross-pin group and 35 of 51 patients in the Endobutton group were followed up for a minimum of 4 years. We compared the clinical and radiological results between the groups using the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) evaluation form, the KT-2000 arthrometer side to side difference, the amount of tunnel widening and the advancement of OA on radiographs. There were no significant differences in the IKDC grades between the groups at the 4 year follow-up. There was no significant difference in the side to side difference according to KT-2000 arthrometer testing. Also, there were no significant differences in terms of tunnel widening or advancement of OA on radiographs. Endobutton femoral fixation showed good results that were comparable to those of cross pins fixation in hamstring ACL reconstruction.
    Knee surgery & related research. 03/2012; 24(1):34-9.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is limited clinical data on patellar maltracking in patients who have undergone total knee arthroplasty (TKA) without lateral release. We performed a retrospective review of 191 consecutive TKAs performed by one surgeon through the subvastus approach without lateral release from 2007 to 2008. Radiographic measurements were made using the preoperative and postoperative 2 years radiographs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the risk factors for patellar maltracking after TKA performed without lateral release. TKA resulted in increases in the patellar tilt and displacement (P<0.05). The presence of preoperative patellar tilt and displacement were predictive of postoperative patellar tilt and displacement in patients who underwent TKA through the subvastus approach without lateral release (P<0.05).
    The Knee 10/2011; 19(5):692-5. · 2.01 Impact Factor
  • Chae-Gwan Kong, Yong In, Seok-Jung Kim, Yoo-Joon Sur
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report a case involving an avulsion fracture of the iliac crest apophysis in a 16-year-old boy. Occasionally, apophyseal avulsion fractures of the pelvis occur; however, those that occur at the iliac crest are rare. As a result of the large size of the fracture fragment and marked displacement (more than 3 cm), the fracture was managed operatively with open reduction and internal fixation. The patient returned to preinjury physical activity levels 2 months after surgery without complication.
    Journal of orthopaedic trauma 06/2011; 25(6):e56-8. · 1.78 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A mixed solution of sodium hyaluronate and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (HA/CMC) has been shown to be effective for decreasing postoperative adhesions in various kinds of surgeries. We evaluated the clinical efficacy and safety of HA/CMC gel on the early postoperative range of motion and pain relief after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Thirty one patients who underwent bilateral TKA as a single-stage procedure for primary osteoarthritis were included in the study. At the completion of surgery, among both knees, the HA/CMC gel was applied to one knee (the HA/CMC group) and HA/CMC gel was not applied to the other knee (the control group). The primary outcome measure was the early assessment of range of motion and the secondary outcome measures were the VAS pain scores and the number of complications in each group. Periarticular application of HA/CMC gel was safe without causing any wound problems or infection. However, local application of HA/CMC gel neither increased the range of motion nor reduced the pain during the early postoperative period of TKA.
    The Knee 03/2011; 18(2):104-7. · 2.01 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Yoo-Joon Sur, Chae-Gwan Kong, Jong-Beom Park
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recently, the Device for Intervertebral Assisted Motion (DIAM™) has been introduced for surgery of degenerative lumbar disc diseases. The authors performed the current study to determine the survivorship of DIAM™ implantation for degenerative lumbar disc diseases and risk factors for reoperation. One hundred and fifty consecutive patients underwent laminectomy or discectomy with DIAM™ implantation for primary lumbar spinal stenosis or disc herniation. The characteristics of the 150 patients included the following: 84 males and 66 females; mean age at the time of surgery, 46.5 years; median value of follow-up, 23 months (range 1-48 months); 96 spinal stenosis and 54 disc herniations; and 146 one-level (115, L4-5; 31, L5-6) and 4 two-level (L4-5 and L5-6). In the current study, due to lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV) L6 meant lumbarization of S1 and this had a prominent spinous process so that the DIAM™ was implanted at L5-6. Reoperations due to any reasons of the DIAM™ implantation level or adjacent levels were defined as a failure and used as the end point for determining survivorship. The cumulative reoperation rate and survival time were determined via Kaplan-Meier analysis. The log-rank test and Cox regression model were used to evaluate the effect of age, gender, diagnosis, location, and level of DIAM™ implantation on the reoperation rate. During a 4-year follow-up, seven patients (two males and five female) underwent reoperation at the DIAM™ implantation level, giving a reoperation rate of 4.7%. However, no patients underwent reoperation for adjacent level complications. The causes of reoperation were recurrent spinal stenosis (n = 3), recurrent disc herniation (n = 2), post-laminectomy spondylolisthesis (n = 1), and delayed deep wound infection (n = 1). The mean time between primary operation and reoperation was 13.4 months (range 2-29 months). Kaplan-Meier analysis predicted an 8% cumulative reoperation rate 4 years post-operatively. Survival time was predicted to be 45.6 ± 0.9 months (mean ± standard deviation). Based on the log-rank test, the reoperation rate was higher at L5-6 (p = 0.002) and two-level (p = 0.01) DIAM™ implantation compared with L4-5 and one-level DIAM™ implantation. However, gender (p = 0.16), age (p = 0.41), and diagnosis (p = 0.67) did not significantly affect the reoperation rate of DIAM™ implantation. Based on a Cox regression model, L5-6 [hazard ratio (HR), 10.3; 95% CI, 1.7-63.0; p = 0.01] and two-level (HR, 10.4; 95% CI, 1.2-90.2; p = 0.04) DIAM™ implantation were also significant variables associated with a higher reoperation rate. Survival time was significantly lower in L5-6 (47 vs. 22 months, p = 0.002) and two-level DIAM™ implantation (46 vs. 18 months, p = 0.01) compared with L4-5 and one-level DIAM™ implantation. The current results suggest that 8% of the patients who have a DIAM™ implantation for primary lumbar spinal stenosis or disc herniation are expected to undergo reoperation at the same level within 4 years after surgery. Based on the limited data set, DIAM™ implantation at L5-6 and two-level in patients with LSTV are significant risk factors for reoperation.
