[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Shugoshin is a protein conserved in eukaryotes and protects sister chromatid cohesion at centromeres in meiosis. In our study, we identified the homologs of SGO1 and SGO2 in Arabidopsis thaliana. We show that AtSGO1 is necessary for the maintenance of centromere cohesion in meiosis I since atsgo1 mutants display premature separation of sister chromatids starting from anaphase I. Furthermore, we show that the localization of the specific centromeric cohesin AtSYN1 is not affected in atsgo1, suggesting that SGO1 centromere cohesion maintenance is not mediated by protection of SYN1 from cleavage. Finally, we show that AtSGO2 is dispensable for both meiotic and mitotic cell progression in Arabidopsis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human hereditary disease Fanconi anemia leads to severe symptoms, including developmental defects and breakdown of the hematopoietic system. It is caused by single mutations in the FANC genes, one of which encodes the DNA translocase FANCM (for Fanconi anemia complementation group M), which is required for the repair of DNA interstrand cross-links to ensure replication progression. We identified a homolog of FANCM in Arabidopsis thaliana that is not directly involved in the repair of DNA lesions but suppresses spontaneous somatic homologous recombination via a RecQ helicase (At-RECQ4A)-independent pathway. In addition, it is required for double-strand break-induced homologous recombination. The fertility of At-fancm mutant plants is compromised. Evidence suggests that during meiosis At-FANCM acts as antirecombinase to suppress ectopic recombination-dependent chromosome interactions, but this activity is antagonized by the ZMM pathway to enable the formation of interference-sensitive crossovers and chromosome synapsis. Surprisingly, mutation of At-FANCM overcomes the sterility phenotype of an At-MutS homolog4 mutant by apparently rescuing a proportion of crossover-designated recombination intermediates via a route that is likely At-MMS and UV sensitive81 dependent. However, this is insufficient to ensure the formation of an obligate crossover. Thus, At-FANCM is not only a safeguard for genome stability in somatic cells but is an important factor in the control of meiotic crossover formation.
The Plant Cell 04/2012; 24(4):1448-64. · 9.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many angiosperms use specific interactions between pollen and pistil proteins as "self" recognition and/or rejection mechanisms to prevent self-fertilization. Self-incompatibility (SI) is encoded by a multiallelic S locus, comprising pollen and pistil S-determinants. In Papaver rhoeas, cognate pistil and pollen S-determinants, PrpS, a pollen-expressed transmembrane protein, and PrsS, a pistil-expressed secreted protein, interact to trigger a Ca(2+)-dependent signaling network, resulting in inhibition of pollen tube growth, cytoskeletal alterations, and programmed cell death (PCD) in incompatible pollen. We introduced the PrpS gene into Arabidopsis thaliana, a self-compatible model plant. Exposing transgenic A. thaliana pollen to recombinant Papaver PrsS protein triggered remarkably similar responses to those observed in incompatible Papaver pollen: S-specific inhibition and hallmark features of Papaver SI. Our findings demonstrate that Papaver PrpS is functional in a species with no SI system that diverged ~140 million years ago. This suggests that the Papaver SI system uses cellular targets that are, perhaps, common to all eudicots and that endogenous signaling components can be recruited to elicit a response that most likely never operated in this species. This will be of interest to biologists interested in the evolution of signaling networks in higher plants.
