[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Miller School of Medicine of the University of Miami and Project Medishare, an affiliated not-for-profit organization, provided a large-scale relief effort in Haiti after the earthquake of 12 January 2010. Their experience demonstrates that academic medical centers in proximity to natural disasters can help deliver effective medical care through a coordinated process involving mobilization of their own resources, establishment of focused management teams at home and on the ground with formal organizational oversight, and partnership with governmental and nongovernmental relief agencies. Proximity to the disaster area allows for prompt arrival of medical personnel and equipment. The recruitment and organized deployment of large numbers of local and national volunteers are indispensable parts of this effort. Multidisciplinary teams on short rotations can form the core of the medical response.
Annals of internal medicine 08/2010; 153(4):262-5. · 13.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have demonstrated that lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy maintained plasma HIV-1 RNA suppression in a large proportion of antiretroviral naive subjects. However, more subjects receiving lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy experienced confirmed virologic rebound >50 copies/ml compared to a standard three-drug HAART regimen. In this study, we sought to determine the factors associated with maintenance of virologic suppression in subjects receiving lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy. Antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected volunteers were randomized 2:1 to initiate a lopinavir/ritonavir-based combination regimen followed by simplification to lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy or an efavirenz-based triple combination therapy and followed for 96 weeks. Potential predictors of time to loss of virologic response included baseline demographics, baseline HIV-1 RNA levels, baseline CD4(+) T cell counts, adherence as determined by 4-day subject recall, duration of HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/ml prior to simplification, and lopinavir concentrations. By the Cox proportional hazards model, higher reported adherence levels and higher baseline CD4(+) T cell counts were associated with a greater likelihood of maintaining virologic suppression while receiving lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy. Lopinavir concentrations, including trough concentrations, were not significantly associated with virologic outcomes. This analysis suggests that adherence and higher baseline CD4(+) T cell counts may help to predict who will sustain virologic suppression with lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy. The data also suggest that measuring lopinavir concentrations is not useful in predicting virologic response in these patients.
AIDS research and human retroviruses 03/2009; 25(3):269-75. · 2.18 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As antiretroviral regimens for the treatment of HIV infection improve, trials providing data on long-term follow-up are increasingly important.
A regimen of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), emtricitabine (FTC), and efavirenz (EFV) demonstrated superior virologic, immunologic and morphologic effects compared with a regimen of fixed-dose zidovudine/lamivudine (ZDV/3TC) and EFV through 96 weeks in a randomized open-label trial. After 96 weeks, patients on TDF + FTC transitioned to fixed-dose combination TDF/FTC.
Through 144 weeks, significantly more patients in the TDF/FTC arm reached and maintained an HIV RNA level <400 copies/mL (71% receiving TDF/FTC and EFV vs. 58% receiving ZDV/3TC and EFV; P = 0.004), with a trend toward greater CD4 cell increase in the TDF/FTC arm (312 vs. 271 cells/mm; P = 0.09). Over 144 weeks of follow-up, more patients in the ZDV/3TC arm discontinued therapy because of adverse events (11% vs. 5%; P = 0.01) and no patients discontinued because of renal events. Patients in the ZDV/3TC arm had significantly less limb fat than patients in the TDF/FTC arm (5.4 vs. 7.9 kg; P < 0.001) at 144 weeks.
Cumulative results from 3 years of follow-up suggest that a regimen of TDF/FTC and EFV demonstrates superior durability of viral load suppression and an improved safety and morphologic profile compared with ZDV/3TC and EFV.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In antiretroviral-naive patients, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), emtricitabine (FTC), and efavirenz (EFV) demonstrated superior outcomes compared with fixed-dose zidovudine (ZDV)/lamivudine (3TC) and EFV through 48 weeks. Results through a 96-week extension phase are presented.
In this randomized, open-label, noninferiority trial, 517 antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected patients received TDF, FTC, and EFV (TDF + FTC + EFV) or ZDV/3TC and EFV (ZDV/3TC + EFV). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with an HIV RNA level <400 copies/mL in patients without baseline nonnucleoside resistance.
Through week 96, significantly more patients receiving TDF + FTC + EFV achieved and maintained an HIV RNA level <400 copies/mL (75% receiving TDF + FTC + EFV vs. 62% receiving ZDV/3TC + EFV; P = 0.004). There was a trend toward greater virologic suppression to <50 copies/mL in the TDF + FTC + EFV group (67% vs. 61%; P = 0.16). The TDF + FTC + EFV group demonstrated a significantly greater increase in CD4 count (270 vs. 237 cells/mm; P = 0.036). No patient developed the K65R mutation. Limb fat at week 96 was significantly greater in the TDF + FTC + EFV group versus the ZDV/3TC + EFV group (7.7 vs. 5.5 kg; P < 0.001).
