Shunkichi Baba

Nippon Medical School, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (20)16.6 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The cochlin-tomoprotein (CTP) detection test can be used to make a definite, objective diagnosis of traumatic perilymphatic fistula (PLF), and therefore offers valuable information on patient selection for surgical treatment. Penetrating middle ear injury can cause traumatic PLF, which is a surgically treatable otologic emergency. Recently, we have reported on CTP, a novel perilymph-specific protein. The purpose of this study was to determine if the CTP detection test is useful for the diagnosis of traumatic PLF. This was a prospective study of CTP detection in penetrating middle ear injury cases with tympanic membrane perforation and hearing loss. A total of seven individuals were included in this study. CTP was detected in three of four cases with posterosuperior quadrant perforation of the tympanic membrane. In one of these three cases, even though the high resolution CT scan was not suggestive of PLF and the perilymph leakage could not be visualized intraoperatively, the CTP detection test was able to detect PLF. In two cases, the preoperative positive test results enabled us to make a diagnosis of PLF and a decision for surgical treatment. CTP was not detected in the cases with anterior or inferior tympanic membrane perforation.
    Acta oto-laryngologica 06/2011; 131(9):937-44. DOI:10.3109/00016489.2011.575795 · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: By testing 125 samples, we confirmed that Cochlin-tomoprotein (CTP) is present in the perilymph, not in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Perilymph and CSF exist in two distinct compartments, even in the case of a malformed inner ear with a bony defect in the lamina cribrosa, as described here. Cochleostomy might have suddenly decreased the perilymph pressure, allowing the influx of CSF into the inner ear resulting in profuse fluid leakage, first perilymph then CSF. The first purpose of this study was to further confirm the specificity of the perilymph-specific protein CTP that we reported recently. Secondly, we assessed the nature of the fluid leakage from the cochleostomy using the CTP detection test. A standardized CTP detection test was performed on 65 perilymph and 60 CSF samples. Samples of profuse fluid leakage collected from cochleostomy during cochlear implantation surgery of one patient with branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome were also tested by the CTP detection test. CTP was detected in 60 of 65 perilymph samples but not in any of the CSF samples. The leaked fluid was shown to contain CTP, i.e. perilymph, at the outset, and then the CTP detection signals gradually disappeared as time elapsed.
    Acta oto-laryngologica 08/2010; 130(8):881-7. DOI:10.3109/00016480903508910 · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Perilymphatic fistula (PLF) is an abnormal connection between the inner and middle ear. A procedure for obtaining definite proof of a PLF remains elusive, and methods of diagnosis remain controversial. To date, there is no clinically relevant biochemical marker for perilymph leakage. Using proteomic analysis of inner ear proteins, we have previously found unique properties of cochlin, encoded by the COCH gene. We detected 3 cochlin isoforms (p63s, p44s and p40s) in the inner ear tissue and a short 16-kDa isoform of cochlin-tomoprotein (CTP) in the perilymph. Since cochlin was found to be highly specific to the inner ear, we speculated that CTP might also be specific to the perilymph. The aim of this study was to determine whether CTP, a novel perilymph-specific protein, could be used as a marker for the diagnosis of PLF. By Western blotting, we investigated the specificity of CTP expression in a range of body fluids that included perilymph, serum, saliva and cerebrospinal fluid. To elucidate the detection limit of CTP, serially diluted recombinant human (rh)CTP as well as human perilymph was tested. CTP was selectively expressed in all 20 perilymph samples tested, but not in 77 samples of the other body fluids. The detection limit of rhCTP was 0.27 ng or 0.022 microl of perilymph per well on Western blot analysis. The results strongly suggest that CTP can be a specific marker of perilymph leakage. Moreover, CTP has the potential to be a biochemical marker that allows a definitive diagnosis of the etiology of PLF-related hearing loss and vestibular disorders.
    Audiology and Neurotology 05/2009; 14(5):338-44. DOI:10.1159/000212113 · 1.85 Impact Factor
  • 01/2009; 102(5):365-371. DOI:10.5631/jibirin.102.365
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    Manabu Nonaka · Akira Fukumoto · Reiko Nonaka · Chika Ozu · Shunkichi Baba
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    ABSTRACT: Onodi cells have been defined as posterior ethmoid cells that have pneumatized laterally and superiorly to the sphenoid sinus. They are often close to the optic nerve or the internal carotid artery. A patient complained of a sudden decrease in left eye visual acuity and left eye pain due to formation of a primary mucocele in an Onodi cell. A coronal computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging were useful for diagnosing the mucocele.
