[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Yes-associated protein 65 (YAP) contains multiple protein-protein interaction domains and functions as both a transcriptional co-activator and as a scaffolding protein. Mouse embryos lacking YAP did not survive past embryonic day 8.5 and showed signs of defective yolk sac vasculogenesis, chorioallantoic fusion, and anterior-posterior (A-P) axis elongation. Given that the YAP knockout mouse defects might be due in part to nutritional deficiencies, we sought to better characterize a role for YAP during early development using embryos that develop externally. YAP morpholino (MO)-mediated loss-of-function in both frog and fish resulted in incomplete epiboly at gastrulation and impaired axis formation, similar to the mouse phenotype. In frog, germ layer specific genes were expressed, but they were temporally delayed. YAP MO-mediated partial knockdown in frog allowed a shortened axis to form. YAP gain-of-function in Xenopus expanded the progenitor populations in the neural plate (sox2(+)) and neural plate border zone (pax3(+)), while inhibiting the expression of later markers of tissues derived from the neural plate border zone (neural crest, pre-placodal ectoderm, hatching gland), as well as epidermis and somitic muscle. YAP directly regulates pax3 expression via association with TEAD1 (N-TEF) at a highly conserved, previously undescribed, TEAD-binding site within the 5' regulatory region of pax3. Structure/function analyses revealed that the PDZ-binding motif of YAP contributes to the inhibition of epidermal and somitic muscle differentiation, but a complete, intact YAP protein is required for expansion of the neural plate and neural plate border zone progenitor pools. These results provide a thorough analysis of YAP mediated gene expression changes in loss- and gain-of-function experiments. Furthermore, this is the first report to use YAP structure-function analyzes to determine which portion of YAP is involved in specific gene expression changes and the first to show direct in vivo evidence of YAP's role in regulating pax3 neural crest expression.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(6):e20309. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The vertebrate filamin family (A, B, and C) is part of the spectrin family of actin cross-linking proteins. Family members share high sequence similarity (>64%) and have both common and isoform-distinct functionalities. To identify the basis for isoform-specific functionality, we perform an evolutionary trace of chordate filamin at the granularity of single residues. Our trace methodology is constrained to focus on neofunctionality by requiring that one isoform remain the ancestral type, whereas at least one isoform has an accepted mutation. We call divergence meeting these characteristics "class-distinctive." To obtain a temporal and spatial context for class-distinctive residues, we derive an all-atom model of full-length filamin A by homology modeling and joining individual domains. We map onto our model both conserved and class-distinctive residues along with the period (Teleostei, Amphibian, and Mammalian) in which they diverged. Our phylogenetic analysis suggests that filamins diverged from a common ancestral gene between urochordate and vertebrate lineages. Filamins also diverged the most just after gene duplication, in the Teleostei period, with filamin C remaining closest to ancestral filamin. At the residue level, domains with well-characterized interfaces, IgFLN 17 and IgFLN 21 (immunoglobulin, Ig), have diverged in potentially critical residues in their adhesion protein-binding interfaces, signifying that isoforms may bind or regulate ligand binding differentially. Similarly, isoform divergence in a region associated with F actin-binding regulation suggests that isoforms differentially regulate F-actin binding. In addition, we observe some class-distinctive residues in the vicinity of missense mutations that cause filamin A and B-associated skeletal disorders. Our analysis, utilizing both spatial and temporal granularity, has identified potentially important residues responsible for vertebrate filamin isoform-specific divergence-significantly in regions where few binding partners have been discovered to date- and suggests yet to be discovered filamin-binding partners and isoform-specific differential regulation with these binding partners.
