Raymond C K Chan

Chinese Academy of Sciences, Peping, Beijing, China

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Publications (240)877.81 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Dysregulation of the striatum and altered corticostriatal connectivity have been associated with psychotic disorders. Social anhedonia has been identified as a predictor for the development of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine corticostriatal functional connectivity in individuals with high social anhedonia. Twenty-one participants with high social anhedonia score and 30 with low social anhedonia score measured by the Chinese version of the Revised Social Anhedonia Scale were recruited from university undergraduates (age 17-21 years) to undergo resting-state functional MRI scans. Six subdivisions of the striatum in each hemisphere were defined as seeds. Voxel-wise functional connectivity analyses were conducted between each seed and the whole brain voxels, followed by repeated-measures ANOVA for the group effect. Participants with high social anhedonia showed hyper-connectivity between the ventral striatum and the anterior cingulate cortex and the insula, and between the dorsal striatum and the motor cortex. Hypo-connectivity in participants with high social anhedonia was also observed between the ventral striatum and the posterior cingulate cortex. Partial correlation analyses further showed that the functional connectivity between the ventral striatum and the prefrontal cortex was associated with pleasure experience and emotional suppression. Our findings suggest that altered corticostriatal connectivity can be found in participants with high levels of social anhedonia. Since social anhedonia has been considered a predictor for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, our results may provide novel evidence on the early changes in brain functional connectivity in at-risk individuals.
    Psychological Medicine 08/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0033291715001592 · 5.43 Impact Factor
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    Raymond C K Chan · Zhi Li · Ke Li · Ya-Wei Zeng · Wei-Zhen Xie · Chao Yan · Eric F C Cheung · Zhen Jin
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    ABSTRACT: Anticipatory and consummatory dissociation of hedonic experience may manifest as trait anhedonia in healthy and clinical populations. It is still unclear whether the underlying neural mechanisms of the monetary-based and affect-based incentive delay paradigms are distinct from each other. The present study aimed to examine the similarities and differences between the Affect Incentive Delay (AID) and the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) imaging paradigms in relation to brain activations. We administered the AID and the MID imaging tasks to 28 adolescent participants. A cue signaling the type of forthcoming feedback (reward or punishment) was displayed to the participants, followed by a target-hit task with corresponding reward or punishment. The striatal and limbic regions were activated during the anticipatory phase of MID, while there was no brain activation during the anticipatory phase of AID. In the consummatory phase, the MID task activated the medial frontal cortex, while the AID task activated the frontal and dorsal limbic regions. We further found that the anhedonic group exhibited significant hypoactivation than the nonanhedonic group at the left pulvinar, the left claustrum and the left insula to positive cues in the anticipatory phase of the AID task. The results suggest that the AID and the MID tasks have unique activation patterns. Our findings also suggest that the AID task may be more sensitive in detecting anhedonia in people with trait anhedonia. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    Neuropsychology 08/2015; DOI:10.1037/neu0000233 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The striatum has been shown to be a core region in schizophrenia with functional and structural deficits. Previous studies have confirmed the schizophrenia-related functional connectivity between the striatal and cortical regions. However, among these, few studies have attempted to determine the directional flow of the influence. In the present study, we used resting-state fMRI to explore the directed connectivity between the striatum and the cortical regions in schizophrenia. Employing a Granger causality analysis, we observed a significant failure of the directed inhibitory influence of the striatum on the default mode network (DMN) in schizophrenia. Furthermore, the reciprocal influence of the DMN on the striatum was also significantly reduced. These findings provide compelling evidence for a breakdown of the striatum-DMN loop in schizophrenia. This abnormal connectivity could be related to clinical variables. In conclusion, our study suggests that abnormally directed influences between the striatum and the DMN might be a biomarker of schizophrenia and also reveals a potential target for treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Schizophrenia Research 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2015.07.027 · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prospective memory (PM) refers to the ability to remember to carry out intended actions after a delay. PM impairments are common in schizophrenia patients and are thought to be related to their prefrontal cortex dysfunction; however, this has not yet been examined directly in the research literature. The current study aimed to examine abnormalities in brain activation during PM task performance in schizophrenia patients. Twenty-two schizophrenia patients and 25 matched healthy controls were scanned in a 3-T MRI machine while performing a PM task. The results showed that compared to the healthy controls, schizophrenia patients performed significantly worse on the PM task. Furthermore, they exhibited decreased brain activation in frontal cortex including the right superior frontal gyri (Brodmann area 10), and other related brain areas like the anterior cingulate gyrus, parietal and temporal cortex, including precuneus, and some subcortext, including parahippocampal gyrus and putamen. These findings confirm the involvement and importance of the prefrontal cortex in PM and show evidence of hypofrontality in schizophrenia patients while performing a PM task. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    Neuropsychology 08/2015; DOI:10.1037/neu0000225 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    Zhi Li · Chao Yan · Weizhen Xie · Ke Li · Ya-wei Zeng · Zhen Jin · Eric F. C. Cheung · Raymond C. K. Chan
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    ABSTRACT: Convergent evidence suggests the important role of the mesolimbic pathway in anticipating monetary rewards. However, the underlying mechanism of how the sub-regions interact with each other is still not clearly understood. Using dynamic causal modeling, we constructed a reward-related network for anticipating monetary reward using the Monetary Incentive Delay Task. Twenty-six healthy adolescents (Female/Male = 11/15; age = 18.69±1.35 years; education = 12±1.58 years) participated in the present study. The best-fit network involved the right substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area, the right nucleus accumbens and the right thalamus, which were all activated during anticipation of monetary gain and loss. The substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area directly activates the nucleus accumbens and the thalamus. More importantly, monetary gain modulated the connectivity from the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens and this was significantly correlated with subjective anticipatory pleasure (r = 0.649, p < 0.001). Our findings suggest that activity in the mesolimbic pathway during the anticipation of monetary reward could to some extent be predicted by subjective anticipatory pleasure.
    Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 07/2015; 9(217). DOI:10.3389/fnbeh.2015.00217 · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prospective memory involves the formation and execution of intended actions and is essential for autonomous living. In this study (N=32), the effect of the nature of PM cues (semantic versus perceptual) on established event-related potentials (ERP) elicited in PM tasks (N300 and prospective positivity) was investigated. PM cues defined by their perceptual features clearly elicited the N300 and prospective positivity whereas PM cues defined by semantic relatedness elicited prospective positivity. This calls into question the view that the N300 is a marker of general processes underlying detection of PM cues, but supports existing research showing that prospective positivity represents general post-retrieval processes that follow detection of PM cues. Continued refinement of ERP paradigms for understanding the neural correlates of PM is needed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2015.07.012 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study examined different types of neurological signs in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and their relationships with neurocognitive functions. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs were adopted with the use of the abridged Cambridge Neurological Inventory which comprises items capturing motor coordination, sensory integration and disinhibition. A total of 157 patients with first-episode schizophrenia were assessed at baseline and 101 of them were re-assessed at six-month interval. A structural equation model (SEM) with invariance model across time was used for data analysis. The model fitted well with the data at baseline assessment, X^2(21) = 21.78, p = 0.413, NFI = 0.95, NNFI = 1.00, CFI = 1.00, IFI = 1.00, RMSEA = 0.015. Subsequent SEM analysis with invariance model at six-month interval also demonstrated the same stable pattern across time and showed strong measurement invariance and structure invariance across time. Our findings suggest that neurological signs capture more or less the same construct captured by conventional neurocognitive tests in patients with schizophrenia. The measurement and structure of these relationships appear to be stable over time.
