Yoshiko Shimizu

Kyorin University, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (9)100.59 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Parkin mutations are responsible for the pathogenesis of autosomal-recessive juvenile parkinsonism (AR-JP). On initial screening of Japanese patients with AR-JP, we had found that approximately half of the parkin mutations are deletions occurring between exons 2 and 5, forming a deletion hot spot. In this study, we investigated the deletion breakpoints of the parkin mutations in 22 families with AR-JP and examined the possible association between these deletion events and meiotic recombinations. We identified 18 deletion breakpoints at the DNA nucleotide sequence level. Almost all these deletions were different, indicating that the deletion hot spot was generated by recurrent but independent events. We found no association between the deletions and specific DNA elements. Recent copy number variation (CNV) data from various ethnic groups showed that the deletion hot spot is overlapped by a highly polymorphic CNV region, indicating that the recurrent deletion mutation or CNV is observable worldwide. By comparing Marshfield and deCODE linkage maps, we found that the parkin deletion hot spot may be associated with a meiotic recombination hot spot, although such association was not found on comparison with recent high-resolution genetic maps generated from the International HapMap project. Here, we discuss the possible mechanisms for deletion hot spot formation and its effects on human genomes.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/2009; 389(1):181-6. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Among the salivary gland carcinomas, carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma has been regarded as a representative carcinoma type which arises secondarily in the background of a pre-existent benign pleomorphic adenoma. It is still poorly understood how and which benign pleomorphic adenoma cells transform into its malignant form, carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. We have established five cell systems from a benign pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland of a 61-year-old woman. They were characterized by immunofluorescence, classical cytogenetics, p53 gene mutational analysis, fluorescence in-situ hybridization, and histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations of their xenografts, to demonstrate their potency of secondary transformation. We established and characterized five cell systems (designated as SM-AP1 to SM-AP5) from a benign pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland. SM-AP1 to SM-AP3 showed polygonal cell shapes while SM-AP4 and SM-AP5 were spindle-shaped. SM-AP1-3 cells were immunopositive for keratin only, indicating their duct-epithelial or squamous cell differentiation, while SM-AP4/5 cells were positive for both keratin and S-100 protein, indicating their myoepithelial cell differentiation. Chromosome analyses showed numeral abnormalities such as 5n ploidies and various kinds of structural abnormalities, such as deletions, translocations, derivatives and isodicentric chromosomes. Among them, der(9)t(9;13)(p13.3;q12.3) was shared by all five of the cell systems. In addition, they all had a common deletion of the last base G of codon 249 (AGG to AG_) of the p53 gene, which resulted in generation of its nonsense gene product. Transplanted cells in nude mice formed subcutaneous tumors, which had histological features of squamous cell carcinoma with apparent keratinizing tendencies. In addition, they had ductal arrangements or plasmacytoid appearances of tumor cells and myxoid or hyaline stromata, indicating some characteristics of pleomorphic adenoma. This study demonstrates in vitro that certain cell types from pleomorphic adenoma are able to clone and survive over a long term and develop subcutaneous tumors in nude mice. The histological features of squamous cell carcinoma from the transplanted cell systems in nude mice might suggest a secondary onset of malignancy from a pre-existing benign adenoma.
    BMC Cancer 02/2009; 9:247. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The gene DSCR4 locates in the band q22.2 of human chromosome 21 and encodes a protein of 118 amino acids. Expression of DSCR4 is restricted to human placenta and placental choriocarcinoma cell lines BeWo and JEG3. The 5'-RACE method using RNA from human placenta indicated the major transcription start site at 93 nt upstream (nt -93) of the initiation codon. Transfection assay using a series of deletion constructs of the 5'-flanking region fused to the luciferase reporter gene identified three positive regions nt -2200 to -2088, nt -2064 to -1924, nt -810 to -632 and two negative regions nt -1923 to -1740, nt -631 to -425. The computer analysis predicted the presence of several cis-elements in these regions and the promoter assay using various mutants of consensus sequence identified two distinct cis-elements for OLF-1 and E47. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) using the extracts of DSCR4-expressing cells confirmed the binding of certain protein factors to these cis-elements. In fact, OLF-1-like transcription factor, EBF-3 and EBF-4 were detected in the DSCR4-expressing cell lines and human placenta. Based on these data, we postulated that transcription of DSCR4 gene is regulated positively by binding of OLF-1-like transcription factor and negatively by binding of E47-like transcription factor.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 02/2008; 1779(1):40-50. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Publisher regrets that this article is an accidental duplication of an article that has already been published in Biochem. Biophys. Acta, doi:10.1016/j.bbagrm.2007.09.005. The duplicate article has therefore been withdrawn.