Molecular Biology and Evolution 10/2009; 27(2):283-95. · 10.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) as a cAMP-dependent chloride channel on the apical membrane of epithelia is well established. However, the processes by which CFTR is regulated on the cell surface are not clear. Here we report the identification of a protein-protein interaction between CFTR and the cytoskeletal filamin proteins. Using proteomic approaches, we identified filamins as proteins that associate with the extreme CFTR N terminus. Furthermore, we identified a disease-causing missense mutation in CFTR, serine 13 to phenylalanine (S13F), which disrupted this interaction. In cells, filamins tethered plasma membrane CFTR to the underlying actin network. This interaction stabilized CFTR at the cell surface and regulated the plasma membrane dynamics and confinement of the channel. In the absence of filamin binding, CFTR was internalized from the cell surface, where it prematurely accumulated in lysosomes and was ultimately degraded. Our data demonstrate what we believe to be a previously unrecognized role for the CFTR N terminus in the regulation of the plasma membrane stability and metabolic stability of CFTR. In addition, we elucidate the molecular defect associated with the S13F mutation.
Journal of Clinical Investigation 03/2007; 117(2):364-74. · 12.81 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: How outer leaflet plasma membrane components, including glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPIAPs), transmit signals to the cell interior is an open question in membrane biology. By deliberately cross-linking several GPIAPs under antibody-conjugated 40-nm gold particles, transient anchorage of the gold particle-induced clusters of both Thy-1 and CD73, a 5' exonucleotidase, occurred for periods ranging from 300 ms to 10 s in fibroblasts. Transient anchorage was abolished by cholesterol depletion, addition of the Src family kinase (SFK) inhibitor PP2, or in Src-Yes-Fyn knockout cells. Caveolin-1 knockout cells exhibited a reduced transient anchorage time, suggesting the partial participation of caveolin-1. In contrast, a transmembrane protein, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, exhibited transient anchorage that occurred without deliberately enhanced cross-linking; moreover, it was only slightly inhibited by cholesterol depletion or SFK inhibition and depended completely on the interaction of its PDZ-binding domain with the cytoskeletal adaptor EBP50. We propose that cross-linked GPIAPs become transiently anchored via a cholesterol-dependent SFK-regulatable linkage between a transmembrane cluster sensor and the cytoskeleton.
The Journal of Cell Biology 11/2006; 175(1):169-78. · 10.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Receptor guanylyl cyclases respond to ligand stimulation by increasing intracellular cGMP, thereby initiating a variety of cell-signaling pathways. Furthermore, these proteins are differentially localized at the apical and basolateral membranes of epithelial cells. We have identified a region of 11 amino acids in the cytosolic COOH terminus of guanylyl cyclase C (GCC) required for normal apical localization in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. These amino acids share no significant sequence homology with previously identified cytosolic apical sorting determinants. However, these amino acids are highly conserved and are sufficient to confer apical polarity to the interleukin-2 receptor alpha-chain (Tac). Additionally, we find two molecular weight species of GCC in lysates prepared from MDCK cells over-expressing GCC but observe only the fully mature species on the cell surface. Using pulse-chase analysis in polarized MDCK cells, we followed the generation of this mature species over time finding it to be detectable only at the apical cell surface. These data support the hypothesis that selective apical sorting can be determined using short, cytosolic amino acid motifs and argue for the existence of apical sorting machinery comparable with the machinery identified for basolateral protein traffic.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: YAP is a multifunctional adapter protein and transcriptional coactivator with several binding partners well described in vitro and in cell culture. To explore in vivo requirements for YAP, we generated mice carrying a targeted disruption of the Yap gene. Homozygosity for the Yap(tm1Smil) allele (Yap-/-) caused developmental arrest around E8.5. Phenotypic characterization revealed a requirement for YAP in yolk sac vasculogenesis. Yolk sac endothelial and erythrocyte precursors were specified as shown by histology, PECAM1 immunostaining, and alpha globin expression. Nonetheless, development of an organized yolk sac vascular plexus failed in Yap-/- embryos. In striking contrast, vasculogenesis proceeded in both the allantois and the embryo proper. Mutant embryos showed patterned gene expression domains along the anteroposterior neuraxis, midline, and streak/tailbud. Despite this evidence of proper patterning and tissue specification, Yap-/- embryos showed developmental perturbations that included a notably shortened body axis, convoluted anterior neuroepithelium, caudal dysgenesis, and failure of chorioallantoic fusion. These results reveal a vital requirement for YAP in the developmental processes of yolk sac vasculogenesis, chorioallantoic attachment, and embryonic axis elongation.