Current biology: CB 12/2011; 22(2):154-9. · 10.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND SCOPE: Self-incompatibility (SI) in flowering plants ensures the maintenance of genetic diversity by ensuring outbreeding. Different genetic and mechanistic systems of SI among flowering plants suggest either multiple origins of SI or considerable evolutionary diversification. In the grasses, SI is based on two loci, S and Z, which are both polyallelic: an incompatible reaction occurs only if both S and Z alleles are matched in individual pollen with alleles of the pistil on which they alight. Such incompatibility is referred to as gametophytic SI (GSI). The mechanics of grass GSI is poorly understood relative to the well-characterized S-RNase-based single-locus GSI systems (Solanaceae, Rosaceae, Plantaginaceae), or the Papaver recognition system that triggers a calcium-dependent signalling network culminating in programmed cell death. There is every reason to suggest that the grass SI system represents yet another mechanism of SI. S and Z loci have been mapped using isozymes to linkage groups C1 and C2 of the Triticeae consensus maps in Secale, Phalaris and Lolium. Recently, in Lolium perenne, in order to finely map and identify S and Z, more closely spaced markers have been developed based on cDNA and repeat DNA sequences, in part from genomic regions syntenic between the grasses. Several genes tightly linked to the S and Z loci were identified, but so far no convincing candidate has emerged. RESEARCH AND PROGRESS: From subtracted Lolium immature stigma cDNA libraries derived from S and Z genotyped individuals enriched for SI potential component genes, kinase enzyme domains, a calmodulin-dependent kinase and a peptide with several calcium (Ca(2+)) binding domains were identified. Preliminary findings suggest that Ca(2+) signalling and phosphorylation may be involved in Lolium GSI. This is supported by the inhibition of Lolium SI by Ca(2+) channel blockers lanthanum (La(3+)) and verapamil, and by findings of increased phosphorylation activity during an SI response.
Annals of Botany 07/2011; 108(4):677-85. · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RecQ helicases are a conserved group of proteins with a role in the maintenance of genome integrity. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast), meiotic recombination is increased in the absence of the RecQ helicase Sgs1. Here we investigated the potential meiotic role of the Sgs1 homologue AtRECQ4A and the closely related AtRECQ4B. Both proteins have been shown to function during recombination in somatic cells, but so far their meiotic role has not been investigated. Both AtRECQ4A and AtRECQ4B were expressed in reproductive tissues. Although immunolocalization studies showed that AtRECQ4A associates with recombination intermediates, we found no evidence that its loss or that of AtRECQ4B had a significant effect on meiotic cross-overs, suggesting functional redundancy with other RECQ family members. Nevertheless, pollen viability decreased in Atrecq4A, resulting in a reduction in fertility, although this was not the case in Atrecq4B. Cytological analysis revealed chromatin bridges between the telomeres of non-homologous chromosomes in Atrecq4A at metaphase I, in some instances accompanied by chromosome fragmentation at anaphase I. The bridges required telomeric repeats and were dependent on meiotic recombination. Immunolocalization confirmed the association of AtRECQ4A with the telomeres during prophase I, which we propose enables dissolution of recombination-dependent telomeric associations. Thus, this study has identified a hitherto unknown role for a member of the RECQ helicase family during meiosis that contributes to the maintenance of chromosome integrity. As telomere structure is generally conserved, it seems likely that these associations may arise during meiosis in other species, where they must also be removed.
The Plant Journal 02/2011; 65(3):492-502. · 6.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, the meiotic role of MEIOTIC CONTROL OF CROSSOVERS1 (MCC1), a GCN5-related histone N-acetyltransferase, is described in Arabidopsis. Analysis of the over-expression mutant obtained by enhancer activation tagging revealed that acetylation of histone H3 increased in male prophase I. MCC1 appeared to be required in meiosis for normal chiasma number and distribution and for chromosome segregation. Overall, elevated MCC1 did not affect crossover number per cell, but has a differential effect on individual chromosomes elevating COs for chromosome 4, in which there is also a shift in chiasma distribution, and reducing COs for chromosome 1 and 2. For the latter there is a loss of the obligate CO/chiasma in 8% of the male meiocytes. The meiotic defects led to abortion in about half of the male and female gametes in the mutant. In wild type, the treatment with trichostatin A, an inhibitor of histone deacetylases, phenocopies MCC1 over-expression in meiosis. Our results provide evidence that histone hyperacetylation has a significant impact on the plant meiosis.