    Scientific Reports 07/2015; 5:11850. DOI:10.1038/srep11850 · 5.58 Impact Factor
  • 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2015.05.105
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    ABSTRACT: The study examined whether individuals with early psychosis are impaired in prospective memory (PM), that is, remembering to execute a planned intention in the future, and whether implementation intentions can improve their PM performance. Thirty participants with early psychosis and 33 healthy controls were randomly allocated to either an implementation intentions or control condition and completed a computerised event-based PM task. Participants were also administered two standardised tests of PM and an abbreviated IQ test. Results demonstrated that individuals with early psychosis showed PM deficits relative to healthy controls on the computerised PM task and on some standardised measures of PM. The PM performance of the early psychosis group benefited from forming implementation intentions. Implementation intentions was concluded to be an effective strategy for improving PM performance in individuals with early psychosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2015.05.101
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    Xing-Jie Chen · Lu-Lu Liu · Ji-Fang Cui · Ya Wang · David H K Shum · Raymond C K Chan
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    ABSTRACT: Mental time travel refers to the ability to recall episodic past and imagine future events. The present study aimed to investigate cultural differences in mental time travel between Chinese and Australian university students. A total of 231 students (108 Chinese and 123 Australians) participated in the study. Their mental time travel abilities were measured by the Sentence Completion for Events from the Past Test (SCEPT) and the Sentence Completion for Events in the Future Test (SCEFT). Results showed that there were no cultural differences in the number of specific events generated for the past or future. Significant differences between the Chinese and Australian participants were found mainly in the emotional valence and content of the events generated. Both Chinese and Australian participants generated more specific positive events compared to negative events when thinking about the future and Chinese participants were more positive about their past than Australian participants when recalling specific events. For content, Chinese participants recalled more events about their interpersonal relationships, while Australian participants imagined more about personal future achievements. These findings shed some lights on cultural differences in episodic past and future thinking.
    Frontiers in Psychology 06/2015; 6:879. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00879 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anhedonia is one of the core negative symptoms of schizophrenia that affect the ultimate outcome of this disorder. It is unclear whether the motivational or the hedonic component of anhedonia is impaired in patients with schizophrenia. This study examined the deficits in motivation and hedonic capacity in patients with schizophrenia using an Effort-based pleasure experience task (E-pet). Twenty-two schizophrenia patients with prominent negative symptoms, 18 schizophrenia patients without prominent negative symptoms and 29 healthy controls participated in the present study. All of them were administered the E-pet task, which required the participants to make decisions on whether to choose a hard or easy task based on probability and reward magnitude. When making the grip effort allocation decision, schizophrenia patients with prominent negative symptoms were significantly less likely to choose a hard task than healthy controls. As the reward magnitude and the estimated reward value increased, unlike healthy controls, schizophrenia patients with prominent negative symptoms did not increase their hard task choices. They were also significantly less likely to choose a hard task than healthy controls in medium and high probability conditions. When anticipating potential rewards, these patients reported significantly less anticipatory pleasure than healthy controls, even when reward probability and magnitude increased. The pleasure experience rating after obtaining the actual reward was positively correlated with two pleasure experience scales in schizophrenia patients. In conclusion, patients with schizophrenia, especially those with prominent negative symptoms, showed deficits in both reward motivation and anticipatory pleasure experience. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Schizophrenia Research 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2015.06.019 · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This prospective study examined the course of neurological soft signs (NSS) in patients with first episode schizophrenia and its relationship with negative symptoms and cognitive functions. One hundred and forty-five patients with first-episode schizophrenia were recruited, 29 were classified as having prominent negative symptoms. NSS and neuropsychological measures were administered to all patients and 62 healthy controls at baseline. Patients were then followed-up prospectively at six month intervals for up to a year. Patients with prominent negative symptoms exhibited significantly more motor coordination signs and total NSS than patients without prominent negative symptoms. Patients with prominent negative symptoms performed worse than patients without negative symptoms in working memory functions but not other fronto-parietal or fronto-temporal functions. Linear growth model for binary data showed that the prominent negative symptoms were stable over time. Despite general improvement in NSS and neuropsychological functions, the prominent negative symptoms group still exhibited poorer motor coordination and higher levels of NSS, as well as poorer working memory than patients without prominent negative symptoms. Two distinct subtypes of first-episode patients could be distinguished by NSS and prominent negative symptoms.