    Journal of Nippon Medical School 09/2007; 74(4):325-8. DOI:10.1272/jnms.74.325 · 0.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the case of a 59-year-old man with meningeal carcinomatosis (MC) who presented with peripheral facial palsy and progressive sensorineural deafness. The patient had been operated on for gastric cancer 1 year previously, and no metastases had been detected in the retroperitoneum or thorax at follow-up examination 1 year later. However, he developed headache, deafness, and peripheral facial palsy and was referred to us for further evaluation, as magnetic resonance of the head had shown no abnormalities. Ramsay Hunt syndrome was suspected, but no increase in the cerebrospinal fluid cell count was detected. On the other hand, the balance test suggested a central disorder. In addition, the plasma level of carcinoembryonic antigen suddenly increased, suggesting MC. The cerebrospinal fluid was examined several times; in the end malignant cells and an increase in the cell count were detected, and the diagnosis of MC was established.
    Journal of Nippon Medical School 09/2006; 73(4):240-3. DOI:10.1272/jnms.73.240 · 0.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the year 2000, the Otological Society of Japan proposed a new criteria to assess the levels of hearing known as Criteria 2000. However, these criteria are intended to assess pure tone threshold after tympanoplasty and the results do not necessarily reflect the hearing condition from the patient's perspective. Thus, it is essential to study the relationship between the subjective evaluation of post-operative hearing based on the patient's own assessment and the objective assessment by audiometry. The present study is a questionnaire-based survey on the levels of post-operative hearing in 460 patients whose degree of satisfaction with their levels of hearing was assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS). The hearing level was assessed based on the Criteria 2000 established by the Otological Society of Japan. The post-operative results indicated a success rate of 78.7%. According to the questionnaire-based survey, 64.4% patients considered their hearing as "improved". The average VAS score was the highest in the "improved" group and gradually decreased when in the "deteriorated" group. The highest success rate was obtained in patients who assessed their hearing as "improved" and the lowest rate was seen in those who assessed their hearing as "deteriorated". On the other hand, the success rate in the three groups, "slightly improved", "unchanged", and "slightly deteriorated", was almost similar and did not relate to the objective audiometry findings. Therefore, except for the "improved" and deteriorated" groups, there is no relation between the subjective self-assessment and the objective post-operative hearing. A bi-directional approach, one from an audiological (objective) and one from the patient's perspective (subjective), especially using VAS, is quite useful for the post-operative assessment of hearing.
    Auris Nasus Larynx 01/2005; 31(4):347-51. DOI:10.1016/j.anl.2004.03.010 · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sensory disturbance due to excision of the great auricular nerve in patients who have undergone parotidectomy sometimes causes discomfort to the patients. In order to reduce the postoperative discomfort of the pinna, we tried to preserve the posterior branch of the great auricular nerve. Forty patients with parotid tumor were included in this study. Twenty-one of these patients had pleomorphic adenoma, 16 had adenolymphoma and 3 had a low grade malignant tumor. Sensations of the pinna and the quality of life (QOL) after parotidectomy were evaluated using a 0-100 Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) assessed at 2 weeks, 1 month, 2 months, 3 months and 6 months after parotidectomy. The posterior branch of the great auricular nerve was preserved in 26 out of 40 patients (65%). No difference was observed in the incidence of complications except sensory disturbance of the pinna with this surgical procedure as compared to the surgical technique where the great auricular nerve was excised. The VAS score for the sensation was significantly higher in the group of patients whose great auricular nerve was preserved at 2 months (35.0+/-20.8 vs. 18.5+/-9.2), 3 months (64.4+/-18.3 vs. 26.4+/-13.8) and 6 months (66.9+/-16.2 vs. 26.6+/-11.4) after parotidectomy. The VAS score for the QOL was also significantly higher in the group of patients whose great auricular nerve was preserved at 2 months (50.3+/-21.8 vs. 35.1+/-14.5), 3 months (69.5+/-27.5 vs. 45.9+/-22.6) as well as 6 months (71.9+/-24.1 vs. 45.7+/-19.1) after parotidectomy. Preservation of the posterior branch of the great auricular nerve during parotidectomy is valuable in order to reduce the postoperative sensory disturbance of the pinna that follows conventional surgery. It further helps to improve the QOL of these patients after parotidectomy.
