Liisa M Jantunen

Stockholm University, Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden

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Publications (36)70.8 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Organophosphate compounds are ubiquitous in the environment and to better understand and predict their environmental transport and fate, well-defined physical-chemical properties are needed. The subcooled liquid-phase vapor pressures at 298.15 K (p298) were determined for 11 chlorinated and nonchlorinated phosphate flame retardants (PFRs) by the capillary gas chromatography retention time method (GC-RT). Values of log (p298/Pa) ranged from −5.22 to −1.32 and enthalpies of vaporization (ΔlgH/kJ·mol–1) ranged from 82.0 to 109. Log (p298/Pa) by GC-RT showed good overall agreement with estimates using the Modified Grain Method (EpiSuite) and with the mean of experimental and in silico literature values, whereas values for the chlorinated PFRs appeared to be overestimated. SPARC modeling seriously underestimated p298, especially for the less volatile compounds. The Junge–Pankow adsorption model at 288.15 K predicted that most of the PFRs would be predominantly in the particulate phase in urban air and distributed between the particulate and gaseous phases in background air.
    Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data 04/2014; 59(5):1441–1447. · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Loadings from Toronto, Canada to Lake Ontario were quantified and major sources and pathways were identified, with the goal of informing opportunities for loading reductions. The contaminants were polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers, (PBDEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polycyclic musks (PCMs). Loadings were calculated from measured concentrations for three major pathways: atmospheric processes, tributary runoff, and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. Although atmospheric deposition to the Great Lakes has received the greatest attention, this was the dominant loading pathway for PCBs only (17±5.3 kg/y or 66% of total loadings). PCB loadings reflected elevated urban PCB air concentrations due to, predominantly, primary emissions. These loadings contribute to consumption advisories for nearshore fish. PBDE loadings to the lake, again from mainly primary emissions, were 48% (9.1±1.3 kg/y) and 42% (8.0±5.7 kg/y) via tributaries and WWTPs, respectively, consistent with emissions deposited and subsequently washed-off of urban surfaces and emissions to the sewage system. PAHs loadings of 1600±280 kg/y (71%) from tributaries were strongly associated with vehicle transportation and impervious surfaces. PCM loadings were 83% (±140 kg/y) from WWTP final effluent, reflecting their use in personal care products. Opportunities for source reduction lie in reducing the current inventories of in-use PCBs and PBDE-containing products, reducing vehicle emissions of PAHs and use of PAHs in the transportation network (e.g., pavement sealants), and improving waste water treatment technology.
    Environmental Science and Technology 01/2014; · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Archived specimens of the scavenging amphipod Eurythenes gryllus, collected from 2075-4250 m below the surface on five expeditions to the western and central Arctic Ocean between 1983-1998, were analyzed for total mercury (sum-Hg), methyl mercury (MeHg), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other industrial or byproduct organochlorines (chlorobenzenes, pentachloroanisole, octachlorostyrene), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Median sum-Hg concentrations ranged from 70 to 366 ng g-1 wet weight (ww). MeHg concentrations (3.55 to 23.5 ng g-1 ww) accounted for 1.7 to 20.1% (median 3.7%) of sum-Hg. Sum-Hg and MeHg were positively and significantly correlated with ww (sum-Hg r2 = 0.18, p = 0.0004, n=63; MeHg r2 = 0.42, p = 0.0004, n=25), but not significantly with δ13C nor δ15N. Median concentrations of total persistent organic pollutants (POPs) ranged from 9750-156000 ng g-1 lipid weight, with order of abundance: sum-TOX (chlorobornanes quantified as technical toxaphene) > sum-PCBs > sum-DDTs > sum-chlordanes > sum-mirex compounds > sum-PBDEs ~ sum-chlorobenzenes ~ octachlorostyrene > alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane ~ hexachlorobenzene ~ pentachloroanisole. Enantioselective accumulation was found for the chiral OCPs o,p'-DDT, cis- and trans-chlordane, nonachlor MC6 and oxychlordane. Lipid-normalized POPs concentrations were elevated in amphipods with lipid percentages ≤10%, suggesting that utilization of lipids resulted in concentration of POPs in the remaining lipid pool. Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) analysis using log-transformed physiological variables and lipid-normalized organochlorine concentrations distinguished amphipods from the central vs. western arctic stations. This distinction was also seen for PCB homologs, while profiles of other compound classes were more related to specific stations rather than central-west differences.
    Environmental Science & Technology 04/2013; · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Elimination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under national and international regulations reduces "primary" emissions, but "secondary" emissions continue from residues deposited in soil, water, ice and vegetation during former years of usage. In a future, secondary source controlled world, POPs will follow the carbon cycle and biogeochemical processes will determine their transport, accumulation and fate. Climate change is likely to affect mobilisation of POPs through e.g., increased temperature, altered precipitation and wind patterns, flooding, loss of ice cover in polar regions, melting glaciers, and changes in soil and water microbiology which affect degradation and transformation. Chiral compounds offer advantages for following transport and fate pathways because of their ability to distinguish racemic (newly released or protected from microbial attack) and nonracemic (microbially degraded) sources. This paper discusses the rationale for this approach and suggests applications where chiral POPs could aid investigation of climate-mediated exchange and degradation processes. Multiyear measurements of two chiral POPs, trans-chlordane and α-HCH, at a Canadian Arctic air monitoring station show enantiomer compositions which cycle seasonally, suggesting varying source contributions which may be under climatic control. Large-scale shifts in the enantioselective metabolism of chiral POPs in soil and water might influence the enantiomer composition of atmospheric residues, and it would be advantageous to include enantiospecific analysis in POPs monitoring programs.
    Mass spectrometry (Tokyo, Japan). 01/2013; 2(Spec Iss):S0019.
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    ABSTRACT: Elimination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under national and international controls reduces “primary” emissions, but “secondary” emissions continue from residues deposited in soil, water, ice and vegetation during former years of high usage. Secondary sources are expected to dominate in the future, when POPs transport and accumulation will be controlled by air–surface exchange and the biogeochemical cycle of organic carbon. Climate change is likely to affect mobilization of POPs through, e.g., increased temperature, loss of ice cover in polar regions, melting glaciers and changes in soil and water microbiology which affect degradation and transformation. Chiral compounds offer advantages for following transport and fate pathways because of their ability to distinguish racemic (newly released or protected from microbial attack) and nonracemic (microbially altered) sources. Here we explain the rationale for this approach and suggest applications where chiral POPs could aid investigation of climate–mediated exchange and degradation processes. Examples include distinguishing agricultural vs. non–agricultural and recently used vs. residual pesticides, degradation and sequestration processes in soil, historical vs. recent atmospheric deposition, sources in arctic air and influence of ice cover on volatilization.
    Atmospheric Pollution Research 10/2012; 3(4):371-382. · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The air-sea gas exchange of alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) in the Canadian Arctic was estimated using a micrometeorological approach and the commonly used Whitman two-film model. Concurrent shipboard measurements of α-HCH in air at two heights (1 and 15 m) and in surface seawater were conducted during the Circumpolar Flaw Lead study in 2008. Sampling was carried out during eight events in the early summer time when open water was encountered. The micrometeorological technique employed the vertical gradient in air concentration and the wind speed to estimate the flux; results were corrected for atmospheric stability using the Monin-Obukhov stability parameter. The Whitman two-film model used the concentrations of α-HCH in surface seawater, in bulk air at 1 and 15 m above the surface, and the Henry's law constant adjusted for temperature and salinity to derive the flux. Both approaches showed that the overall net flux of α-HCH was from water to air. Mean fluxes calculated using the micrometeorological technique ranged from -3.5 to 18 ng m(-2) day(-1) (mean 7.4), compared to 3.5 to 14 ng m(-2) day(-1) (mean 7.5) using the Whitman two-film model. Flux estimates for individual events agreed in direction and within a factor of two in magnitude for six of eight events. For two events, fluxes estimated by micrometeorology were zero or negative, while fluxes estimated with the two-film model were positive, and the reasons for these discrepancies are unclear. Improvements are needed to shorten air sampling times to ensure that stationarity of meteorological conditions is not compromised over the measurement periods. The micrometeorological technique could be particularly useful to estimate fluxes of organic chemicals over water in situations where no water samples are available.
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research 07/2012; 19(6):1908-14. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Shipboard measurements of organohalogen compounds in air and surface seawater were conducted in the Canadian Arctic in 2007-2008. Study areas included the Labrador Sea, Hudson Bay, and the southern Beaufort Sea. High volume air samples were collected at deck level (6 m), while low volume samples were taken at 1 and 15 m above the water or ice surface. Water samples were taken within 7 m. Water concentration ranges (pg L(-1)) were as follows: α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) 465-1013, γ-HCH 150-254, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) 4.0-6.4, 2,4-dibromoanisole (DBA) 8.5-38, and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TBA) 4.7-163. Air concentration ranges (pg m(-3)) were as follows: α-HCH 7.5-48, γ-HCH 2.1-7.7, HCB 48-71, DBA 4.8-25, and TBA 6.4 - 39. Fugacity gradients predicted net deposition of HCB in all areas, while exchange directions varied for the other chemicals by season and locations. Net evasion of α-HCH from Hudson Bay and the Beaufort Sea during open water conditions was shown by air concentrations that averaged 14% higher at 1 m than 15 m. No significant difference between the two heights was found over ice cover. The α-HCH in air over the Beaufort Sea was racemic in winter (mean enantiomer fraction, EF = 0.504 ± 0.008) and nonracemic in late spring-early summer (mean EF = 0.476 ± 0.010). This decrease in EF was accompanied by a rise in air concentrations due to volatilization of nonracemic α-HCH from surface water (EF = 0.457 ± 0.019). Fluxes of chemicals during the southern Beaufort Sea open water season (i.e., Leg 9) were estimated using the Whitman two-film model, where volatilization fluxes are positive and deposition fluxes are negative. The means ± SD (and ranges) of net fluxes (ng m(-2) d(-1)) were as follows: α-HCH 6.8 ± 3.2 (2.7-13), γ-HCH 0.76 ± 0.40 (0.26-1.4), HCB -9.6 ± 2.7 (-6.1 to -15), DBA 1.2 ± 0.69 (0.04-2.0), and TBA 0.46 ± 1.1 ng m(-2) d(-1) (-1.6 to 2.0).
    Environmental Science & Technology 02/2011; 45(3):876-81. · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mecoprop, dichlorprop and metolachlor concentrations and enantiomer signatures were determined in Ontario streams in 2006-2007 and compared to results from 2003 to 2004. Median concentrations of dichlorprop and metolachlor were not significantly different between the two campaigns, but mecoprop was higher in 2006-2007. Concentrations of mecoprop and dichlorprop in Lake Ontario surface water were 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than stream averages. Enantiomer fractions (EFs) > 0.5 of mecoprop in high-concentration stream water samples during 2006-2007 were related to replacement of racemic mecoprop by single (+) enantiomer mecoprop-P after 2004. EFs <0.5 in low-concentration samples suggested enantioselective degradation and/or interconversion. Metolachlor profiles were expressed as SF, the fraction of herbicidally active/(active + inactive) stereoisomers. Samples with higher concentrations of metolachlor had SFs similar to S-metolachlor which is enriched in the active stereoisomers. Low concentrations were associated with lower and more variable SFs, suggesting mixed input of racemic and S-metolachlor or stereoselective degradation.
    Environmental Pollution 12/2009; 158(5):1842-9. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The enantiomeric signatures of organochlorine pesticides were measured in air masses from Okinawa, Japan and three remote locations in the Pacific Northwestern United States: Cheeka Peak Observatory (CPO), a marine boundary layer site on the Olympic Peninsula of Washington at 500 m above sea level (m.a.s.l); Mary's Peak Observatory (MPO), a site at 1250 m.a.s.l in Oregon's Coast range; and Mt. Bachelor Observatory (MBO), a site at 2763 m.a.s.l in Oregon's Cascade range. The enantiomeric signatures of composite soil samples, collected from China, South Korea, and the western U.S. were also measured. The data from chiral analysis was expressed asthe enantiomeric fraction, defined as (+) enantiomer/(sum of the (+) and (-) enantiomers), where a racemic composition has EF = 0.5. Racemic alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH) was measured in Asian air masses at Okinawa and in Chinese and South Korean soils. Nonracemic alpha-HCH (EF = 0.528 +/- 0.0048) was measured in regional air masses at CPO, and may reflect volatilization from the Pacific Ocean and regional soils. However, during trans-Pacific transport events at CPO, the alpha-HCH EFs were significantly more racemic (EF = 0.513 +/- 0.0003, p < 0.001). Racemic alpha-HCH was consistently measured at MPO and MBO in trans-Pacific air masses that had spent considerable time in the free troposphere. The alpha-HCH EFs in CPO, MPO, and MBO air masses were negatively correlated (p = 0.0017) with the amount of time the air mass spent above the boundary layer, along the 10-day back air mass trajectory, prior to being sampled. This suggests that, on the West coast of the U.S., the alpha-HCH in the free troposphere is racemic. Racemic signatures of cis- and trans-chlordane were measured in air masses at all four air sampling sites, suggesting that Asian and U.S. urban areas continue to be sources of chlordane that has not yet been biotransformed.
    Environmental Science and Technology 05/2009; 43(8):2806-11. · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Concentrations of mecoprop, dichlorprop, and metolachlor were investigated in 393 samples from Ontario streams in 2003-2004. Maximum concentrations of mecoprop, dichlorprop, and metolachlor were 1900, 6.62, and 1560 ng L(-1), respectively in 2003, and 103,000, 110, and 5290 ng L(-1), respectively, in 2004. Concentrations of metolachlor in agricultural watersheds were significantly (p < 0.0001) higher than those in urban watersheds, whereas concentrations of mecoprop did not differ (p > 0.1) between the two watershed types. Enantiomer fractions (EFs) of the acid herbicide mecoprop ranged from 0.236 to 0.928 and for dichlorprop EFs ranged from 0.152 to 0.549. EFs of mecoprop did not differ significantly (p > 0.1) between agricultural and urban land usage. Mecoprop EFs > or = 0.5 were found in 54% of samples, a situation expected during the transition years when racemic mecoprop was replaced by mecoprop-P, consisting of only the R(+) enantiomer. However, EFs < 0.5 were found in 46% of samples, which suggests preferential degradation of R(+) or conversion of R(+) to S(-). The four stereopluisomers of metolachlor were separated by HPLC and are reported as the ratio of the two herbicidally active stereoisomers (aS,1'S and aR,1'S) to the two inactive stereoisomers (aS,1'R and aR,1'R). The average S/R of metolachlor in streams was 6.73 +/- 2.28 and ranged from 1.08 to 12.7. Samples with higher concentrations of metolachlor had S/R ratios similar to the S/R of S-metolachlor (enriched in aS,1'S and aR,1'S stereoisomers) whereas samples with lower concentrations display lower S/R ratios with greater variability, suggesting mixed input of racemic and S-metolachlor or stereoselective degradation. S/R values were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in agricultural than urban watersheds. Streamwater from row crop areas showed higher S/R ratios than streamwater from fruit growing areas (p = 0.036).
    Environmental Science and Technology 11/2008; 42(22):8452-8. · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Air and water were sampled in the Canadian Archipelago during summer on the Tundra Northwest 1999 (TNW-99) expedition and air was sampled at Resolute Bay (RB), Nunavut, to determine the gas exchange of alpha- and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and the enantiomers of alpha-HCH. Air concentrations of sigmaHCH during TNW-99 and at RB were similar, averaging 55 and 53 pg m(-3), respectively. The net gas exchange direction was volatilization for alpha-HCH and near equilibrium or deposition for gamma-HCH, whereas actual fluxes depended on the fraction of open water. Enantiomer fractions, EF = (+)/[(+) + (-)] of alpha-HCH in air sampled from shipboard were significantly correlated to those in surface water for events with >90% open water, but were closer to racemic and not correlated to EFs in water for events with 0-50% open water. Levels of alpha-HCH in air at RB averaged 37 +/- 9 pg m(-3) from June to early July, and EFs were close to racemic (0.496 +/- 0.004). In mid-July the ice pack broke up around RB. From this point through August, air concentrations increased significantly to 53 +/- 5 pg m(-3), and the mean EF decreased significantly to 0.483 +/- 0.009. Air concentrations of gamma-HCH at RB did not differ significantly before (8.0 +/- 3.7 pg m(-3)) and after (6.6 +/- 0.76 pg m(-3)) ice breakup. Results show that alpha-HCH enantiomers are sensitive tracers for following the impact of ice cover loss on gas exchange in the Arctic.
    Environmental Science and Technology 02/2008; 42(2):465-70. · 5.48 Impact Factor
  • Environmental Science & Technology - ENVIRON SCI TECHNOL. 01/2008; 42(2):465-470.
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    ABSTRACT: Variability in the enantioselective degradation of chiral organochlorine pesticides (OCPs: α-HCH, cis- and trans-chlordane (CC and TC), chlordane MC5 and o, p'-DDT) in background soils was investigated on a global scale and in small-scale transect studies. Background soils collected from 32 countries displayed a wide range of enantiomer profiles for a particular compound, showing varying degradation preferences. In some locations, grassland and woodland soils which were collected only a few hundred meters apart showed differences in the enantiomer profiles and even reversals in degradation preferences. Further studies at small plots in Scotland indicated that such differences could be found within a few meters horizontally and a few centimeters in depth. Soil organic matter content and pH exerted a minor influence on the variability. For chlordanes, the enantiomer profiles in background soils were much more variable than those in ambient air, suggesting that degradation occurred following atmospheric deposition. Thus, background soils play a role in sequestering and degrading OCPs, although enantiomer profiles are not a quantitative measure of overall degradation. The results of this study show that caution is needed when considering the enantiomer signatures in air as a marker of volatilization of weathered soil-derived OCPs.
    01/2008;
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    ABSTRACT: Parallel air and water samples were taken on lakes Superior, Huron, Erie and Ontario between 1996 and 2000 to determine the occurrence and levels of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), trans-chlordane (TC), cis-chlordane (CC), dieldrin (DIEL) and the metabolite heptachlor exo-epoxide (HEPX). Concentrations in the water varied greatly among the lakes, but air concentrations were similar, thus resulting fugacity ratios varied by lake and compound. The enantiomer fraction, EF = (+)/[(+) + (−)], was determined for α-HCH, TC, CC and HEPX. Enantioselective degradation of (+)α-HCH was found in water of all the lakes where the depletion was greatest for Lake Superior, which has the longest water residence time. Preferential loss of (+)TC and enrichment of (+)HEPX were found in lakes Superior and Ontario, with similar EFs in both lakes. CC was racemic in Lake Superior and showed depletion of the (+) enantiomer in Lake Ontario. Depletion of (+)α-HCH, (+)TC and enrichment of (+)HEPX was seen in all air samples. CC varied from depletion of the (+) or (−) enantiomer and was racemic in some cases. Higher concentrations of α-HCH in the air over Lake Superior were correlated with less racemic composition, providing evidence of water-to-air exchange. Fugacity ratios for the HCHs approached equilibrium conditions within a factor of 2, with slight excursions toward net volatilization or deposition, where generally higher excursions were seen for the cyclodienes.
    Atmospheric Environment. 01/2008;
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    ABSTRACT: Air samples were collected in southern Mexico in 2002–2004 to determine the extent of contamination with organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The ΣDDTs ranged from 239 to 2360 pg m−3. Other prominent OC pesticides were endosulfans, toxaphene and lindane. Pesticides detected in lower concentrations include chlordanes, dieldrin, and heptachlor. Proportions of DDT compounds suggested fresh use of DDT in some locations and a mix of fresh and aged residues at others. Ratios of trans-chlordane/cis-chlordane were consistent with fresh chlordane usage or emission of residues from former termiticide applications. The ΣPCBs was relatively low at all sites. Concentrations of OC pesticides measured with passive samplers agreed well with those measured using high-volume samplers. Air back trajectory analysis suggests a complex pattern of regional atmospheric transport.
    Atmospheric Environment. 01/2008;
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    ABSTRACT: The extent of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) contamination in southern Mexico was investigated in this study. Biweekly air samplings were carried out in two sites in the state of Chiapas (during 2002–2003), and one in each state of Veracruz and Tabasco (during 2003–2004). Corresponding to the air sampling locations, soil samples were also collected to gauge the soil–air exchange of OCs in the region. ∑DDTs in soils ranged from 0.057 to 360 ng g−1 whereas those in air ranged from 240 to 2400 pg m−3. DDT and metabolite DDE were expressed as fractional values, FDDTe = p,p′-DDT/(p,p′-DDT + p,p′-DDE) and FDDTo = p,p′-DDT/(p,p′-DDT + o,p′-DDT). FDDTe in soils ranged from 0.30 to 0.69 while those in air ranged from 0.45 to 0.84. FDDTe in air at a farm in Chiapas (0.84) was closer to that of technical DDT (0.95) which is suggestive of fresh DDT input. Enantiomer fractions (EF) of o,p′-DDT in air were racemic at all locations (0.500–0.504). However, nonracemic o,p′-DDT was seen in the soils (EFs = 0.456–0.647). Fugacities of OCs in soil (fs) and air (fa) were calculated, and the fugacity fraction, ff = fs/(fs + fa) of DDTs ranged from 0.013 to 0.97 which indicated a mix of net deposition (ff < 0.5) and volatilization (ff > 0.5) from soil among the sites. It is suggested that DDTs in Mexico air are due to a combination of ongoing regional usage and re-emission of old DDT residues from soils. Total toxaphene in soils ranged from 0.066 to 69 ng g−1 while levels in air ranged from 6.2 to 230 pg m−3. Chromatographic profiles of toxaphenes in both air and soil showed depletion of Parlar congeners 39 and 42. Fugacity fractions of toxaphene were within the equilibrium range or above the upper equilibrium threshold boundary. These findings suggested that soil emission of old residues is the main source of toxaphenes to the atmosphere. Results from this study provide baseline data for establishing a long-term OC monitoring program in Mexico.
    Atmospheric Environment. 01/2008;
  • Liisa M Jantunen, Terry F Bidleman
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    ABSTRACT: The Henry's law constants (HLC) for trans- and cis-chlordane (TC, CC), trans-nonachlor (TN), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and p,p'-DDE were determined by the gas-stripping method over a temperature range of 5-35 degrees C. The HLC variation versus temperature (K) was described by logH=m/T+b. Parameters of this equation were (with standard deviations) TC: m=-1524+/-158, b=6.58+/-0.54; CC: m=-1786+/-209, b=7.42+/-0.71; TN m=-2068+/-284, b=8.44+/-0.97; HCB: m=-3013+/-174, b=11.60+/-0.59 and p,p'-DDE: m=-2043+/-240, b=8.37+/-0.82. The HLCs (Pa m3 mol(-1)) at 25 degrees C (298.15 K) were: TC=29; CC=27; TN=32; p,p'-DDE=33 and HCB=35. These HLCs values were used to calculate fugacity ratios from paired air and water data from Lake Ontario, July 1998. The resulting fugacity ratios predict that volatilization was occurring for all compounds during that month.