Over 96 weeks, the combination of TDF, FTC, and EFV was superior to fixed-dose ZDV/3TC + EFV for achieving and maintaining an HIV RNA level <400 copies/mL and an increase in CD4 cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Durable suppression of replication of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) depends on the use of potent, well-tolerated antiretroviral regimens to which patients can easily adhere.
We conducted an open-label, noninferiority study involving 517 patients with HIV infection who had not previously received antiretroviral therapy and who were randomly assigned to receive either a regimen of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF), emtricitabine, and efavirenz once daily (tenofovir-emtricitabine group) or a regimen of fixed-dose zidovudine and lamivudine twice daily plus efavirenz once daily (zidovudine-lamivudine group). The primary end point was the proportion of patients without baseline resistance to efavirenz in whom the HIV RNA level was less than 400 copies per milliliter at week 48 of the study.
Through week 48, significantly more patients in the tenofovir-emtricitabine group reached and maintained the primary end point of less than 400 copies of HIV RNA per milliliter than did those in the zidovudine-lamivudine group (84 percent vs. 73 percent, respectively; 95 percent confidence interval for the difference, 4 to 19 percent; P=0.002). This difference excludes the inferiority of the tenofovir DF, emtricitabine, and efavirenz regimen, indicating a significantly greater response with this regimen. Significant differences were also seen in the proportion of patients with HIV RNA levels of less than 50 copies per milliliter (80 percent in the tenofovir-emtricitabine group vs. 70 percent in the zidovudine-lamivudine group; 95 percent confidence interval for the difference, 2 to 17 percent; P=0.02) and in increases in CD4 cell counts (190 vs. 158 cells per cubic millimeter, respectively; 95 percent confidence interval for the difference, 9 to 55; P=0.002). More patients in the zidovudine-lamivudine group than in the tenofovir-emtricitabine group had adverse events resulting in discontinuation of the study drugs (9 percent vs. 4 percent, respectively; P=0.02). In none of the patients did the K65R mutation develop.
Through week 48, the combination of tenofovir DF and emtricitabine plus efavirenz fulfilled the criteria for noninferiority to a fixed dose of zidovudine and lamivudine plus efavirenz and proved superior in terms of virologic suppression, CD4 response, and adverse events resulting in discontinuation of the study drugs. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00112047.)
New England Journal of Medicine 02/2006; 354(3):251-60. · 51.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Latinos in the United States have been disproportionately affected by HIV, with a higher rate of infection, later diagnosis, and a higher death rate than Caucasians. Complicating the issue is that "Latino" is a broad term that encompasses diverse ethnic and racial groups, requiring a targeted approach to prevention and management of HIV infection. This article explores the demographics of HIV infection among Latinos in the United States, discusses cultural beliefs among Latinos that have an impact on prevention and access to care, and reviews strategies for managing HIV infection in this population.
AIDS PATIENT CARE and STDs 07/2005; 19(6):366-74. · 3.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Invasive pneumococcal disease (PD) occurs frequently among HIV-infected patients, but it is unclear whether its manifestations and outcome are different compared to those observed among patients without HIV-1 infection. Because the immune reconstitution that accompanies antiretroviral therapy may change some of these features and because most cases of HIV- 1 infection occur in resource-poor settings of the world where access to antiretroviral agents is limited, we compared PD among patients with and without HIV-1 infection in a North American population before the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The records of all pneumococcal cultures processed at this medical center over a period of 20 months were used to identify patients with invasive PD. Hospital records were reviewed for 103 of these patients (52 with and 51 without HIV-1 infection) and demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiographic, and microbiologic information was abstracted and subsequently analyzed. Despite similarities in presenting signs and symptoms, we found a higher incidence of bacteremia but a more favorable outcome with less frequent requirements for intubation and admission to intensive care units and better survival among individuals with HIV infection. Factors such as less advanced age, the presence of fewer comorbid conditions, or a less florid inflammatory response among HIV-infected individuals may account for differences in outcome of invasive PD.