    Journal of Nippon Medical School 10/2004; 71(5):323-7. DOI:10.1272/jnms.71.323 · 0.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the usefulness of a CCD camera with infrared illumination (IR-CCD camera) over Frenzel glasses (F Glasses) for the observation of spontaneous nystagmus, the incidence and direction of nystagmus, and the frequency, amplitude and slow phase of spontaneous nystagmus. One hundred vertiginous patients, fifty-three females and forty-seven males participated in this study. Before undergoing routine neurotological examination, their eye movements were recorded by electronystagmogram (ENG) in conjunction with observations of eye movements under F glasses and through an IR-CCD camera. The data was collected from patients who exhibited spontaneous nystagmus either under F glasses or the IR-CCD camera. Thirty-three patients showed spontaneous nystagmus under F glasses. On the other hand, under the IR-CCD camera, all patients examined exhibited spontaneous nystagmus. The frequency of nystagmus was not significantly different between these two systems. However, the amplitude and slow phase velocity exhibited significantly larger values under the IR-CCD camera in patients with spontaneous nystagmus both under the IR-CCD camera and F glasses. From these observations and evidence, the IR-CCD camera can be recommended as a more useful system and powerful tool for neurotological examination than F glasses.
    Journal of Nippon Medical School 03/2004; 71(1):25-9. DOI:10.1272/jnms.71.25 · 0.59 Impact Factor
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    Shunkichi Baba · Toshiaki Yagi · Terumichi Fujikura
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    ABSTRACT: A questionnaire survey was conducted in 324 patients with chronic, simple, suppurative otitis media who had undergone tympanoplasty 6 months or more previously to investigate post-operative hearing, tinnitus, vertigo, occlusive feeling of the ear and otorrhea. In addition, the overall satisfaction with tympanoplasty was assessed by VAS value. Subjective hearing improvement was observed in 73.1% of the patients whose hearing was poor and in 50% of those whose hearing was good before the operation. The degree of satisfaction assessed by VAS value corresponded with the subjective hearing assessment. As to tinnitus, 66.2% of the patients became aware of the disappearance or alleviation of symptoms. In the case of patients who had tinnitus before the operation, the degree of awareness of tinnitus and the degree of satisfaction assessed by VAS value coincided. However, no changes in the VAS value were observed in those who did not have tinnitus before the operation. As for vertigo, 30.5% of the patients who had vertigo preoperatively became aware of the disappearance of the symptoms after the operation. The degree of satisfaction assessed by VAS value corresponded with the presence or absence, severity and frequency of vertigo. As to the fullness of the ear, alleviation of the symptoms was subjectively noted by 85.9% of the patients who had symptoms before the operation. The degree of satisfaction assessed by VAS value corresponded with the severity of the symptoms in those who had symptoms before the operation. As for otorrhea, the disappearance of the symptoms was subjectively noted by 85.5% of the patients who had otorrhea before the operation. The degree of satisfaction assessed by VAS value corresponded with the post-operative changes in otorrhea. Based on the above results, it was assumed that the patients placed greatest expectation on hearing improvement when they underwent tympanoplasty. VAS is considered a useful method to evaluate the degree of satisfaction of patients after surgery.
    Journal of Nippon Medical School 03/2004; 71(1):17-24. DOI:10.1272/jnms.71.17 · 0.59 Impact Factor
  • Shunkichi Baba · Tetsuo Ikezono · Ruby Pawankar · Toshiaki Yagi
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    ABSTRACT: In patients with middle ear malformations, one can expect an improvement in hearing following ear surgery. Thus, it is crucial for the ear surgeon to have an increased awareness of this disease. For a better understanding of this condition, 38 patients who underwent ear surgery were studied. All patients had congenital ossicular malformations but with an intact external ear. On the basis of our intra-operative observations, 15 cases were assigned to group A (single malformation) and 23 cases to group B (multiple malformations). The pre-operative air-conduction threshold in group B patients was higher than that in group A. Pre-operatively in group A 2 out of 20 ears had mild, 17 had moderate and 1 had severe hearing loss (HL). In group B, out of 25 ears, 3 had mild, 13 had moderate and 9 had severe HL. Post-operatively in group A, 2 had normal hearing, 16 had mild, 2 had moderate and none had severe HL. In group B, postoperatively 1 had normal hearing, 18 had mild, 4 moderate and 2 severe HL. Therefore, in patients with multiple middle ear malformations, the surgeon should know that the prospect of an improvement in the hearing threshold is rather low even after surgical reconstruction.
    ORL 02/2004; 66(2):74-9. DOI:10.1159/000077799 · 0.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cisplatin, an anti-cancer drug, is known to induce apoptosis. During apoptosis, double-stranded DNA is broken into single-stranded DNA by the action of caspases and caspase activated deoxyribonuclease (CAD). We immunohistochemically examined the cochlea of guinea pigs for signs of the apoptosis after the administration of cisplatin. Cisplatin (10 mg/kg b.w.) was intraperitoneally injected to guinea pigs and 3 days later, the animals were sacrificed by intracardiac perfusion of 4% paraformaldehyde. The temporal bones were then removed and immunohistochemically stained for CAD and caspase 3, using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labelling method. CAD was observed in the stria vascularis and the spiral ligament. Caspase 3 was also detected in the stria vascularis, the spiral ligament and the supporting cells of the organ of Corti. These findings suggest that apoptosis is involved in the cochlear damage observed in cancer patients treated with cisplatin.
    Auris Nasus Larynx 09/2003; 30(3):219-25. DOI:10.1016/S0385-8146(03)00049-X · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate eosinophil infiltration as well as IL-5 and eotaxin levels in middle ear effusion (MEE) and blood from otitis media with effusion (OME) patients with asthma and to compare the findings with those from OME patients without asthma (control group). Levels of IL-5 and eotaxin in MEE and blood were measured by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. 5 levels in MEE were significantly higher than those in blood in both groups of patients and in OME patients with asthma than in the control group. In addition, in OME patients with asthma, there was a significant correlation between the percentage of eosinophils and IL-5 levels in MEE. Eotaxin levels in blood were significantly higher than those in MEE in both groups of patients and in OME patients with asthma than in the control group. In addition, in OME patients with asthma, the percentage of eosinophils and eotaxin levels in blood tended to correlate, but did not reach statistical significance. These data suggest that, in OME patients with asthma, eosinophilia in MEE depends more on IL-5 than on eotaxin, and that eotaxin may play an important role in the mobilization of eosinophils from the bone marrow into the blood.
    Acta Oto-Laryngologica 05/2003; 123(3):383-7. · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cisplatin (CDDP) is known to cause inner ear damage while carboplatin (CBDCA) induces less ototoxicity than CDDP. We examined apoptotic changes in the cochlea of guinea pigs after injection of CDDP or CBDCA using immunohistochemical and electrophysiological techniques. Three days after the injection of each solution, the cochleas were immunohistochemically examined for the presence of fragments of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). The auditory brain stem response was recorded before and three days after the injection. We detected fragments of ssDNA in the stria vascularis and the spiral ligament of the CDDP-treated cochlea. In this group, the threshold of the auditory brainstem response was significantly elevated, however, in the CBDCA group, no apparent change of the threshold was detected. In the CBDCA group, fragments of ssDNA were detected in the stria vascularis and the spiral ligament. The number of cells that stained positive for ssDNA, was less than that in the CDDP group. Our findings indicate that CBDCA induces less apoptosis than CDDP and that this phenomenon contributes to the ototoxicity of CDDP.
    Chemotherapy 06/2002; 48(2):82-7. DOI:10.1159/000057667 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Variability in the location of parathyroid glands is well recognized. There are usually 4 parathyroid glands located in the area of the thyroid gland, but embryologically, they may be found anywhere from the angle of the jaw to the pericardium. We report a case of an ectopic parathyroid gland in the pyriform sinus. It appeared as a tumorous lesion in the pyriform sinus owing to progress of secondary hyperparathyroidism.
    Archives of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery 02/2002; 128(1):71-4. DOI:10.1001/archotol.128.1.71 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to clarify the pathological localization of horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (HC-BPPV), we performed 3D analysis of positional nystagmus in 11 patients with HC-BPPV. In addition, these results were compared with 3D analysis data of pressure nystagmus in patients with HC fistula. 3D analysis of nystagmus was carried out using a video image analysis system. In seven patients with HC-BPPV, the velocity vectors were well aligned with the axes of the HC and in four patients they were not. In addition, the 3D velocity vectors of the slow phase of pressure nystagmus in all 11 subjects with HC fistula were closely aligned with the axes of the HC. The pathology of HC-BPPV in most patients with apogeotropic positional nystagmus has been considered to be localized in the HC. However, our results strongly suggest that the pathology of HC-BPPV with geotropic nystagmus is localized in the utricle. This is the first report concerning the pathological localization of HC-BPPV based on physiological evidence.