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 11/2007; · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human single-minded 2 (SIM2) is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix/Per-Arnt-Sim (bHLH/PAS) family of transcription factors and is associated with the etiology of Down syndrome phenotype. Here, we examined a possibility of the post-translational modification of SIM2 protein by transfecting various expression constructs followed by the analysis with immunoprecipitation and Western blotting. In fact, transient expression of SIM2 cDNA in HEK293 cells revealed poly-ubiquitination of SIM2 protein. In the stable transfectants, a proteasome inhibitor MG132 protected the poly-ubiquitinated SIM2 protein from degradation. Furthermore, in the cells co-transfected with SIM2 and each of four different E3 ubiquitin ligases, SIM2 was immunoprecipitated with the RING-IBR-RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligases, Parkin and HHARI, but it was not immunoprecipitated with other E3 ligases, such as one RING-type Siah-1 and the PHD type AIRE. A series of deletion constructs revealed that Parkin actually binds to SIM2 with the IBR (294-377)-RING2 (378-465) domains and that the sites for poly-ubiquitination of SIM2 reside within the PAS1-PAS2 region (aa 141-289). We postulated that transcription factor SIM2 and E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin may interact each other to play an important physiological role in the brain development which is controlled by ubiquitination.
    Experimental Cell Research 10/2005; 309(1):220-8. · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The sequence of the human genome encodes the genetic instructions for human physiology, as well as rich information about human evolution. In 2001, the International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium reported a draft sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome. Since then, the international collaboration has worked to convert this draft into a genome sequence with high accuracy and nearly complete coverage. Here, we report the result of this finishing process. The current genome sequence (Build 35) contains 2.85 billion nucleotides interrupted by only 341 gaps. It covers approximately 99% of the euchromatic genome and is accurate to an error rate of approximately 1 event per 100,000 bases. Many of the remaining euchromatic gaps are associated with segmental duplications and will require focused work with new methods. The near-complete sequence, the first for a vertebrate, greatly improves the precision of biological analyses of the human genome including studies of gene number, birth and death. Notably, the human genome seems to encode only 20,000-25,000 protein-coding genes. The genome sequence reported here should serve as a firm foundation for biomedical research in the decades ahead.
    Nature 10/2004; 431:931-945. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    Nature 10/2004; 431(7011):931-945. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human Single-minded 1 (SIM1) and SIM2 genes were found as homologs of Drosophila sim gene which plays a key role in the midline cell lineage of the central nervous system. SIM proteins belong to a family of transcription factors, called bHLH/PAS. Here we examined the intracellular localization of SIM proteins using the expression constructs of whole SIM2 or SIM1 protein fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The transient expression analysis revealed the nuclear localization of SIM proteins in the cultured cells. To identify the nuclear localization signal, we made expression constructs of EGFP-fusion protein consisting of various portions of SIM proteins. Transfection assay showed the presence of NLS activity in the small region of 23 and 21 amino acid residues at the central part of SIM2 and SIM1 proteins, respectively. Further analysis with amino acid substitution of this small region of SIM2 protein revealed the critical role of five amino acid residues (Arg367, Lys373, Pro385, Tyr386, and Gln389) in NLS activity. The consensus sequence of RKxxKx[K/R]xxxxKxKxRxxPY was estimated as a presumptive NLS in SIM proteins from various species. Thus, the NLS consisting of a cluster of basic amino acids with Pro and Tyr at the C-terminal end is novel and well conserved in the SIM proteins during evolution.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2004; 313(3):482-8. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is one of the most common hereditary disorders. The prevalence of the ADPKD genotype in the Caucasian and Latin populations has been reported. Here, we used linkage analysis to demonstrate the prevalence of the genotype and the correlation between phenotypes and genotypes among 21 Japanese ADPKD families consisting of 96 individuals and including 57 affected members. Six polymorphic markers, each linked to either the polycystic kidney disease 1 (PKD1) or polycystic kidney disease 2 (PKD2) gene, were used for polymerase chain reaction analysis. Seventeen families (81%) showed linkage to PKD1, two families (10%) showed linkage to PKD2, and two families did not show linkage to either PKD1 or PKD2. One of the PKD1-linked families was indicated to have different mutations of PKD1 gene in the same family. PKD2-linked families did not have milder symptoms than PKD1-linked families.
    Journal of Human Genetics 02/2002; 47(1):51-4. · 2.37 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

107 Citations
100.59 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002–2009
    • Kyorin University
      • School of Health Sciences
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • Tokai University
      • School of Health Sciences
      Hiratuka, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 2005
    • Keio University
      • Department of Molecular Biology
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan

Disciplines