[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The frequency of late removal of endovascular abdominal aortic repair (EVAR) parallels the rise of endovascular aortic repair. Evaluation of outcomes for EVAR explants may identify risks for complications and alter clinical management.
A patient database was used to identify EVAR patients requiring explant >1 month after implant. A retrospective analysis was conducted of the type of graft, duration of implant, reason for removal, operative technique, death, and length of stay.
During 1999 through 2007, 1606 EVARs were performed, and 25 patients required explantation, with an additional 16 referred from other institutions (N = 41). The average age was 73 years (range, 50-87 years); 90% were men. Grafts were excised after a median of 33.3 months (range, 3-93 months). Explanted grafts included 16 AneuRx (40%), 7 Ancure (17%), 6 Excluder (15%), 4 Zenith (10%), 4 Talent (10%), 1 Cook Aortomonoiliac rupture graft, 1 Endologix, 1 Quantum LP, and 1 homemade tube graft. Overall hospital mortality was 19% and occurred after conversion for rupture in 4, and in infected graft, aortoenteric fistula, repair of new aneurysm of the visceral segment, and claudication due to graft stenosis in one patient each. Elective EVAR-related mortality was 3.3%. Mortality was higher in patients with rupture compared with nonrupture (4 of 6 vs 3 of 35, P <or= .01). Thirty patients (73%) had one or more endoleaks (type I, 16; II, 9; III, 9; endotension, 5). Migration (n = 10), rupture (n = 6), aortoenteric fistula (n = 3), infection (n = 1), limb thrombosis (n = 3), and claudication (n =1) were also factors. Proximal aortic control was above the endograft (supravisceral, 23; suprarenal, 12; infrarenal, 6). Reconstruction was an aortoiliac repair in 63% and tube graft in 25%. Grafts with suprarenal fixation required longer proximal aortic clamp time of 43 minutes vs 28 minutes for infrarenal fixation. Complete graft removal was achieved in 85%. Proximal or distal portions of the endograft were incorporated into the repair in the remaining six.
Elective EVAR conversion, although technically challenging may be done with mortality similar to primary open repair. Mortality for conversion for infected grafts and ruptured aneurysms remains high. EVAR is associated with continued risk of conversion, and surveillance may identify late complications that require removal, justifying lifelong monitoring. Aggressive management of late complications and elective conversion may minimize the mortality associated with this procedure.
Journal of vascular surgery: official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter 02/2009; 49(3):589-95. · 3.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The outcome for a wide variety of diseases and treatment methods varies by gender. In an effort to determine whether gender has a role in the outcome of endovascular aortic aneurysm repair, we analyzed data from consecutive patients treated at a single institution over 6 years.
Over 6 years ending in March 2002, 704 patients underwent endovascular repair of an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm at The Cleveland Clinic. Six hundred six patients (86.1%) were men and 98 patients (13.9%) were women. Preprocedure and postprocedure imaging studies were evaluated to determine the frequency of aneurysm sac shrinkage or growth, defined as diameter change equal to or greater than 5 mm. Presence and type of endoleak was assessed with non-contrast material-enhanced, post-contrast-enhanced, and delayed post-contrast-enhanced computed tomography scans. These and other clinical variables were assessed with the Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox-Mantel log-rank test, and values were expressed as mean +/- SE.
Male and female patients were comparable with respect to baseline comorbid conditions. Women, however, were slightly older (76.7 +/- 0.7 years vs 74.4 +/- 0.3 years; P =.009), and had slightly smaller aneurysms (5.2 +/- 0.1 cm vs 5.4 +/- 0.04 cm; P =.033). There were no gender-specific differences in perioperative mortality (men, 1.3%; women, 3.1%; P =.197) or mid-term (24 months) survival (men, 80% +/- 2.6%; women, 78% +/- 8.1%). Similarly, there were no differences at 24 months in risk for graft migration (7.5% +/- 2.0% vs 5.4% +/- 3.2%), need for secondary remedial procedures (24% +/- 2.9% vs 21% +/- 6.3%), conversion to open surgery (3.9% +/- 1.5% vs 3.8% +/-2.7%), or post-repair aneurysm rupture (1.1% +/- 0.9% vs 2.2% +/-2.2%) in male and female patients, respectively. In contrast, risk for graft limb occlusion at 24 months was significantly higher in women than in men (11% +/- 5.2% vs 3.3% +/- 1.1%; P =.022). While frequency of endoleak of any type did not differ among male and female patients, aneurysm sac shrinkage at 24 months was more rapid in women (76% +/- 8.1% vs 57% +/- 3.5%; P =.019).
With the exception of slightly older age and somewhat smaller aneurysm, female patients are similar to male patients undergoing endovascular aneurysm repair. A greater frequency of graft limb occlusion was observed in female patients, but no statistically significant differences were detected in survival, rupture risk, or need for secondary procedures. Moreover, a more rapid rate of aneurysm sac shrinkage was detected in women. These observations suggest that endovascular aneurysm repair should be offered to suitable candidates irrespective of gender.
Journal of Vascular Surgery 08/2003; 38(1):93-8. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The size of an abdominal aortic aneurysm is the most important parameter for determining whether repair is appropriate. This decision, however, must be considered in the context of long-term outcome of treatment, balancing risk for rupture with mortality from the initial procedure and all subsequent secondary procedures necessary when durability is not ideal. Information on the results of endovascular repair of small versus large aneurysms has not been available.
Preoperative imaging studies and postoperative outcome were assessed in 700 patients who underwent endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm over 6 years at a single institution. Patients were divided into two groups: 416 patients (59.4%) with aneurysms smaller than 5.5 cm in diameter and 284 patients (40.6%) with aneurysms 5.5 cm or larger in diameter. Outcome variables were assessed with the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test.
Patients with small and large aneurysms were comparable with regard to all baseline parameters assessed, with the single exception of a small increase in age (2.3 years) in patients with large aneurysms (P =.031). While there were no differences in rate of type II endoleaks, mid-term changes in sac diameter, or aneurysm rupture between the two groups, at 24 months patients with large aneurysms had more type I leaks (6.4% +/- 2.3% vs 1.4% +/- 0.6%; P =.011), device migration (13% +/- 4.0% vs 4.4% +/- 1.8%; P =.006), and conversion to open surgical repair (8.2% +/- 3.2% vs 1.4% +/- 1.1%; P =.031). Of greatest importance, at 24 months patient survival was diminished (71% +/- 4.6% vs 86% +/- 2.8%; P <.001) and risk for aneurysm-related death was increased (6.1% +/- 2.6% vs 1.5% +/- 1.0%; P =.011) in the group with large aneurysms.
Outcome after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm depends on size; results appear inferior in patients with larger aneurysms. These differences attain importance when choosing between observation and repair, balancing risk for rupture against size-dependent outcome.
Journal of Vascular Surgery 07/2003; 37(6):1206-12. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endovascular stent grafting offers a potentially less invasive option for treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm. Clinical benefit has been demonstrated with respect to early parameters such as blood transfusion, return of gastrointestinal function, and length of hospital stay. Endovascular repair, however, has been criticized on the basis of inferior long-term outcome. Secondary procedures may be necessary to address durability issues such as migration, high-pressure endoleak, graft limb thrombosis, and degeneration of the stent-fabric structure itself, issues that may compromise the primary goal of aneurysm repair, protection from rupture.
Between 1996 and 2002, 703 patients underwent endovascular treatment of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm at The Cleveland Clinic Foundation. During this time, five devices were used: Ancure, AneuRx, Excluder, Talent, and Zenith. Outcome was assessed with physical examination, lower extremity arterial studies, plain abdominal radiography, and computed tomography at discharge, at 1, 6, and 12 months postoperatively, and annually thereafter. Secondary procedures were defined as any procedure, exclusive of diagnostic angiography, performed after stent graft implantation, directed at treatment of aneurysm-related events. Multivariable statistical techniques for censored data (Cox proportional hazards modeling) were used to determine baseline parameters associated with need for secondary procedures over follow-up, with calculation of hazards ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI).