Molecular and Cellular Biology 02/2006; 26(1):77-87. · 5.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cAMP-activated chloride channel expressed at the apical surface of epithelia. Although the regulation of CFTR by protein kinases is well documented, channel deactivation by phosphatases is not well understood. We find that the serine/threonine phosphatase PP2A can physically associate with the CFTR COOH terminus. PP2A is a heterotrimeric phosphatase composed of a catalytic subunit and two divergent regulatory subunits (A and B). The cellular localization and substrate specificity of PP2A is determined by the unique combination of A and B regulatory subunits, which can give rise to at least 75 different enzymes. By mass spectrometry, we identified the exact PP2A regulatory subunits associated with CFTR as Aalpha and B'epsilon and find that the B'epsilon subunit binds CFTR directly. PP2A subunits localize to the apical surface of airway epithelia and PP2A phosphatase activity co-purifies with CFTR in Calu-3 cells. In functional assays, inhibitors of PP2A block rundown of basal CFTR currents and increase channel activity in excised patches of airway epithelia and in intact mouse jejunum. Moreover, PP2A inhibition in well differentiated human bronchial epithelial cells results in a CFTR-dependent increase in the airway surface liquid. Our data demonstrate that PP2A is a relevant CFTR phosphatase in epithelial tissues. Our results may help reconcile differences in phosphatase-mediated channel regulation observed for different tissues and cells. Furthermore, PP2A may be a clinically relevant drug target for CF, which should be considered in future studies.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2006; 280(50):41512-20. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Na exchanger regulatory factor (NHERF) family of epithelial-enriched PDZ domain scaffolding proteins plays important roles in maintaining and regulating epithelial cell function. The NHERFs exhibit some overlap in tissue distribution and binding partners, suggesting redundant functions. Yet, it is clear that each NHERF protein exhibits distinct properties, translating into unique cellular functions. The work summarized in this review suggests the most recently identified family member, NHERF4, is the most divergent. Additional investigation is needed, however, to understand more completely the role of NHERF4 in the context of the NHERF family.
The Journal of Physiology 09/2005; 567(Pt 1):13-9. · 4.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Signalling by G proteins is controlled by the regulator of G-protein signalling (RGS) proteins that accelerate the GTPase activity of Galpha subunits and act in a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-specific manner. The conserved RGS domain accelerates the G subunit GTPase activity, whereas the variable amino-terminal domain participates in GPCR recognition. How receptor recognition is achieved is not known. Here, we show that the scaffold protein spinophilin (SPL), which binds the third intracellular loop (3iL) of several GPCRs, binds the N-terminal domain of RGS2. SPL also binds RGS1, RGS4, RGS16 and GAIP. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, SPL markedly increased inhibition of alpha-adrenergic receptor (alphaAR) Ca2+ signalling by RGS2. Notably, the constitutively active mutant alphaAR(A293E) (the mutation being in the 3iL) did not bind SPL and was relatively resistant to inhibition by RGS2. Use of betaAR-alphaAR chimaeras identified the 288REKKAA293 sequence as essential for the binding of SPL and inhibition of Ca2+ signalling by RGS2. Furthermore, alphaAR-evoked Ca2+ signalling is less sensitive to inhibition by SPL in rgs2-/- cells and less sensitive to inhibition by RGS2 in spl-/- cells. These findings provide a general mechanism by which RGS proteins recognize GPCRs to confer signalling specificity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We demonstrated previously that Calu-3 airway epithelial cells sense adenosine on their luminal surface through adenosine A2B receptors coupled to adenylyl cyclase. Occupancy of these receptors leads to activation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel through protein kinase A (PKA) anchored at the apical membrane. Because luminal A2B receptor activation does not raise total cellular cAMP levels, we hypothesized that activation of phosphodiesterases (PDEs) confines cAMP generated by apical A2B receptors to a microdomain that includes the CFTR channel. Using reverse transcription-PCR, Western blotting, and activity measurements, PDE4D was identified as the major PDE species in airway epithelia. Consistent with these results, inhibitors of PDE4, but not PDE3, selectively abolished the lateral confinement of cAMP signaling in apical membrane patches during cell-attached recordings. Furthermore, stimulation of the CFTR in excised apical patches by rolipram and RS25344 indicated that PDE4 is localized in close proximity to the CFTR channel. Indeed, immunohistochemistry of human airway sections revealed that PDE4D is localized in the apical domain of the cell. PDE4 was activated after luminal adenosine exposure in a PKA-dependent manner. Because PDE4 activity is positively regulated by PKA, our results support a model whereby the PDE diffusion barrier is proportional to the degree of receptor stimulation. These findings underscore the concept that subcellular localization of individual PDE isozymes is an important mechanism for confining cAMP signaling to functional domains within cells.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2005; 280(9):7997-8003. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this work, a method for improved protein identification of low-abundance proteins using unstained gels, in combination with robotics and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry, has been developed and evaluated. Omitting the silver-staining process resulted in increased protein identification scores, an increase in the number of peptides observed in the MALDI mass spectrum, and improved quality of the tandem mass spectrometry data.