    European Spine Journal 10/2010; 20(2):280-8. · 2.47 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Multiple studies have reported that allografts are acceptable alternatives to autografts for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions. Our clinical practice allows patient involvement in graft decision-making. This study examined the patients' preference for graft selection and the factors affecting their decision. Patients scheduled to undergo an ACL reconstruction surgery (n = 129) at a university medical center in Korea were enrolled in this study. Information leaflets with graft descriptions were provided prior to hospital admission, and the patients were allowed to choose one of two surgical graft types. The patients were asked to complete a questionnaire that reflected their decision-making processes, and the patients' trends and factors affecting their choice of graft were analyzed based on their responses. Most patients (54.3%) selected autografts for the ACL reconstruction. The surgeon's explanation was the most important factor affecting the final patient decision followed by the information derived from Internet searches. Patients who derived the majority of their understanding of the graft types from the Internet chose allografts at significantly higher rates. Patient graft selection is a reasonable way of designating the type of surgical procedure. Most patients selected autografts for their ACL reconstruction. However, patients who performed significant Internet-based research tended to prefer allografts.
    Clinics in orthopedic surgery 06/2010; 2(2):69-75.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The lateral radiograph-based system described by Tsuyama is used widely to classify ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) of the cervical spine. However, OPLL is a complex 3-dimensional (3-D) lesion, not a simple and uniplanar one, which is often difficult to identify on a lateral radiograph. Furthermore, its reliability among spine surgeons has not been investigated. Given the popularity of a reconstructed computed tomography (CT), this study examined the inter- and intra-observer reliability of lateral radiograph-based OPLL classification using that modality. Five spine surgeons independently reviewed the lateral radiograph, axial CT, 2-D (sagittal) and 3-D reconstructed CT images of 108 OPLL patients on 2 separate occasions. Based on these images, the reviewers classified each OPLL case according to the Tsuyama's system. The kappa values were used to assess the statistical reliability. The inter- and intra-observer kappa values were only 0.51 and 0.67 for the lateral radiograph, even in combination with the axial CT images, 0.70 and 0.85 for 2-D CT images, and 0.76 and 0.86 for 3-D CT images, respectively. These kappa values showed a good-to-excellent range for the 2-D and 3-D reconstructed CT images while those of the lateral radiograph indicated a fair range. According to the OPLL types, the inter- and intra-observer reliability was low in the continuous type and high in the circumscribed type on the lateral radiograph. However, the low reliability of the continuous type on lateral radiograph was overcome somewhat using 2-D and 3-D reconstructed CT images. The inter- and intra-observer kappa values were only 0.51 and 0.67 for the lateral radiograph, even in combination with the axial CT images, 0.70 and 0.85 for 2-D CT images, and 0.76 and 0.86 for 3-D CT images, respectively. These kappa values showed a good-to-excellent range for the 2-D and 3-D reconstructed CT images while those of the lateral radiograph indicated a fair range. According to the OPLL types, the inter- and intra-observer reliability was low in the continuous type and high in the circumscribed type on the lateral radiograph. However, the low reliability of the continuous type on lateral radiograph was overcome somewhat using 2-D and 3-D reconstructed CT images.
    Clinics in orthopedic surgery 03/2010; 2(1):8-12.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of changing activity after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) on metabolic syndrome with a follow-up period of 2 years. Two hundred consecutive patients who were to undergo TKA were prospectively enrolled. The patients' blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose level, the lipid profile, the waist circumference, the Knee Society score, and the Lower Extremity Activity Scale were measured preoperatively and at the 2-year follow-up visit. The data from 169 patients were finally collected and reviewed. Two years after primary TKA, there was no change in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, despite that the patients had a significant increase of their physical activity.
    The Journal of arthroplasty 09/2009; 25(7):1110-4. · 1.79 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: One of the characteristics of spinal stenosis is elastin degradation and fibrosis of the extracellular matrix of the ligamentum flavum. However, there have been no investigations to determine which biochemical factors cause these histologic changes. So we performed the current study to investigate the hypothesis that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which possess the ability to cause extracellular matrix remodeling, may play a role as a mediator for this malady in the ligamentum flavum. The ligamentum flavum specimens were surgically obtained from thirty patients with spinal stenosis, as well as from 30 control patients with a disc herniation. The extents of ligamentum flavum elastin degradation and fibrosis were graded (grade 0-4) with performing hematoxylin-eosin staining and Masson's trichrome staining, respectively. The localization of MMP-2 (gelatinase), MMP-3 (stromelysin) and MMP-13 (collagenase) within the ligamentum flavum tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. The expressions of the active forms of MMP-2, MMP-3 and MMP-13 were determined by western blot analysis, and the blots were quantified using an imaging densitometer. The histologic and biochemical results were compared between the two conditions. Elastin degradation and fibrosis of the ligamentum flavum were significantly more severe in the spinal stenosis samples than that in the disc herniation samples (3.14 +/- 0.50 vs. 0.55 +/- 0.60, p < 0.001; 3.10 +/- 0.57 vs. 0.76 +/- 0.52, p < 0.001, respectively). The expressions of the active form of MMPs were identified in all the ligamentum flavums of the spinal stenosis and disc herniation patients. The expressions of active MMP-2 and MMP-13 were significantly higher in the spinal stenosis samples than that in the disc herniation samples (both p < 0.05). The expression of active MMP-3 was slightly higher in the spinal stenosis samples than that in the disc herniation samples, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.131). MMP-2, -3, and -13 were positively stained on the ligamentum flavum fibroblasts. The current results suggest that the increased expression of active MMPs by the ligamentum flavum fibroblasts might be related to the elastin degradation and fibrosis of the ligamentum flavum in the patients who suffer with lumbar spinal stenosis.
    Clinics in orthopedic surgery 06/2009; 1(2):81-9.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Superior gluteal artery injuries are rare, but potentially serious complications that occur during posterior iliac crest bone graft harvesting. The authors reported an arteriovenous fistula of the superior gluteal artery, which occurred as a complication during posterior iliac crest bone graft harvesting and was diagnosed with 3D-CT angiography, then treated with arterial embolization.
    European Spine Journal 04/2009; 18 Suppl 2:250-3. · 2.47 Impact Factor
  • Yong In, Chae-Gwan Kong, Yoo-Joon Sur, Sun-Sin Choi
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Permanent post-traumatic patellar dislocation is a rare condition, and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can be performed for osteoarthritic knees with this condition. There have been only a few reports about using the standard medial parapatellar approach and extensive lateral release or extensor mechanism realignment for patients with permanent post-traumatic patellar dislocation. We performed two TKAs with using a subvastus approach and lateral release for osteoarthritic knees with permanent post-traumatic patellar dislocation. The patients were well satisfied with their results. The patellae tracked very well in the femoral trochlear groove throughout the full range of motion after the operations. Bone scans were done 1 year postoperatively on both patients, and the scans showed normal vascularity for the patella.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 12/2008; 17(3):254-9. · 2.68 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Chae-Gwan Kong, Jong-Soo Park, Jong-Beom Park
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Radiological analysis. To investigate sacralization of L5 on radiological studies of degenerative spondylolisthesis at L4-L5. Degenerative spondylolisthesis commonly develops at L4-L5. Sacralization of L5 is thought to cause stress concentration at this level, which accentuates degenerative changes and promotes development of degenerative spondylolisthesis. However, there has been no study dedicated to determining whether the presence of sacralization at L5 influences the radiological findings in degenerative spondylolisthesis at L4-L5. Seventy-eight patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis at L4-L5 were classified into two groups according to the presence of L5 sacralization: with (n=54) and without (n=24). Four radiographic parameters were measured and compared between the two groups: anterior slippage of L4 on L5 (% slip), facet orientation of L4-L5 (degrees), facet osteoarthritis of L4-L5 by Fujiwara's criteria (1~4 grades), and disc degeneration of L4-L5 by Frymoyer's criteria (grades 1~5). There was no significant difference in the degree of anterior slippage of L4 on L5 (17.02+/-6.21 versus 16.65+/-4.87, p=0.809), facet orientation (54.99+/-12.18 versus 56.23+/-4.35, p=0.642), facet osteoarthritis (3.43+/-0.59 versus 3.53+/-0.37, p=0.527), or disc degeneration (4.50+/-0.51 versus 4.35+/-0.61, p=0.340) between the two groups. Our study shows that the influence of sacralization of L5 on radiological findings in degenerative spondylolisthesis at L4-L5 may be less significant than previously expected. Further studies in large patient groups are needed to clarify the role of L5 sacralization on the development of degenerative spondylolisthesis at L4-L5.
    Asian spine journal 06/2008; 2(1):34-7.