    Scientific Reports 06/2015; 5(5):11053. DOI:10.1038/srep11053 · 5.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Theory of mind (ToM) impairment has been consistently demonstrated in patients with schizophrenia, but whether ToM impairments exist in unaffected siblings of patients with schizophrenia remains unclear. Few studies have examined the affective and cognitive components of ToM in schizophrenia. This study aimed to examine whether ToM impairments exist in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and their unaffected siblings, and whether there is any dissociation between the affective and cognitive components of ToM. We adopted a family-based case-control design. Participants were 41 patients with first-episode schizophrenia, 43 unaffected siblings, and 42 healthy controls. The Yoni Task which measures the participants' ability to understand first- and second-order affective versus cognitive ToM and the Faux Pas Task which taps into integration of the affective and cognitive components of ToM were administered. Multivariate and univariate ANCOVAs were used to examine the group differences in ToM, while controlling for other neurocognitive functions. Compared with controls, patients with schizophrenia and their unaffected siblings performed poorer on the Faux Pas Task (p<0.001), with siblings having intermediate performance between patients and controls. Patients with schizophrenia performed worse than controls on second-order affective condition of the Yoni Task (p=0.004), but their unaffected siblings did not (p=0.063). We did not find any significant Group-by-Condition interaction in the Yoni Task (p=0.358). Patients with first-episode schizophrenia and their unaffected siblings exhibit ToM impairments, but no dissociation between affective and cognitive component of ToM was found. Our findings support the notion that ToM deficit may be a trait marker of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Schizophrenia Research 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2015.05.033 · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    Xu Li · Ya-Hui Xiao · Qing Zhao · Ada W W Leung · Eric F C Cheung · Raymond C K Chan
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis to quantitatively review the existing working memory (WM) training studies that investigated neural activation changes both in healthy individuals and patients with schizophrenia. ALE analysis of studies in healthy individuals indicates a widespread distribution of activation changes with WM training in the frontal and parietal regions, especially the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the medial frontal cortex and the precuneus, as well as subcortical regions such as the insula and the striatum. WM training is also accompanied by activation changes in patients with schizophrenia, mainly in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the precuneus and the fusiform gyrus. Our results demonstrate that WM training is accompanied by changes in neural activation patterns in healthy individuals, which may provide the basis for understanding neuroplastic changes in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Neuropsychologia 05/2015; 75. DOI:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2015.05.029 · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prior research has found dampened anticipatory pleasure but relatively intact consummatory pleasure in people with first-episode and more chronic schizophrenia, but no study has examined anticipatory and consummatory pleasure across the schizophrenia spectrum. To confirm the factor structure of the Chinese version of the Temporal Experience Pleasure Scale (TEPS), which measures four components of anhedonia, we recruited 364 people with schizophrenia for confirmatory factor analysis. To examine anhedonia in people across the schizophrenia spectrum, we recruited people with first-episode (n=76) and chronic schizophrenia (n=45), people with schizotypal traits (n=210), first-degree relatives (n=45) of people with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Deficit in abstract anticipatory pleasure appeared to be most severe in people with chronic schizophrenia, while dampened abstract consummatory pleasure was observed in people with schizotypal personality features and in people with chronic schizophrenia. In addition, both abstract anticipatory and abstract consummatory pleasure were negatively correlated with negative schizotypal personality features and schizophrenia symptoms. Our results suggest that deficits in anticipatory pleasure are present across the schizophrenia spectrum, particularly in the abstract domain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Schizophrenia Research 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2015.05.041 · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Impairment in empathy has been demonstrated in patients with schizophrenia and individuals with psychosis proneness. In the present study, we examined the neural correlates underlying theory of mind (ToM) and empathy and the relationships between these two social cognitive abilities with schizotypy. Fifty-six first-year college students (31 males, 25 females) between 17 and 21 years of age (M = 19.3, SD = 0.9) from a medical university in China participated. All participants undertook a comic strips functional imaging task that specifically examined both empathy and ToM. In addition, they completed two self-report scales: the Chapman Psychosis Proneness scale and the Interpersonal Responsivity Index (IRI). Results showed that both empathy and ToM conditions of the task were associated with brain activity in the middle temporal gyrus, the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), the precuneus, and the posterior cingulate gyrus. In addition, we found positive correlations between negative schizotypy and brain activity in regions involved in social cognition, namely, the middle temporal gyrus, the TPJ, as well as the medial prefrontal gyrus. These findings highlight that different dimensions of schizotypy may show different associations with brain regions involved in social cognitive abilities. More importantly, the positive correlation between brain activity and anhedonia suggests the presence of compensatory mechanisms in high-risk populations.
    Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 05/2015; 9. DOI:10.3389/fnbeh.2015.00133 · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with schizophrenia are known to have impairments in sensory processing. In order to understand the specific temporal perception deficits of schizophrenia, we investigated and determined to what extent impairments in temporal integration can be dissociated from attention deployment using Attentional Blink (AB). Our findings showed that there was no evident deficit in the deployment of attention in patients with schizophrenia. However, patients showed an increased temporal integration deficit within a hundred-millisecond timescale. The degree of such integration dysfunction was correlated with the clinical manifestations of schizophrenia. There was no difference between individuals with/without schizotypal personality disorder in temporal integration. Differently from previous studies using the AB, we did not find a significant impairment in deployment of attention in schizophrenia. Instead, we used both theoretical and empirical approaches to show that previous findings (using the suppression ratio to correct for the baseline difference) produced a systematic exaggeration of the attention deficits. Instead, we modulated the perceptual difficulty of the task to bring the baseline levels of target detection between the groups into closer alignment. We found that the integration dysfunction rather than deployment of attention is clinically relevant, and thus should be an additional focus of research in schizophrenia.
    Scientific Reports 05/2015; 5:9745. DOI:10.1038/srep09745 · 5.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hopelessness, depression and impulsivity all contribute to the development of suicidal ideation in patients with major depressive disorder, but the pathway of these factors to suicidal ideation is not clear. This study examined the meditating effect of depression severity on the relationship between hopelessness and suicidal ideation and explored how this mediating effect was moderated by impulsivity. A total of 162 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) completed a structured clinical diagnostic interview and a battery of scales assessing depression severity, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, and impulsivity. Regression analyses with bootstrapping methods were used to examine the mediating and moderating effects of various risk factors. Mediation analysis revealed a significant indirect effect of hopelessness on suicidal ideation, and the effect was fully mediated through depression severity. On moderation analysis, the moderating effects of the relationship between depression severity and suicidal ideation were significant in both the medium and high impulsivity groups. The present study was limited by the assessment of trait impulsivity and observer-rated depression severity, which might not fully reflect momentary impulsivity and feeling of depression when suicidal ideation occurs. Depression severity plays a mediator role in the relationship between hopelessness and suicidal ideation and this mechanism is contingent on the levels of impulsivity. MDD patients with higher impulsivity appear to be more likely to have suicidal ideations even when they are less depressed. These findings highlight the importance of impulsivity assessment and alleviation of depressive symptoms to prevent suicidality in patients with MDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 05/2015; 183. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2015.05.001 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to examine the factor structure and the temporal stability of the Chapman psychosis-proneness scales in a representative sample of nonclinical Chinese young adults. The four psychosis-proneness scales evaluated were the Perceptual Aberration (PAS), Magical Ideation (MIS), revised Social Anhedonia (RSAS), and revised Physical Anhedonia (RPAS) scales. The sample consisted of 1724 young adults with a mean age of 18.8 years (S.D.=0.84). The results of the confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the best fitting model was a two-factor model with positive schizotypy (PER and MIS) scales and negative schizotypy (RSAS and RPAS) scales. The data add to the growing literature indicating that the measurement of schizotypal traits is consistent across cultures. In addition, the results support the measurement invariance of the Chapman psychosis-proneness scales across time, i.e., there was ample evidence of test-retest reliability over a test interval of 6 months. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    04/2015; 228(1). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2015.04.031
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    ABSTRACT: Recent research showed that people with schizophrenia self-report a deficit in anticipatory but not consummatory pleasure, but little is known about the relationship between anticipatory and consummatory pleasure, and neurocognitive functions. Twenty-seven people with schizophrenia and 26 controls completed the TEPS and neuropsychological tests. The results showed that people with schizophrenia self-reported less anticipatory pleasure than controls, but had consummatory pleasure comparable to controls. Semantic verbal fluency appeared to be correlated with anticipatory pleasure.
    04/2015; 228(1). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2015.04.013

Publication Stats

4k Citations
877.81 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2015
    • Chinese Academy of Sciences
      • Institute of Psychology
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2014
    • Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
      • Cedars Sinai Medical Center
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 2010–2011
    • University of Liverpool
      • • Institute of Ageing & Chronic Disease
      • • Magnetic Resonance And Image Analysis Research Centre (MARIARC)
      Liverpool, England, United Kingdom
    • Université de Montréal
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • Peking University
      • Department of Psychology
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2004–2011
    • Sun Yat-Sen University
      • School of Life Sciences
      Shengcheng, Guangdong, China
    • City University of Hong Kong
      Chiu-lung, Kowloon City, Hong Kong
  • 2009
    • Lands Department of The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 2000–2009
    • The University of Hong Kong
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • Department of Psychology
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 2003
    • Queen Mary Hospital
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong