[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements generally respond to ALK inhibitors such as crizotinib. However, some patients with EML4-ALK rearrangements respond poorly to crizotinib. Hypoxia is involved in the resistance to chemotherapeutic treatments in several cancers, and we investigated the association between the responses to ALK inhibitors and hypoxia. Sensitivity of the H3122 NSCLC cell line (EML4-ALK rearrangement) to ALK inhibitors (crizotinib or alectinib) was investigated during a normoxic or hypoxic state using an MTT assay. We found that the cell line was resistant to the inhibitors during hypoxia. Hypoxia mediated morphologic changes, including cell scattering and the elongation of the cell shape, that are characteristic of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). A migration assay demonstrated that the number of migrating cells increased significantly during hypoxia, compared with during normoxia. Regarding EMT-related molecules, the expressions of slug, vimentin, and fibronectin were increased while that of E-cadherin was decreased by hypoxia. In addition, hypoxia inducible factor 1A-knockdown cancelled the hypoxia-induced EMT and resistance. Our findings indicate that hypoxia induces resistance to ALK inhibitors in NSCLC with an EML4-ALK rearrangement via the EMT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The KIAA1199 gene was first discovered to be associated with non-syndromic hearing loss. Recently, several reports have shown that the up-regulation of KIAA1199 is associated with cancer cell migration or invasion and a poor prognosis. These findings indicate that KIAA1199 may be a novel target for cancer therapy. Therefore, we explored in detail the function of KIAA1199 in cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the interaction of KIAA1199 protein with intracellular proteins in cancer cells. To this end, we expressed KIAA1199-MBP fusion protein and performed a pull-down assay. In addition, KIAA1199-overexpressing cancer cell lines were constructed using a retroviral vector and were used for further experiments. A pull-down analysis showed that the glycogen phosphorylase kinase β-subunit (PHKB) interacted with the C-terminal region of KIAA1199 protein. Furthermore, we observed the interaction of KIAA1199 with glycogen phosphorylase brain form (PYGB) under serum-free conditions. The interaction promoted glycogen breakdown and cancer cell survival. Our findings indicate that KIAA1199 plays an important role in glycogen breakdown and cancer cell survival and that it may represent a novel target for cancer therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chromosomal band 11q13 seems to be one of the most frequently amplified lesions in human cancer, including esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC). The oral cancer overexpressed 1 (ORAOV1) gene has been identified within this region, but its detailed biological function in human ESCC remains largely unclear. In our clinical samples of stage III ESCC, ORAOV1 amplification was observed in 49 of 94 cases (53%). ORAOV1 amplification was significantly associated with a poorly differentiated histology and tumors located in the upper or middle esophagus. Patients with ORAOV1 amplification tended to have a shorter survival period, although the difference was not significant. To investigate the function of ORAOV1, we created ORAOV1--overexpressed ESCC cell lines that exhibited increased cellular proliferation and colony formation, compared with in vitro controls. In vivo, ORAOV1-overexpressed cells exhibited a significantly increased tumorigenicity and a significantly larger tumor volume and poorer differentiation than controls. The peptide mass fingerprinting technique demonstrated that ORAOV1 bound to pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (PYCR), which is associated with proline metabolism and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Then, ORAOV1-overexpressed cell lines were resistant to stress treatment, which was cancelled by PYCR-knockdown. In addition, the ORAOV1-overexpressed cell line had a higher intracellular proline concentration and a lower ROS level. Our findings indicate that the ORAOV1 gene is frequently amplified in ESCC, enhances tumorigenicity and tumor growth, and is associated with a poorly differentiated tumor histology via proline metabolism and ROS production. ORAOV1 could be a novel target for the treatment of ESCC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor, beta (TGFB) signal is considered to be a tumor suppressive pathway based on the frequent genomic deletion of the SMAD4 gene in pancreatic cancer (PC); however; the role of the activin signal, which also belongs to the TGFB superfamily, remains largely unclear.Methods and results: We found a homozygous deletion of the activin A receptor, type IB (ACVR1B) gene in 2 out of 8 PC cell lines using array-comparative genomic hybridization, and the absence of ACVR1B mRNA and protein expression was confirmed in these 2 cell lines. Activin A stimulation inhibited cellular growth and increased the phosphorylation level of SMAD2 and the expression level of p21CIP1/WAF1 in the Sui66 cell line (wild-type ACVR1B and SMAD4 genes) but not in the Sui68 cell line (homozygous deletion of ACVR1B gene). Stable ACVR1B-knockdown using short hairpin RNA cancelled the effects of activin A on the cellular growth of the PC cell lines. In addition, ACVR1B-knockdown significantly enhanced the cellular growth and colony formation abilities, compared with controls. In a xenograft study, ACVR1B-knockdown resulted in a significantly elevated level of tumorigenesis and a larger tumor volume, compared with the control. Furthermore, in clinical samples, 6 of the 29 PC samples (20.7%) carried a deletion of the ACVR1B gene, while 10 of the 29 samples (34.5%) carried a deletion of the SMAD4 gene. Of note, 5 of the 6 samples with a deletion of the ACVR1B gene also had a deletion of the SMAD4 gene.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tissue distribution and function of hemoglobin or myoglobin are well known; however, a newly found cytoglobin (CYGB), which also belongs to the globin family, remains to be characterized. To assess its expression in human malignancies, we sought to screen a number of cell lines originated from many tissues using northern blotting and real time PCR techniques. Unexpectedly, we found that several, but not all, melanoma cell lines expressed CYGB mRNA and protein at much higher levels than cells of other origins. Melanocytes, the primary origin of melanoma, also expressed CYGB at a high level. To verify these observations, immunostaining and immunoblotting using anti-CYGB antibody were also performed. Bisulfite-modified genomic sequencing revealed that several melanoma cell lines that abrogated CYGB expression were found to be epigenetically regulated by hypermethylation in the promoter region of CYGB gene. The RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the CYGB transcript in CYGB expression-positive melanoma cell lines resulted in increased proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Flow cytometric analysis using 2'-, 7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA), an indicator of reactive oxygen species (ROS), revealed that the cellular ROS level may be involved in the proliferative effect of CYGB. Thus, CYGB appears to play a tumor suppressive role as a ROS regulator, and its epigenetic silencing, as observed in CYGB expression-negative melanoma cell lines, might function as an alternative pathway in the melanocyte-to-melanoma transition.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(4):e94772. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: POU5F1B (POU domain class 5 transcription factor 1B), a processed pseudogene that is highly homologous to OCT4, was recently shown to be transcribed in cancer cells, but its clinical relevance and biological function have remained unclear. We now show that POU5F1B, which is located adjacent to MYC on human chromosome 8q24, is frequently amplified in gastric cancer (GC) cell lines. POU5F1B, but not OCT4, was also found to be expressed at a high level in GC cell lines and clinical specimens. In addition, the DNA copy number and mRNA abundance for POU5F1B showed a positive correlation in both cancer cell lines and GC specimens. Overexpression of POU5F1B in GC cells promoted colony formation in vitro as well as both tumorigenicity and tumor growth in vivo, and these effects were enhanced in the additional presence of MYC overexpression. Furthermore, knockdown of POU5F1B expression with a short hairpin RNA confirmed a role for the endogenous pseudogene in the promotion of cancer cell growth in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. POU5F1B overexpression induced upregulation of various growth factors in GC cells as well as exhibited mitogenic, angiogenic and antiapoptotic effects in GC xenografts. Finally, amplification of POU5F1B was detected in 17 (12%) of 145 cases of GC and was a significant predictor of poor prognosis in patients with stage IV disease. In conclusion, we found that the POU5F1B pseudogene is amplified and expressed at a high level in, as well as confers an aggressive phenotype on, GC, and that POU5F1B amplification is associated with a poor prognosis in GC patients.Oncogene advance online publication, 23 December 2013; doi:10.1038/onc.2013.547.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The heparan sulfate sulfotransferase gene family catalyzes the transfer of sulfate groups to heparan sulfate and regulates various growth factor-receptor signaling pathways. However, the involvement of this gene family in cancer biology has not been elucidated. It was demonstrated that the heparan sulfate D-glucosaminyl 6-O-sulfotransferase-2 (HS6ST2) gene is overexpressed in colorectal cancer (CRC) and its clinical significance in patients with CRC was investigated. The mRNA levels of HS6ST2 in clinical CRC samples and various cancer cell lines were assessed using a microarray analysis and quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. An immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of the HS6ST2 protein was performed using 102 surgical specimens of CRC. The correlations between the HS6ST2 expression status and clinicopathological characteristics were then evaluated. HS6ST2 mRNA was significantly overexpressed by 37-fold in CRC samples compared to paired colonic mucosa. High levels of HS6ST2 mRNA expression were also observed in colorectal, esophageal and lung cancer cell lines. The IHC analysis demonstrated that HS6ST2 was expressed in the cytoplasmic region of CRC cells, but not in normal colonic mucosal cells. Positive staining for HS6ST2 was detected in 40 patients (39.2%). There was no significant association between the clinicopathological characteristics and HS6ST2 expression. However, positive staining for HS6ST2 was associated with a poor survival (P=0.074, log-rank test). In conclusion, HS6ST2 was found to be overexpressed in CRC and its expression tended to be a poor prognostic factor, although the correlation was not significant. These findings indicate that HS6ST2 may be a novel cancer-related marker that may provide insight into the glycobiology of CRC.
Molecular and clinical oncology. 09/2013; 1(5):845-850.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the influence of novel supramolecular substance,  rotaxane (TRO-A0001), on caspase signaling and cell viability in cancer cell lines. TRO-A0001 suppressed concentration-dependently cell proliferation. Expression of the cleaved-form caspase-3 and PARP was significantly increased in cells exposed to TRO-A0001. The expression of Bax was increased by TRO-A0001. Furthermore, the down-regulation of Bax by siRNA resulted in growth activation significantly. The morphological analysis demonstrated that TRO-A0001 increased the levels of apoptotic cells in human cancer cell lines. These results suggest that TRO-A0001 induces apoptosis in cancer cells and holds potential as a new anti-tumor medicine.
Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 06/2013; · 2.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A secondary epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation, the substitution of threonine 790 with methionine (T790M), leads to acquired resistance to reversible EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). A non-invasive method for detecting T790M mutation would be desirable to direct patient treatment strategy. Plasma DNA samples were obtained after discontinuation of gefitinib or erlotinib in 75 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). T790M mutation was amplified using the SABER (single allele base extension reaction) technique and analyzed using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. We examined the T790M mutation status in plasma samples obtained after treatment with an EGFR-TKI. The SABER assay sensitivity using mixed oligonucleotides was determined to be 0.3%. The T790M mutation was detected in 21 of the 75 plasma samples (28%). The presence of the T790M mutation was confirmed by subcloning into sequencing vectors and sequencing in 14 of the 21 samples (66.6%). In this cohort of 75 patients, the median progression-free survival (PFS) of the patients with the T790M mutation (n = 21) was not statistically different from that of the patients without the mutation (n = 54, P = 0.94). When patients under 65 years of age who had a partial response were grouped according to their plasma T790M mutation status, the PFS of the T790M-positive patients (n = 11) was significantly shorter than that of the T790M-negative patients (n = 29, P = 0.03). The SABER method is a feasible means of determining the plasma T790M mutation status and could potentially be used to monitor EGFR-TKI therapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcription factor Slug/SNAI2 (snail homolog 2) plays a key role in the induction of the epithelial mesenchymal transition in cancer cells; however, whether the overexpression of Slug mediates the malignant phenotype and alters drug sensitivity in lung cancer cells remains largely unclear. We investigated Slug focusing on its biological function and involvement in drug sensitivity in lung cancer cells. Stable Slug transfectants showed typical morphological changes compared with control cells. Slug overexpression did not change the cellular proliferations; however, migration activity and anchorage-independent growth activity with an antiapoptotic effect were increased. Interestingly, stable Slug overexpression increased drug sensitivity to tubulin-binding agents including vinorelbine, vincristine, and paclitaxel (5.8- to 8.9-fold increase) in several lung cancer cell lines but did not increase sensitivity to agents other than tubulin-binding agents. Real-time RT-PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and western blotting revealed that Slug overexpression downregulated the expression of βIII and βIVa-tubulin, which is considered to be a major factor determining sensitivity to tubulin-binding agents. A luciferase reporter assay confirmed that Slug suppressed the promoter activity of βIVa-tubulin at a transcriptional level. Slug overexpression enhanced tumor growth, whereas Slug overexpression increased drug sensitivity to vinorelbine with the downregulation of βIII and βIV-tubulin in vivo. Immunohistochemistry of Slug with clinical lung cancer samples showed that Slug overexpression tended to be involved in response to tubulin-binding agents. In conclusion, our data indicate that Slug mediates an aggressive phenotype including enhanced migration activity, anoikis suppression, and tumor growth, but increases sensitivity to tubulin-binding agents via the downregulation of βIII and βIVa-tubulin in lung cancer cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molecular targeted therapy is expected to be a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC); however, the gene amplification status of molecular targeted genes in ESCC remains largely unclear. The gene amplification of EGFR, HER2, FGFR2 and MET was examined using a real-time PCR-based copy number assay of 245 ESCC surgical specimens of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and comparative genomic hybridization analyses verified the results of the copy number assay. EGFR mutation was detected using the Scorpions-ARMS method. The EGFR status and drug sensitivity to an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor was then evaluated in vitro. Gene amplification of EGFR and HER2 was observed in 7% (16/244) and 11% (27/245) of the ESCC specimens. A multivariate analysis revealed that HER2 amplification was a significant predictor of a poor prognosis in patients with stage III post-operative ESCC. The L861Q type of EGFR mutation with hypersensitivity to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor was found in one of the eight ESCC cell lines and one del745 type of EGFR mutation was identified in 107 clinical samples. In addition, we demonstrated for the first time that FGFR2 amplification was observed in 4% (8/196) of the ESCC specimens. MET amplification was observed in 1% (2/196). In conclusion, the frequent gene amplification of EGFR, HER2 and FGFR2 and the presence of active EGFR mutations were observed in ESCC specimens. Our results strongly encourage the development of molecular targeted therapy for ESCC.
International Journal of Oncology 04/2013; 42(4):1151-8. · 2.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aspirin-induced enteropathy is now increasingly being recognized although the pathogenesis of small intestinal damage induced by aspirin is not well understood and related risk factors have not been established.
To investigate pharmacogenomic profile of low dose aspirin (LDA)-induced small bowel bleeding.
Genome-wide analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was performed using the Affymetrix DMET™ Plus Premier Pack. Genotypes of candidate genes associated with small bowel bleeding were determined using TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assay kits and direct sequencing.
In the validation study in overall 37 patients with small bowel bleeding and 400 controls, 4 of 27 identified SNPs: CYP4F11 (rs1060463) GG (p=0.003), CYP2D6 (rs28360521) GG (p=0.02), CYP24A1 (rs4809957) T allele (p=0.04), and GSTP1 (rs1695) G allele (p=0.04) were significantly more frequent in the small bowel bleeding group compared to the controls. After adjustment for significant factors, CYP2D6 (rs28360521) GG (OR 4.11, 95% CI. 1.62 -10.4) was associated with small bowel bleeding.
CYP4F11 and CYP2D6 SNPs may identify patients at increased risk for aspirin-induced small bowel bleeding.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e84244. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The biological basis for cancer of unknown primary (CUP) at the molecular level remains largely unknown, with no evidence of whether a common biological entity exists. Here, we assessed the possibility of identifying a common diagnostic biomarker for CUP using a microarray gene expression analysis.
Tumor mRNA samples from 60 patients with CUP were analyzed using the Affymetrix U133A Plus 2.0 GeneChip and were normalized by asinh (hyperbolic arc sine) transformation to construct a mean gene-expression profile specific to CUP. A gene-expression profile specific to non-CUP group was constructed using publicly available raw microarray datasets. The t-tests were performed to compare the CUP with non-CUP groups and the top 59 CUP specific genes with the highest fold change were selected (p-value<0.001).
Among the 44 genes that were up-regulated in the CUP group, 6 genes for ribosomal proteins were identified. Two of these genes (RPS7 and RPL11) are known to be involved in the Mdm2-p53 pathway. We also identified several genes related to metastasis and apoptosis, suggesting a biological attribute of CUP.
The protein products of the up-regulated and down-regulated genes identified in this study may be clinically useful as unique biomarkers for CUP.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(5):e63249. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: : Approximately 50% of lung cancer patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutations (deletion in exon 19 or L858R) who develop acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) reportedly carry a secondary EGFR T790M mutation. This mutation has been suggested to be present in tumor cells before EGFR-TKI treatment in a small population of individuals. Here, we use a highly sensitive colony hybridization technique in an attempt to evaluate the actual incidence of T790M in pretreatment tumor specimens.
: DNA was extracted from surgically resected tumor tissues of 38 patients with the EGFR mutation and examined for the presence of T790M, using a standard polymerase chain reaction based method followed by a modified colony hybridization (CH) technique with an analytical sensitivity of approximately 0.01%. Associations between the T790M status and clinical characteristics including time to treatment failure (TTF) for EGFR-TKI were evaluated.
: The T790M mutation analysis of the specimens from the 38 patients detected 30 mutants (79%). The median TTF was 9 months for the patients with pretreatment T790M and 7 months for the patients without the T790M mutation (p = 0.44). When the patients with T790M were divided into strongly positive and modestly positive subgroups in terms of the frequency of positive signals observed using CH technique, the 7 patients with strong positivity had a TTF that was significantly longer than that of the 8 patients without T790M (p = 0.0097) and of the 23 patients with modest positivity (p = 0.0019).
: Our highly sensitive CH method showed that a subgroup of non-small-cell lung cancer patients with the EGFR mutation harbored the rare T790M allele before EGFR-TKI treatment. A high proportion of T790M allele may define a clinical subset with a relatively favorable prognosis.
Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 08/2012; 7(11):1640-4. · 4.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The presence of the transforming fusion gene echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a predictive marker for the efficacy of anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitors. However, the currently available assays for the detection of the different variants of EML4-ALK have limitations.
We developed an assay system for the detection of EML4-ALK variants 1, 2, 3a, 3b, 4, 5a, 5b, 6, or 7 transcripts in total RNA obtained from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens of NSCLC tissue. The assay is based on region-specific polymerase chain reaction amplification of EML4-ALK complementary DNA followed by specific single-base primer extension and analysis of the extension products by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. The assay was validated by fluorescence in situ hybridization and the results confirmed by subcloning and sequencing of polymerase chain reaction products.
Evaluation of the analytic sensitivity of the assay with serial dilutions of plasmids containing EML4-ALK complementary DNA sequences revealed it to be capable of the reliable detection of one copy of each plasmid per reaction. The assay also detected EML4-ALK variants 1 or 3 in three FFPE samples of surgically resected NSCLC shown to be positive for anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangement by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Furthermore, the assay identified variant 1 of EML4-ALK in 3 of 20 FFPE biopsy samples from patients with advanced NSCLC. All positive samples were confirmed by subcloning and sequencing.
Our novel assay is highly sensitive and effective for the detection of EML4-ALK in FFPE specimens.
Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 05/2012; 7(5):913-8. · 4.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic differences in individuals with regard to opioid-receptor signaling create clinical difficulties for opioid treatment; consequently, useful pharmacodynamic and predictive biomarkers are needed. In this prospective study, we studied gene expression changes in peripheral blood leukocytes using a microarray and real-time RT-PCR analysis to identify pharmacodynamic biomarkers for monitoring the effect of morphine in a cohort of opioid-treatment-naïve cancer patients. We also examined genetic variations in opioid receptor mu 1 (OPRM1, 118A→G) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT, 472G→A) to evaluate predictive biomarkers of the treatment outcome of morphine. The plasma concentration of morphine was measured using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Microarray analysis revealed that the mRNA expression levels of arrestin β 1 (ARRB1) were significantly down-regulated by morphine treatment. Real-time RT-PCR analysis against independent samples confirmed the results (P=0.003) and changes during treatment were negatively correlated with the plasma morphine concentration (R=-0.42). No correlation was observed between the genotype of OPRM1 and morphine treatment; however, the plasma concentration of morphine and the required dose of morphine were significantly lower for the A/A genotype of COMT (vs. A/G+G/G, P=0.008 and 0.03). We found that changes in the expression of ARRB1 may be a novel pharmacodynamic biomarker and the COMT 472G→A genotype may be a predictive biomarker of the response to morphine treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The involvement of the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the process of corneal wound healing remains largely unclear. The purpose of the present study was to gain insight into Slug expression and corneal wound healing.
Slug expression during wound healing in the murine cornea was evaluated using fluorescence staining in vivo. Slug or Snail was stably introduced into human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs). These stable transfectants were evaluated for the induction of the EMT, cellular growth, migration activity, and expression changes in differentiation-related molecules.
Slug, but not Snail, was clearly expressed in the nuclei of corneal epithelial cells in basal lesion of the corneal epithelium during wound healing in vivo. The overexpression of Slug or Snail induced an EMT-like cellular morphology and cadherin switching in HCECs, indicating that these transcription factors were able to mediate the typical EMT in HCECs. The overexpression of Slug or Snail suppressed cellular proliferation but enhanced the migration activity. Furthermore, ABCG2, TP63, and keratin 19, which are known as stemness-related molecules, were downregulated in these transfectants.
It was found that Slug is upregulated during corneal wound healing in vivo. The overexpression of Slug mediated a change in the cellular phenotype affecting proliferation, migration, and expression levels of differentiation-related molecules. This is the first evidence that Slug is regulated during the process of corneal wound healing in the corneal epithelium in vivo, providing a novel insight into the EMT and Slug expression in corneal wound healing.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whole genome-scale integrated analyses of exon array and array-comparative genomic hybridization are expected to enable the identification of unknown genetic features of cancer cells. Here, we evaluated this approach in 22 gastric and colorectal cancer cell lines, focusing on protein kinase genes and genes belonging to the cadherin-catenin family. Regarding alternative splicing patterns, several cancer cell lines predominantly expressed isoform 1 of protein kinase A catalytic subunit beta (PRKACB). Paired gastric cancer specimens demonstrated that isoform 1 of PRKACB was a novel cancer-related variant transcript in gastric cancers. In addition, the exon array analysis clearly identified exon 3 or exon 3-4 skipping in catenin beta 1, a short intron insertion with exon 9 skipping in CDH1, and a deletional transcript of CDH13. These abnormal transcripts were shown to have arisen from small genomic deletions. Meanwhile, an integrated analysis of 11 gastric cancer cell lines revealed that four cell lines amplified fibroblast growth factor receptor 2, with truncated forms observed in two of the cell lines. Gene amplification, and not the truncated form, was found to determine the sensitivity to a fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitor, indicating that our cell line panel might be useful for cell-based evaluations of specific inhibitors. Using an integrated analysis, we identified several abnormal transcripts and genomic alterations in gastric and colorectal cancer cells. Our approach might enable genetic changes to be identified more efficiently, and the present results warrant further investigation using clinical samples and integrated analyses.
Cancer Science 02/2012; 103(2):221-7. · 3.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SRPX2 (Sushi repeat-containing protein, X-linked 2) has recently emerged as a multifunctional protein that is involved in seizure disorders, angiogenesis and cellular adhesion. Here, we analyzed this protein biochemically. SRPX2 protein was secreted with a highly posttranslational modification. Chondroitinase ABC treatment completely decreased the molecular mass of purified SRPX2 protein to its predicted size, whereas heparitinase, keratanase and hyaluroinidase did not. Secreted SRPX2 protein was also detected using an anti-chondroitin sulfate antibody. These results indicate that SRPX2 is a novel chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG). Furthermore, a binding assay revealed that hepatocyte growth factor dose-dependently binds to SRPX2 protein, and a ligand-glycosaminoglycans interaction was speculated to be likely in proteoglycans. Regarding its molecular architecture, SRPX2 has sushi repeat modules similar to four other CSPGs/lecticans; however, the molecular architecture of SRPX2 seems to be quite different from that of the lecticans. Taken together, we found that SRPX2 is a novel CSPG that is overexpressed in gastrointestinal cancer cells. Our findings provide key glycobiological insight into SRPX2 in cancer cells and demonstrate that SRPX2 is a new member of the cancer-related proteoglycan family.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(1):e27922. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytokine signaling is involved in pain and opioid-receptor signaling. In this prospective study, we studied the plasma cytokine levels in order to identify candidate biomarkers for predicting resistance to morphine treatment in a cohort of opioid-treatment-naïve cancer patients. We analyzed pain rating and the plasma concentrations of 26 cytokines at baseline and after morphine treatment using a multiplex immunoassay system for the following cytokines: eotaxin, colony stimulating factor, granulocyte (G-CSF), colony stimulating factor granulocyte-macrophage (GM-CSF), interferon α2 (IFN-α2), IFN-γ, interleukin 1α (IL-1α), IL-1β, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 (p40), IL-12 (p70), IL-13, IL-15, IL-17, IP-10, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α), MIP-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and TNF-β. No correlation was observed between the clinical characteristics and the numerical rating scale for pain at baseline or among patients who developed resistance to morphine treatment. Interestingly, the plasma concentration of MIP-1α significantly decreased during morphine treatment (day 8 vs. baseline, p=0.03). Regarding the baseline plasma cytokine concentrations, none of the cytokine levels were correlated with the numerical rating scale for pain at baseline; however, the baseline plasma concentrations of eotaxin, IL-8, IL-12 (p40), IL-12 (p70), MIP-1α and MIP-1β were significantly lower in patients who required a high dose of morphine or who developed resistance to morphine treatment. In conclusion, this is the first report revealing that the plasma concentrations of several cytokines were significantly modulated during treatment and were correlated with treatment outcome of morphine. Our results suggest that plasma cytokine levels may be promising biomarkers for morphine treatment and that they warrant further study.
Anticancer research 12/2011; 31(12):4561-8. · 1.71 Impact Factor