    Acta Oto-Laryngologica 01/2002; 121(8):930-4. DOI:10.1080/000164801317166808 · 0.99 Impact Factor
  • K Watanabe · K Jinnouchi · S Baba · T Yagi
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    ABSTRACT: During the process of apoptosis, double-stranded DNA is broken into single-stranded DNA by the action of caspases and caspase-activated deoxyribonuclease. We immunohistochemically examined the apoptotic changes induced by cisplatin in the vestibule of guinea pigs. Cisplatin (10 mg/kg b.w.) was intraperitoneally injected into guinea pigs and, 3 days after the injection, the animals were sacrificed by intracardiac perfusion of fixative. The temporal bones were then removed and immunohistochemically stained for caspase-activated deoxyribonuclease or caspase 3. Both caspase-activated deoxyribonuclease and caspase 3 were observed in the dark cell area, transitional area and the sensory epithelium. These findings suggest that apoptosis is involved in the vestibular dysfunction of the CDDP-treated patients.
    Anticancer research 01/2001; 21(6A):3929-32. · 1.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a case of IgA nephropathy associated with chronic tonsillitis. The patient had experienced continuous microhematuria, repeated proteinuria and visible hematuria every time when he had acute tonsillitis. Both proteinuria and microhematuria were worse after tonsillar provocation. Because of these results and history, this patient underwent with tonsillectomy. Proteinuria and microhematuria were disappeared two and three months after the operation, respectively. Levels of both serum IgA and urinary IL-6 were slightly higher than the normal levels before the operation. Serum IgA was decreased to the normal level one month after the operation. Urinary IL-6 was also decreased to normal two months after the operation. It is known that there is a correlation between the levels of urinary IL-6 and the pathological stage of mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (mesPGN), and that high urinary IL-6 activity indicates the histological progression of mesPGN including IgA nephropathy. The decrease of urinary IL-6 after the operation indicates the pathological improvement of the kidneys in this patient. Our observations suggest that the measurement of urinary IL-6 is helpful for monitoring not only the progression but also the improvement after tonsillectomy of pathological changes of the kidneys in IgA nephropathy.
    01/2000; 93(2):131-134. DOI:10.5631/jibirin.93.131
  • K Watanabe · T Kamio · D Ohkawara · H Aoki · S Baba · T Yagi
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    ABSTRACT: We performed Band Noise Masker (BNM) therapy for the suppression of tinnitus in 600 patients and measured the pitch, loudness and masking level of tinnitus and residual inhibition (RI). We examined the efficiency of BNM therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of suppression of tinnitus by BNM. Tinnitus was suppressed in 394 patients (66%) after BNM therapy. In the group of patients in whom we suppressed tinnitus, the loudness of tinnitus was reduced from 7.7 +/- 5.7dBSL to 7.5 +/- 5.5dBSL (p < 0.05) and the pitch of tinnitus did not exhibit a marked change. In the group of patients in whom we did not suppress tinnitus, the loudness and pitch of tinnitus did not exhibit a marked change. The efficiency of BNM therapy was high in the cases of presbyacusis and low in the cases of sudden deafness. There was no significant relationship between RI and the efficiency of BNM therapy. We examined these data and discussed the mechanism of suppression of tinnitus by BNM therapy. In all cases, after BNM therapy, the auditory threshold did not become worse. In 4 cases tinnitus became worse temporarily. In conclusion, BNM therapy is an effective mode for tinnitus control, is easily performed in our outpatient clinic or at home, and has no serious complications.
    Nippon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho 09/1997; 100(9):920-6. DOI:10.3950/jibiinkoka.100.920
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the origin, and evaluate the mechanism by which tinnitus is suppressed we performed electrical promontory stimulation (EPS) in 56 patients with tinnitus, and measured the compound action potential (CAP) using electrocochleography before and after EPS. In the group of patients in whom tinnitus was suppressed, the CAP amplitudes increased significantly, whereas the latencies showed no remarkable change. In the group of patients in whom tinnitus was not suppressed, both the CAP amplitudes and latencies exhibited no significant change. These data indicate that the effect on the cochlear nerve plays an important role in the suppression of tinnitus by EPS. The CAP reflects the number of the auditory nerve fibers which discharge synchronously. It is speculated that an increase of the CAP amplitudes is caused by synchronizing discharges of the auditory nerve fibers, and that the mechanism by which EPS suppresses tinnitus may be related to synchronizing these discharges.
    Audiology: official organ of the International Society of Audiology 01/1997; 36(3):147-54. DOI:10.3109/00206099709071968