Patient follow-up averaged 12.2 +/- 11.7 months. Patient survival was 90% +/- 1.4% at 1 year, 78% +/- 2.6% at 2 years, and 70% +/- 3.8% at 3 years. Aneurysm rupture occurred in 3 patients (0.4%), accounting for rupture risk of 1.4% over the first 2 years of follow-up (Kaplan-Meier method). Overall, 128 secondary procedures were required in 104 patients (15%), with a cumulative risk of 12% +/- 1.5% at 1 year, 24% +/- 2.8% at 2 years, and 35% +/- 4.4% at 3 years after stent graft implantation. Among the secondary procedures, new stent grafts and extensions were placed in 34 patients (27%), embolization of endoleak was performed in 33 patients (26%), and open surgical conversion was undertaken in 11 patients (9%). Periprocedural mortality of secondary procedures was 8% overall, but was 18% for patients undergoing open surgical conversion. Multivariable modeling identified the date the procedure was performed (HR, 1.53 per 3-month period of study; CI, 1.22-1.92; P <.001) and aneurysm size (HR, 1.35 per centimeter of minor axis; CI, 1.13-1.60; P <.001) as independent predictors of need for secondary procedures.
Current endovascular devices are associated with a relatively high rate of complications over mid-term follow-up, culminating in frequent need for secondary remedial procedures. With strict follow-up imaging compliance, however, risk for rupture and aneurysm-related death remain exceedingly low. Newer technology may achieve improved durability and a lower requirement for secondary procedures, while maintaining the minimally invasive nature of presently available devices.
Journal of Vascular Surgery 06/2003; 37(5):930-7. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms, while advantageous because of its minimally invasive nature, falls short of achieving the long-term durability of traditional open surgical repair. Problems such as device migration, continued sac pressurization from endoleak, and graft limb thrombosis culminate in a high rate of secondary procedures and failure to protect against aneurysm rupture. While prior studies hint at a correlation between these postprocedural events and specific device design, a single comparative analysis that correlates device attributes with clinical outcome has not been performed.
Over 6 years ending in 2002, 703 patients underwent endovascular treatment of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms. During this time, five devices were used, ie, Ancure, AneuRx, Excluder, Talent, and Zenith, and six device-specific groups were analyzed; the Zenith group was subdivided into those placed as part of the multicenter trial (Zenith-MCT) and those under a sponsor-investigator investigational device exemption trial (Zenith-SIT). Results were assessed with the Kaplan-Meier method for censored data, and the log-rank test was used to ascertain differences between device groups.
While overall survival was diminished in the Zenith-SIT group (P =.046), risk for aneurysm-related death was similar in all groups (P =.336), averaging 2% or less at 12 months. Among the total cohort of patients, freedom from rupture was 98.7% +/- 0.9% at 24 months, without demonstrable differences between groups (P =.533). There were no statistically significant differences in rate of secondary procedures, conversion to open repair, or migration. There were, however, significant differences in risk for graft limb occlusion and rate of endoleak between groups. Limb occlusion occurred most often with Ancure devices (11% +/- 4.6% at 12 months, P =.009). Endoleak of any type was most common with Excluder devices (64% +/- 11% at 12 months, P =.003), a finding directly related to increased frequency of type II leaks in that group (58% +/- 11% at 12 months, P =.001). While there were no differences in frequency of type I or type III endoleak, a trend toward increased risk for microleak was observed with AneuRx devices (4.0% +/- 1.3%, P =.054), and more modular separations were observed with Zenith devices (3.5% +/- 2.3%, P =.032). Shrinkage at 12 months correlated with frequency of endoleak in the device groups, and was most common in the two Zenith groups (54% +/- 7.3% in the Zenith-MCT group and 56% +/- 7.8% in the Zenith-SIT group) and the Talent group (52% +/- 9.7%) and was least in the Excluder group (15% +/- 7.9% at 12 months, P <.001). By contrast, sac growth occurred most often in the Zenith-SIT group (13% +/- 4.5% at 12 months, P =.034), possibly as a result of the challenging aortoiliac anatomy frequently present in these patients.
There are significant differences in frequency of limb occlusion and endoleak between groups with different endovascular devices. Knowledge of these and other differences is instructional in development of next-generation endovascular devices, incorporating design features linked to satisfactory outcome while abandoning those associated with device failure.
Journal of Vascular Surgery 06/2003; 37(5):991-8. · 2.88 Impact Factor