Journal of Proteome Research 01/2005; 4(3):992-7. · 5.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although initially described as a cytosolic scaffolding protein, YAP (Yes-associated protein of 65 kDa) is known to associate with multiple transcription factors in the nucleus. Using affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry, we show that YAP interacts with heterogeneous nuclear ribonuclear protein U (hnRNP U), an RNA- and DNA-binding protein enriched in the nuclear matrix that also plays a role in the regulation of gene expression. hnRNP U interacts specifically with the proline-rich amino terminus of YAP, a region of YAP that is not found in the related protein TAZ. Although hnRNP U and YAP localize to both the nucleus and the cytoplasm, YAP does not translocate to the nucleus in an hnRNP U-dependent manner. Furthermore, hnRNP U and YAP only interact in the nucleus, suggesting that the association between the two proteins is regulated. Co-expression of hnRNP U attenuates the ability of YAP to increase the activity of a p73-driven Bax-luciferase reporter plasmid. In contrast, hnRNP U has no effect when co-expressed with a truncated YAP protein lacking the hnRNP U-binding site. Because YAP is distinguished from the homologue TAZ by its proline-rich amino terminus, the YAP-hnRNP U interaction may uniquely regulate the nuclear function(s) of YAP. The YAP-hnRNP U interaction provides another mechanism of YAP transcriptional regulation.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2004; 279(25):26300-6. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spinophilin/neurabin II is an actin-associated scaffolding protein enriched in the dendritic spines of neurons. Previously, the actin-binding domain (ABD) of spinophilin was localized to a domain between amino acids (aa) 1 and 154. In a mass spectrometry screen for spinophilin-binding proteins, we have identified an additional actin-binding region between aa 151 and 282. F-actin co-sedimentation and GST affinity chromotography experiments further substantiate this result. Phalloidin staining of Rat2 fibroblasts transiently expressing GFP-spinophilin deletion constructs indicates co-localization with a subset of actin. Regions of spinophilin that lack the revised ABD (aa 1-230) do not co-localize with phalloidin-labeled actin, suggesting that the actin-binding domain contributes to directing the subcellular distribution of spinophilin. Targeting experiments using primary hippocampal cultures indicate that only the first actin-binding site contributes to dendritic spine localization. The second ABD targets to spines inefficiently and thus may interact with and affect actin filaments in a different manner than the first ABD.
Molecular Brain Research 06/2004; 124(2):105-13. · 2.00 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In those cases where the information obtained by peptide mass fingerprinting or matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS/MS) is not sufficient for unambiguous protein identification, nano-electrospray ionization (nano-ESI) and/or electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) analysis must be performed. The sensitivity of nano-ESI/MS, however, is lower than that of MALDI-MS, especially at very low analyte concentrations and/or in the presence of contaminants, such as salt and detergents. Moreover, to perform ESI-MS/MS, the peptide masses of the precursor ions must be known. The approach described in this paper, MALDI-directed nano-ESI-MS/MS, makes use of information obtained from the more sensitive MALDI-MS experiments in order to direct subsequent nano-ESI-MS/MS experiments. Peptide molecular ions found in the MALDI-MS analysis are then selected, as their (+2) precursor ions, for nano-ESI-MS/MS sequencing, even though these ions cannot be detected in the ESI-MS spectra. This method, originally proposed by Tempst et al. (Anal. Chem. 2000, 72: 777-790), has been extended to provide better sensitivity and shorter analysis times; also, a comparison with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) has been performed. These experiments, performed using quadrupole time-of-flight instruments equipped with commercially available nano-ESI sources, have allowed the unambiguous identification of in-gel digested proteins at levels below their ESI-MS detection limits, even in the presence of salts and detergents.
Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 02/2003; 17(16):1825-34. · 2.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although protein kinase A (PKA) activation is known to increase ciliary beat frequency in humans the molecular mechanisms involved are unknown. We demonstrate that PKA is associated with ciliary axonemes where it specifically phosphorylates a 23-kDa protein. Because PKA is often localized to subcellular compartments in proximity to its substrate(s) via interactions with A-kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs), we investigated whether an AKAP was also associated with ciliary axonemes. This study has identified a novel 28 kDa AKAP (AKAP28)that is highly enriched in airway axonemes. The mRNA for AKAP28 is up-regulated as primary airway cells differentiate and is specifically expressed in tissues containing cilia and/or flagella. Additionally, both Western blot and immunostaining data show that AKAP28 is enriched in airway cilia. These data demonstrate that we have identified the first human axonemal AKAP, a protein that likely plays a role in the signaling necessary for efficient modulation of ciliary beat frequency.
Molecular Biology of the Cell 01/2003; 13(12):4156-66. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurabins are protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) targeting subunits that are highly concentrated in dendritic spines and post-synaptic densities. Immunoprecipitation of neurabin I and neurabin II/spinophilin from rat brain extracts sedimented PP1gamma1 and PP1alpha but not PP1beta. In vitro studies showed that recombinant peptides representing central regions of neurabins also preferentially bound PP1gamma1 and PP1alpha from brain extracts and associated poorly with PP1beta. Analysis of PP1 binding to chimeric neurabins suggested that sequences flanking a conserved PP1-binding motif altered their selectivity for PP1beta and their activity as regulators of PP1 in vitro. Assays using recombinant PP1 catalytic subunits and a chimera of PP1 and protein phosphatase-2A indicated that the C-terminal sequences unique to the PP1 isoforms contributed to their recognition by neurabins. Collectively, the results from several different in vitro assays established the rank order of PP1 isoform selection by neurabins to be PP1gamma1 > PP1alpha > PP1beta. This PP1 isoform selectivity was confirmed by immunoprecipitation of neurabin I and II from brain extracts from wild type and mutant PP1gamma null mice. In the absence of PP1gamma1, both neurabins showed enhanced association with PP1alpha but not PP1beta. These studies identified some of the structural determinants in PP1 and neurabins that together contribute to preferential targeting of PP1gamma1 and PP1alpha to the mammalian synapse.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2002; 277(31):27716-24. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Secretory diarrhea is the leading cause of infectious diarrhea in humans. Secretory diarrhea may be caused by binding of heat-stable enterotoxins to the intestinal receptor guanylyl cyclase C (GCC). Activation of GCC catalyzes the formation of cGMP, initiating a signaling cascade that opens the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channel at the apical cell surface. To identify proteins that regulate the trafficking or function of GCC, we used the unique COOH terminus of GCC as the "bait" to screen a human intestinal yeast two-hybrid library. We identified a novel protein, IKEPP (intestinal and kidney-enriched PDZ protein) that associates with the COOH terminus of GCC in biochemical assays and by co-immunoprecipitation. IKEPP is expressed in the intestinal epithelium, where it is preferentially accumulated at the apical surface. The GCC-IKEPP interaction is not required for the efficient targeting of GCC to the apical cell surface. Rather, the association with IKEPP significantly inhibits heat-stable enterotoxin-mediated activation of GCC. Our findings are the first to identify a regulatory protein that associates with GCC to modulate the catalytic activity of the enzyme and provides new insights in mechanisms that regulate GCC activity in response to bacterial toxin.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2002; 277(25):22934-41. · 4.65 Impact Factor