AIDS PATIENT CARE and STDs 04/2005; 19(3):141-9. · 3.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of resistance to antiretroviral therapies has become a formidable barrier to providing optimal treatment of HIV infection in the United States. The emergence of new mutations resistant to antiretroviral agents and a rise in transmission of resistant viruses contribute to an increased risk of treatment failure. Resistance testing of both treatment-experienced and treatment-naive patients i snow recommended for identification of the most effective treatment regimen; however, resistance testing is not universally available or easily interpreted. Furthermore, poor adherence to a treatment regimen or treatment with less potent antiretroviral agents can lead to exposure of virus to subinhibitory levels of drug and the development of resistance. In this article, we discuss several issues that specifically impact the development and transmission of resistant HIV in patients belonging to ethnic minorities and teh implementation of strategies that will overcome resistance as an obstacle to optimal treatment.
The AIDS reader 11/2004; 14(10 Suppl):S9-11. · 0.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the safety and effectiveness of a once-daily highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen in patients at risk for poor adherence using directly observed therapy (DOT) for 24 weeks followed by weekly phone contact for another 24 weeks.
A prospective, open-label pilot study was carried out. Antiretroviral-naïve patients with advanced HIV disease were treated with once-daily amprenavir 1200 mg, ritonavir 200 mg, didanosine 400 mg and lamivudine 300 mg. After 24 weeks, DOT was substituted by weekly phone contact. Measurements of viral load and CD4 cell count, and safety laboratory measurements, were taken regularly for 48 weeks.
Twenty-two patients were enrolled in the study, of whom 19 completed at least 4 weeks of treatment. Seventeen patients completed 24 weeks and 13 completed 48 weeks. None discontinued treatment as a result of adverse events. The median baseline HIV viral load was 5.29 log(10) HIV-1 RNA copies/mL and the median CD4 cell count was 20 cells/microL. At weeks 24 and 48, 74% of the patients had viral loads <400 copies/mL. At 48 weeks, the median decrease in viral load from baseline was 3.06 log(10) copies/mL, and the median increase in CD4 cell count was 118 cells/microL. The median trough plasma amprenavir concentrations at weeks 1 and 24 were 1.87 and 1.42 microg/mL, respectively.
This study suggests that DOT followed by weekly patient contact results in good treatment outcome in this challenging population. The median trough plasma amprenavir concentrations were above the effective concentration of drug that resulted in 90% inhibition of viral load in vivo (EC(90)) for wild-type HIV.
HIV Medicine 09/2004; 5(5):364-70. · 3.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Highly active antiretroviral therapy directed against HIV-1 has dramatically modified morbidity and mortality in infected individuals. Enthusiasm for the success of these medications have been tempered by an inability to clear virus from the infected host leaving a virus poised to leverage any advantage into one of productive survival. One mechanism used to accomplish escape from suppression secondary to antiretroviral therapy is by developing mutations. The goal of therapy has been to diminish viral replication, thereby effectively abrogating the development of these resistance-bearing mutations. This strategy has met with significant success but numerous host-viral factors impact on the ability of the clinician to persistently suppress viral load, thereby providing a window of opportunity for the virus to mutate. In particular we review evidence for ongoing viral replication in the face of suppressive antiretroviral therapy and viral replication in tissue compartments. We discuss whether viral resistance can develop during transient elevations in viral load (viral blips) or as a function of the rate of viral load decay while on therapy. Finally, we touch on the therapeutic strategy that diminished viral replication capacity of mutational species can maintain host immunity.
International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Life 07/2004; 56(6):301-7. · 2.79 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the safety and efficacy of indinavir 400 mg and ritonavir 400 mg twice daily (RIT/IND 400/400) in HIV-1-infected individuals, using an open label, proof of concept study. All patients received indinavir 400 mg and ritonavir 400 mg twice daily. Patients were followed up to 48 weeks. Nineteen subjects were enrolled, 11 (58%) men and eight (42%) women. The majority were American Black (nine; 47%) or Haitian (eight; 42%). The median baseline plasma HIV-1 viral load (VL) was 5.13 log10 copies/mL and the median CD4 cell count was 112 cells/mm(3). The proportion of compliant patients with VL <400 copies/mL at week 24 was 60% compared with 0% for non-compliant patients (P=0.011 [intent-to-treat] or P=0.085 [on-treatment]). VL at week 4 predicted week 24 VL response. Compliant patients had a median average CD4 cell count increase of 83.2 cells/mm(3) compared with 42.0 cells/mm(3) for non-compliant patients (P=0.010). The median average changes in triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly higher in compliant patients. This is a potent, safe combination for the treatment of HIV-1. VL at week 4 is predictive of viral outcome at week 24. Fasting serum cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly elevated during the study.
International Journal of STD & AIDS 12/2003; 14(11):732-6. · 1.00 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess responses to indinavir (IDV)-ritonavir (RTV)-based regimens among HIV-1 infected patients with prior failure of protease inhibitors, and to assess the effects of adherence to therapy and pre-existing genotypic and phenotypic resistance on this response.
Twenty-eight patients initiating salvage regimens with IDV-RTV (800 mg and 200 mg twice daily, respectively) plus one or more reverse transcriptase inhibitor (RTI) were identified retrospectively. Genotypic and phenotypic susceptibilities to multiple antiretroviral agents were determined on viral samples collected at initiation of the salvage regimens, and adherence to therapy was determined through patient self-reporting. Response to therapy (viral RNA </= 400 copies/ml) was assessed at the end of and beyond 6 months of follow-up.
Based on responses measured in the first 6 months of follow-up, 16 responders and 12 non-responders were identified without differences in baseline demographic factors, laboratory parameters, extent of prior antiretroviral therapy, or characteristics of the RTI components of the new IDV-RTV-based regimens. Adequate adherence was associated with virologic responses (P = 0.005). There were trends for genotypic and phenotypic resistance to be associated with adequate adherence, and, surprisingly, phenotypic resistance to IDV was associated with virologic response rather than with therapeutic failure (P = 0.02). Beyond 6 months of follow-up (mean follow-up 69 weeks), adequate adherence was still associated with virologic response (P = 0.001), but genotypic or phenotypic resistance to IDV were not associated with therapeutic failure.
These results suggest that IDV-RTV-based regimens may be able to overcome IDV resistance. This underscores the importance of drug adherence, potency, and exposure in determining virologic responses to antiretroviral therapy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interruption of all antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection when therapy is failing and antiretroviral resistance has emerged is frequently associated with the disappearance of detectable resistance-associated protease and reverse transcriptase substitutions. However, the effect that discontinuation of treatment with a particular antiretroviral class has on resistance to that class when other antiretroviral therapy is continued is unknown. We investigated differences in detectable genotypic resistance to protease inhibitors (PI) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) among two populations: patients undergoing testing at the moment class-specific treatment failed (Group 1) and patients undergoing testing for varying periods after class-specific treatment failed and was discontinued but therapy with other antiretroviral classes continued with incomplete viral suppression (Group 2). We found that the prevalence of detectable resistance to the PI and NNRTI classes was similar in both groups despite the absence of class-specific selective pressure for lengthy periods of time in Group 2. We hypothesize that this finding may be due to nonspecific selective pressure (i.e., to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors) selecting out PI- and, to a lesser extent, NNRTI-resistant viral variants.
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 09/2003; 19(8):653-6. · 2.71 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genotypic resistance to all antiretroviral classes was widespread among human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates failing therapy. Resistance to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors was found most frequently and resistance to protease inhibitors was found least frequently, most likely due to differences in the number of enzymatic amino acid substitutions leading to resistance to each particular drug class.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 08/2003; 41(7):3376-8. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Throughout most of the past century, physicians could offer patients no treatments for infections caused by viruses. The experience with treatment of infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has changed the way healthcare workers deal with viral infections and has triggered a growing rate of discovery and use of antiviral agents, the first fruits of the expanding genomics revolution. HIV treatment also provides an informative paradigm for pharmacogenomics because control of infection and its consequences is limited by the development of viral drug resistance and by host factors. This report summarizes studies published to date on the significance of testing of HIV-1 resistance to antiretroviral drugs. The only Food and Drug Administration-approved kit for HIV drug resistance testing by genotypic sequencing is commercially available through Visible Genetics, Inc. Genotyping sequencing alone is most likely an adequate test to assist in the therapeutic decision-making process for previous regimen failure, for treatment-naïve patients in areas of high prevalence of transmitted resistant virus, and for pregnant women. However, in exceptional cases of highly complex mutation patterns and extensive cross-resistance, it may be useful to obtain a phenotype test, because that result may more easily identify drugs to which virus is least resistant. There are no published clinical trials results on the usefulness of the so-called virtual phenotype over genotypic sequencing alone. Not only has the paradigm of viral pharmacogenomics in the form of HIV genotypic sequencing been useful in treating other viral diseases, but it is also important to the real-life implementation of the growing discipline ofgenomics or molecular medicine. The application of this paradigm to the thousands of potential therapeutic targets that have become available through the various human genome projects will certainly gradually change the landscape of diagnosis and management of many diseases, including cancer.
Journal of Environmental Pathology Toxicology and Oncology 02/2003; 22(3):201-34. · 0.92 Impact Factor