    Chemosphere 04/2006; 62(10):1689-96. · 3.14 Impact Factor
  • Terry F. Bidleman, Sylvia Cussion, Liisa M. Jantunen
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    ABSTRACT: An interlaboratory study was conducted for total toxaphene and selected congeners in an extract of ambient air from the southern United States. All participating labs were experienced in toxaphene analysis and used GC-MS techniques. Ten labs reported the concentration of total toxaphene in a technical toxaphene solution, with a 113% average recovery of the target value and 40% relative standard deviation (RSD). Only six of the 10 labs fell within ±30% of the target value, a criterion recommended by good laboratory practice standards. The interlaboratory RSD was 65% for total toxaphene in the air sample extract (lowered to 43% when one outlying lab was omitted). Nine labs reported the concentrations of five toxaphene components (B8-1413, B8-1414+B8-1945, B8-806+B8-809, B8-2229 and B9-1679) with 33–47% RSD for the technical toxaphene unknown and 34–62% for the air sample. The precision was poorer for a sixth component, congener B9-1025, which has a very low response by electron capture negative ion mass spectrometry (ECNI): 59% RSD for the technical toxaphene unknown and 196% for the air sample. Factors contributing to the interlaboratory variability for total toxaphene and single components are discussed, and follow-up studies are required to identify and minimize the causes of variability. Based on the average analysis, B8-1413 was enriched and B8-806+B8-809 was depleted in the air sample relative to the technical toxaphene standard.
    Atmospheric Environment. 01/2004;
  • Liisa M. Jantunen, Henrik Kylin, Terry F. Bidleman
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    ABSTRACT: Between November 1997 and February 1998, air and water samples were collected on the African side of the South Atlantic Ocean to Antarctica, on board the S.A. Agulhas, to determine the spatial distribution of α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) and the net direction of air/water gas exchange. The α-HCH concentrations in air and surface water were much lower than in Arctic regions, consistent with the historically lower usage of technical HCH in the Southern Hemisphere. The water/air fugacity ratios of α-HCH were ⩽1.0, indicating steady state or net deposition conditions. The α-HCH in water was enantioselectively metabolized, with resulting enantiomer fractions (EFs) that differed from the racemic (0.500) value of the technical product. The EFs decreased from >0.500 at the lower latitudes to
    Deep-sea Research Part Ii-topical Studies in Oceanography - DEEP-SEA RES PT II-TOP ST OCE. 01/2004; 51(22):2661-2672.
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    ABSTRACT: High-volume air samples were collected during research cruises of Lake Superior in August 1996 and May 1997 and of Lake Ontario (North America) in July and September 1998 and June 2000 and analyzed for polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). Levels of tetra- to octachloronaphthalene (sigmaPCN) varied spatially, with mean values (+/-SD) of 1.78 +/- 0.74 and 1.46 +/- 1.07 pg m(-3) for Lake Superior in 1996 and 1997, respectively, and of 5.53 +/- 2.19 and 5.60 +/- 2.24 pg m(-3) for Lake Ontario in 1998 and 2000, respectively. Evaporative sources were predominant, although combustion marker congeners such as tetrachloronaphthalenes 44 and 29 and pentachloronaphthalene 54 were present in most samples and were enhanced relative to technical PCN mixtures. The sigmaPCN concentrations were higher in Lake Ontario samples collected in the western half of the lake and when winds were from the west. Greater proportions of the population and industrial areas are located around the western part of Lake Ontario. Water-air fugacity ratios, calculated from air and water samples collected in June 2000, indicate that the trichloronaphthalenes are volatilizing from Lake Ontario, whereas the tetrachloronaphthalenes are close to equilibrium and the net deposition of tetrachloronaphthalenes can occur when the urban air plume influences levels over the lake.
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 10/2003; 22(9):1937-44. · 2.62 Impact Factor