The Plant Journal 03/2010; 62(5):796-806. · 6.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Higher plants produce seed through pollination, using specific interactions between pollen and pistil. Self-incompatibility is an important mechanism used in many species to prevent inbreeding; it is controlled by a multi-allelic S locus. 'Self' (incompatible) pollen is discriminated from 'non-self' (compatible) pollen by interaction of pollen and pistil S locus components, and is subsequently inhibited. In Papaver rhoeas, the pistil S locus product is a small protein that interacts with incompatible pollen, triggering a Ca(2+)-dependent signalling network, resulting in pollen inhibition and programmed cell death. Here we have cloned three alleles of a highly polymorphic pollen-expressed gene, PrpS (Papaver rhoeas pollen S), from Papaver and provide evidence that this encodes the pollen S locus determinant. PrpS is a single-copy gene linked to the pistil S gene (currently called S, but referred to hereafter as PrsS for Papaver rhoeas stigma S determinant). Sequence analysis indicates that PrsS and PrpS are equally ancient and probably co-evolved. PrpS encodes a novel approximately 20-kDa protein. Consistent with predictions that it is a transmembrane protein, PrpS is associated with the plasma membrane. We show that a predicted extracellular loop segment of PrpS interacts with PrsS and, using PrpS antisense oligonucleotides, we demonstrate that PrpS is involved in S-specific inhibition of incompatible pollen. Identification of PrpS represents a major advance in our understanding of the Papaver self-incompatibility system. As a novel cell-cell recognition determinant it contributes to the available information concerning the origins and evolution of cell-cell recognition systems involved in discrimination between self and non-self, which also include histocompatibility systems in primitive chordates and vertebrates.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Self-incompatibility (SI) in Lolium perenne is controlled gametophytically by the S-Z two-locus system. S and Z loci mapped to L. perenne linkage groups 1 and 2, respectively, with their corresponding putative-syntenic regions on rice chromosome 5 (R5) and R4. None of the gene products of S and Z have yet been identified. SI cDNA libraries were developed to enrich for SI expressed genes in L. perenne. Transcripts were identified from the SI libraries that were orthologous to sequences on rice R4 and R5. These represent potential SI candidate genes. Altogether ten expressed SI candidate genes were identified. A rapid increase in gene expression within two minutes after pollen-stigma contact was revealed, reaching a maximum between 2 and 10 min. The potential involvement of these genes in the SI reactions is discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Meiosis is a fundamental and evolutionarily conserved process that is central to the life cycles of all sexually reproducing eukaryotes. An understanding of this process is critical to furthering research on reproduction, fertility, genetics and breeding. Plants have been used extensively in cytogenetic studies of meiosis during the last century. Until recently, our knowledge of the molecular and functional aspects of meiosis has emerged from the study of non-plant model organisms, especially budding yeast. However, the emergence of Arabidopsis thaliana as the model organism for plant molecular biology and genetics has enabled significant progress in the characterisation of key genes and proteins controlling plant meiosis. The development of molecular and cytological techniques in Arabidopsis, besides allowing investigation of the more conserved aspects of meiosis, are also providing insights into features of this complex process which may vary between organisms. This review highlights an example of this recent progress by focussing on ASY1, a meiosis-specific Arabidopsis protein which shares some similarity with the N-terminus region of the yeast axial core-associated protein, HOP1, a component of a multiprotein complex which acts as a meiosis-specific barrier to sister-chromatid repair in budding yeast. In the absence of ASY1, synapsis is interrupted and chiasma formation is dramatically reduced. ASY1 protein is initially detected during early meiotic G2 as numerous foci distributed over the chromatin. As G2 progresses the signal appears to be increasingly continuous and is closely associated with the axial elements. State-of-the-art cytogenetic techniques have revealed that initiation of recombination is synchronised with the formation of the chromosome axis. Furthermore, in the context of the developing chromosome axes, ASY1 plays a crucial role in co-ordinating the activity of a key member of the homologous recombination machinery, AtDMC1.
Cytogenetic and Genome Research 02/2008; 120(3-4):302-12. · 1.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ASY1 is an Arabidopsis protein required for synapsis and crossover formation during meiosis. The chronology of meiotic recombination has been investigated in wild type and an asy1 mutant. We observe a delay between the appearance of chromatin-associated AtSPO11-1 foci and DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation, which occurs contemporaneously with chromosome axis formation and transition of ASY1 from chromatin-associated foci to a linear axis-associated signal. DSBs are formed independently of ASY1 in an AtSPO11-1-dependent manner. They are partially restored in Atspo11-1-3 using cisplatin, but their control appears abnormal. Axis morphogenesis is independent of ASY1, but axis structure may be compromised in asy1. Localization of the strand exchange proteins AtRAD51 and AtDMC1 to the chromatin occurs asynchronously shortly after DSB formation, with AtDMC1 localizing in advance of AtRAD51. In wild-type nuclei, both recombinases form numerous foci that persist for approximately 12 h before gradually decreasing in number. In asy1, initial localization of AtDMC1 is normal, but declines abruptly such that interhomolog recombination is severely compromised. Limited ASY1-independent, DMC1-dependent interhomolog recombination remains, but appears restricted to subtelomeric sequences where the homologs are fortuitously in proximity. Thus, ASY1 plays a key role in coordinating the activity of the RecA homologs to create a bias in favor of interhomolog recombination.
Genes & Development 10/2007; 21(17):2220-33. · 12.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In higher plants, sexual reproduction involves interactions between pollen and pistil. A key mechanism to prevent inbreeding is self-incompatibility through rejection of incompatible ('self') pollen. In Papaver rhoeas, S proteins encoded by the stigma interact with incompatible pollen, triggering a Ca2+-dependent signalling network resulting in pollen tube inhibition and programmed cell death. The cytosolic phosphoprotein p26.1, which has been identified in incompatible pollen, shows rapid, self-incompatibility-induced Ca2+-dependent hyperphosphorylation in vivo. Here we show that p26.1 comprises two proteins, Pr-p26.1a and Pr-p26.1b, which are soluble inorganic pyrophosphatases (sPPases). These proteins have classic Mg2+-dependent sPPase activity, which is inhibited by Ca2+, and unexpectedly can be phosphorylated in vitro. We show that phosphorylation inhibits sPPase activity, establishing a previously unknown mechanism for regulating eukaryotic sPPases. Reduced sPPase activity is predicted to result in the inhibition of many biosynthetic pathways, suggesting that there may be additional mechanisms of self-incompatibility-mediated pollen tube inhibition. We provide evidence that sPPases are required for growth and that self-incompatibility results in an increase in inorganic pyrophosphate, implying a functional role for Pr-p26.1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunocytochemistry reveals that the Arabidopsis mismatch repair proteins AtMSH4, AtMLH3 and AtMLH1 are expressed during prophase I of meiosis. Expression of AtMSH4 precedes AtMLH3 and AtMLH1 which co-localize as foci during pachytene. Co-localization between AtMSH4 and AtMLH3 occurs, but appears transient. AtMLH3 foci are not detected in an Atmsh4 mutant. However, localization of AtMSH4 is unaffected in Atmlh3, suggesting that recombination may proceed to dHj (double Holliday junction) formation. Mean chiasma frequency in Atmsh4 is reduced to 1.55 compared with 9.86 in wild-type. In contrast with wild-type, the distribution of residual crossovers in Atmsh4 closely fits a Poisson distribution. This is consistent with a two-pathway model for meiotic crossing-over whereby most crossovers occur via an AtMSH4-dependent pathway that is subject to interference, with the remaining crossovers arising via an interference-independent pathway. Loss of AtMLH3 results in an approx. 60% reduction in crossovers. Results suggest that dHj resolution can occur, but in contrast with wild-type where most or all dHjs are directed to form crossovers, the outcome is biased in favour of a non-crossover outcome. The results are compatible with a model whereby the MutL complex maintains or imposes a dHj conformation that ensures crossover formation.
Biochemical Society Transactions 09/2006; 34(Pt 4):542-4. · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ribonuclease assays have revealed, in contrast to the self-incompatibility (SI) system of Nicotiana alata, there is no detectable ribonuclease activity that correlates with the presence of the functional stigmatic S-gene product in Papaver rhoeas. Thus, we have shown that the inhibition of incompatible pollen tube growth in P. rhoeas is not associated with ribonuclease activity. Furthermore, the finding that pollen from P. rhoeas, unlike that from N. alata, is insensitive to purified bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A at very high concentrations, suggests that the involvement of ribonucleases in the inhibition reaction of the SI response in P. rhoeas is unlikely. In addition, the level of ribonuclease activity in mature stigmas of P. rhoeas is very much lower than that in N. alata and significantly, the level of ribonuclease activity did not rise in conjunction with the developmental expression of SI. Therefore, as a result of these studies, we believe that SI in P. rhoeas does not involve ribonuclease activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Characterization of AtMLH3, the Arabidopsis homologue of the prokaryotic MutL mismatch repair gene, reveals that it is expressed in reproductive tissue where it is required for normal levels of meiotic crossovers (COs). Immunocytological studies in an Atmlh3 mutant indicate that chromosome pairing and synapsis proceed with normal distribution of the early recombination pathway proteins. Localization of the MutS homologue AtMSH4 occurs, suggesting that double Holliday junctions (dHjs) are formed, but the MutL homologue AtMLH1, which forms a heterocomplex with AtMLH3, fails to localize normally. Loss of AtMLH3 results in an approximately 60% reduction in COs and is accompanied by a substantial delay of approximately 25 h in prophase I progression. Analysis of the chiasma distribution in Atmlh3 suggests that dHj resolution can occur, but in contrast to wild type where most or all dHjs are directed to form COs the outcome is biased in favour of a non-CO outcome by a ratio of around 2 to 1. The data are compatible with a model whereby the MutL complex imposes a dHj conformation that ensures CO formation.
The EMBO Journal 04/2006; 25(6):1315-23. · 9.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SummaryA portion (1.5 kb) of the promoter region of an S63 S-locus related (SLR) glycoprotein gene from the sporophytically self-incompatible species Brassica oleracea was inserted upstream of the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene in binary vector pBI101.1. The resulting construct was then introduced into Nicotiana tabacum through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The expression pattern of GUS under the control of the S63 SLR promoter fragment was found to be similar to that already reported for expression of the GUS gene directed by an S-locus specific gene promoter in transgenic N. tabacum. Furthermore, this pattern of expression resembled more closely that reported for S-genes of the self-incompatible species Nicotiana alata, which has a gametophytic self-incompatibility system, than the predicted pattern of expression of S-genes in B. oleracea.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The analysis of meiosis in higher plants has benefited considerably in recent years from the completion of the genome sequence of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and the development of cytological techniques for this species. A combination of forward and reverse genetics has provided important routes toward the identification of meiotic genes in Arabidopsis. Nevertheless identification of certain meiotic genes remains a challenge due to problems such as limited sequence conservation between species, existence of closely related gene families and in some cases functional redundancy between gene family members. Hence there is a requirement to develop new experimental approaches that can be used in conjunction with existing methods to enable a greater range of plant meiotic genes to be identified. As one potential route towards this goal we have initiated a proteomics-based approach. Unfortunately, the small size of Arabidopsis anthers makes an analysis in this species technically very difficult. Therefore we have initially focussed on Brassica oleracea which is closely related to Arabidopsis, but has the advantage of possessing significantly larger anthers. The basic strategy has been to use peptide mass-finger printing and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry to analyse proteins expressed in meiocytes during prophase I of meiosis. Initial experiments based on the analysis of proteins from staged anther tissue proved disappointing due to the low level of detection of proteins associated with meiosis. However, by extruding meiocytes in early prophase I from individual anthers prior to analysis a significant enrichment of meiotic proteins has been achieved. Analysis suggests that at least 18% of the proteins identified by this route have a putative meiotic function and that this figure could be as high as one-third of the total. Approaches to increase the enrichment of proteins involved in meiotic recombination and chromosome synapsis are also described.
Cytogenetic and Genome Research 02/2005; 109(1-3):181-9. · 1.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidases (PSAs) participate in a variety of proteolytic events essential for cell growth and viability, and in fertility in a broad range of organisms. We have identified and characterized an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant (mpa1) from a pool of T-DNA tagged lines that lacks PSA activity. This line exhibits reduced fertility, producing shorter siliques (fruits) bearing a lower number of seeds compared with wild-type plants. Cytogenetic characterization of meiosis in the mutant line reveals that both male and female meiosis are defective. In mpa1, early prophase I appears normal, but after pachytene most of the homologous chromosomes are desynaptic, thus, by metaphase I a high level of univalence is observed subsequently leading to abnormal chromosome segregation. Wild-type plants treated with specific inhibitors of PSA show a very similar desynaptic phenotype to that of the mutant line. A fluorescent PSA-specific bioprobe, DAMPAQ-22, reveals that the protein is maximally expressed in wild-type meiocytes during prophase I and is absent in mpa1. Immunolocalization of meiotic proteins showed that the meiotic recombination pathway is disrupted in mpa1. Chromosome pairing and early recombination appears normal, but progression to later stages of recombination and complete synapsis of homologous chromosomes are blocked.
The Plant Cell 12/2004; 16(11):2895-909. · 9.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MSH4, a meiosis-specific member of the MutS-homolog family of genes, is required for normal levels of recombination and fertility in budding yeast, mouse, and Caenorhabditis elegans. In this paper, we report the identification and characterization of the Arabidopsis homolog of MSH4 (AtMSH4). We demonstrate that AtMSH4 expression can only be detected in floral tissues, consistent with a role in reproduction. Immunofluorescence studies indicate that its expression is limited to early meiotic prophase I, preceding the synapsis of homologous chromosomes. A T-DNA insertional mutant (Atmsh4) exhibited normal vegetative growth but a severe reduction in fertility, consistent with a meiotic defect; this was confirmed by cytological analysis of meiosis. RNAi-induced down-regulation of the MSH4 gene resulted in a similar fertility and meiotic phenotype. We demonstrate that prophase I chromosome synapsis is delayed and may be incomplete in Atmsh4, and metaphase I chiasma frequency is greatly reduced to approximately 15% of wild type, leading to univalence and nondisjunction. We show that these residual chiasmata are randomly distributed among cells and chromosomes. These features of chiasma frequency and distribution in Atmsh4 show close parallels to MSH4-independent crossovers in budding yeast that have been proposed to originate by a separate pathway. Furthermore, the characteristics of the MSH4-independent chiasmata in the Atmsh4 mutant closely parallel those of second-pathway crossovers that have been postulated from Arabidopsis crossover analysis and mathematical modeling. Taken together, this evidence strongly indicates that Arabidopsis possesses two crossover pathways.
Genes & Development 11/2004; 18(20):2557-70. · 12.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Meiosis was analyzed cytogenetically in autotetraploids of Arabidopsis, including both established lines and newly generated autotetraploid plants. Fluorescent in situ hybridization with 5S and 45S rDNA probes was used to identify the different chromosomes at metaphase I of meiosis. Multivalents were observed frequently in all the lines analyzed, but there were significant differences in multivalent frequency not only between the newly generated tetraploids and the established lines but also among the different established lines. The new tetraploids showed high multivalent frequencies, exceeding the theoretical 66.66% predicted by the simple random-end pairing model, in some cases significantly, thus indicating that Arabidopsis autotetraploids have more than two autonomous pairing sites per chromosome, despite their small sizes. The established lines showed fewer multivalents than the new autotetraploids did, but the extent of this reduction was strongly line and chromosome dependent. One line in particular showed a large reduction in multivalents and a concomitant increase in bivalents, while the other lines showed lesser reductions in multivalents. The reduction in multivalents was not uniformly distributed across chromosomes. The smaller chromosomes, especially chromosomes 2 and 4, showed the most marked reductions while the largest chromosome (1) showed virtually no reduction compared to the new tetraploids. It is concluded that the established autotetraploid lines have undergone a partial diploidization of meiosis, but not necessarily genetical diploidization, since their creation. Possible mechanisms for the resulting change in meiotic chromosome behavior are discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) operate downstream of receptor-ligand interactions, playing a pivotal role in responses to extracellular signals. The self-incompatibility (SI) response in Papaver rhoeas L. triggers a Ca2+-dependent signalling cascade resulting in inhibition of incompatible pollen. We have investigated the possible involvement of MAPKs in SI. We report the enhanced activation of a 56 kDa protein kinase (p56) in SI-induced pollen and provide evidence that p56 has MAPK activity. This provides an important advance in our understanding of the SI response. We believe this is the first direct biochemical demonstration of activation of a MAPK during SI.