Erica M Sparkenbaugh

Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, United States

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Publications (7)25.71 Total impact

  • Erica M Sparkenbaugh, Patricia E Ganey, Robert A Roth
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    ABSTRACT: The liver is sensitive to pathological conditions associated with tissue hypoxia (Hx) and the presence of activated neutrophils that secrete the serine protease elastase (EL). We demonstrated previously that cotreatment of rat hepatocytes with nontoxic levels of Hx and EL caused synergistic cell death. Hx is sensed by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, a transcription factor that heterodimerizes with HIF-1β/aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator and directs expression of many genes, including the pro-cell death gene Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3). Since cell death from EL or Hx also requires MAPK activation, we tested the hypothesis that the cytotoxic interaction of Hx and EL depends on MAPK and HIF-1α signaling. Treatment of Hepa1c1c7 cells with EL in the presence of Hx (2% O(2)) resulted in synergistic cell death. EL reduced phosphorylated ERK in O(2)-replete and Hx-exposed cells, and ERK inhibition enhanced the cytotoxicity of EL alone. Hx-EL cotreatment caused an additive increase in phosphorylated p38, and p38 inhibition attenuated cell death caused by this cotreatment. EL enhanced Hx-induced HIF-1α accumulation and transcription of the HIF-1α-mediated cell death gene BNIP3, and p38 inhibition attenuated BNIP3 expression and production. Cytotoxicity and BNIP3 expression from EL-Hx cotreatment were reduced in HIF-1β-deficient HepaC4 cells compared with Hepa1c1c7 cells. These results suggest that p38 signaling contributes to Hx-EL cotreatment-induced cell death via modulation of HIF-1α-mediated gene transcription. Finally, lipid peroxidation was enhanced in Hx-EL-cotreated cells compared with cells treated with EL or Hx alone. Vitamin E treatment attenuated lipid peroxidation and protected cells from the cytotoxicity of Hx and EL, suggesting that lipid peroxidation plays a role.
    AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 01/2012; 302(7):G748-57. · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is a critical transcription factor that controls oxygen homeostasis in response to hypoxia, inflammation, and oxidative stress. HIF has been implicated in the pathogenesis of liver injury in which these events play a role, including acetaminophen (APAP) overdose, which is the leading cause of acute liver failure in the United States. APAP overdose has been reported to activate HIF-1α in mouse livers and isolated hepatocytes downstream of oxidative stress. HIF-1α signaling controls many factors that contribute to APAP hepatotoxicity, including mitochondrial cell death, inflammation, and hemostasis. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that HIF-1α contributes to APAP hepatotoxicity. Conditional HIF-1α deletion was generated in mice using an inducible Cre-lox system. Control (HIF-1α-sufficient) mice developed severe liver injury 6 and 24 h after APAP overdose (400 mg/kg). HIF-1α-deficient mice were protected from APAP hepatotoxicity at 6 h, but developed severe liver injury by 24 h, suggesting that HIF-1α is involved in the early stage of APAP toxicity. In further studies, HIF-1α-deficient mice had attenuated thrombin generation and reduced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 production compared with control mice, indicating that HIF-1α signaling contributes to hemostasis in APAP hepatotoxicity. Finally, HIF-1α-deficient animals had decreased hepatic neutrophil accumulation and plasma concentrations of interleukin-6, keratinocyte chemoattractant, and regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted compared with control mice, suggesting an altered inflammatory response. HIF-1α contributes to hemostasis, sterile inflammation, and early hepatocellular necrosis during the pathogenesis of APAP toxicity.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 05/2011; 338(2):492-502. · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity accounts for nearly half of acute liver failure cases in the United States. The doses that produce hepatotoxicity vary considerably and many risk factors have been proposed, including liver inflammation from viral hepatitis. Interestingly, inflammatory stress from another stimulus, bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS), renders the liver more sensitive to hepatotoxicity from numerous xenobiotic agents. The purpose of these studies was to test the hypothesis that inflammation induced by LPS or infection with reovirus increases sensitivity to APAP-induced liver injury. For LPS-induced inflammation, C57BL/6J mice were treated with either saline or LPS (44 x 10(6) EU/kg, ip) 2 h before treatment with APAP (100-400 mg/kg, ip) or saline. No elevation in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity was observed in mice that received vehicle or LPS alone. LPS co-treatment produced a leftward shift of the dose-response curve for APAP-induced hepatotoxicity and led to significantly greater tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) production than APAP alone. Reovirus serotype 1 (10(8) PFU, iv) induced inflammation in Balb/c mice as evidenced by increases in hepatic mRNAs for macrophage inhibitory protein-2, interleukin-6, and TNF. Co-administration of reovirus and APAP at doses of 450 and 700 mg/kg (2 h after reovirus) led to increases in serum ALT activity, whereas neither reovirus nor APAP alone produced liver injury. Consistent with the increases in serum ALT activity, histopathologic examination revealed centrilobular necrosis with marked neutrophilic accumulation only in livers of mice treated with LPS/APAP or with reovirus/APAP. The results suggest that normally noninjurious doses of APAP are rendered hepatotoxic by modest inflammation, whether bacterial or viral in origin.
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 01/2010; 73(1):58-73. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sulindac (SLD) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that has been associated with a greater incidence of idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity in human patients than other NSAIDs. In previous studies, cotreatment of rats with SLD and a modestly inflammatory dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) led to liver injury, whereas neither SLD nor LPS alone caused liver damage. In studies presented here, further investigation of this animal model revealed that the concentration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in plasma was significantly increased by LPS at 1 h, and SLD enhanced this response. Etanercept, a soluble TNF-alpha receptor, reduced SLD/LPS-induced liver injury, suggesting a role for TNF-alpha. SLD metabolites in plasma and liver were determined by LC/MS/MS. Cotreatment with LPS did not increase the concentrations of SLD or its metabolites, excluding the possibility that LPS contributed to liver injury through enhanced exposure to SLD or its metabolites. The cytotoxicities of SLD and its sulfide and sulfone metabolites were compared in primary rat hepatocytes and HepG2 cells; SLD sulfide was more toxic in both types of cells than SLD or SLD sulfone. TNF-alpha augmented the cytotoxicity of SLD sulfide in primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. These results suggest that TNF-alpha can enhance SLD sulfide-induced hepatotoxicity, thereby contributing to liver injury in SLD/LPS-cotreated rats.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 08/2009; 331(1):114-21. · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Therapy employing the fluoroquinolone antibiotic, trovafloxacin (TVX) was curtailed due to idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity. Previous studies in mice showed that a nonhepatotoxic inflammatory stress induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) synergized with a nonhepatotoxic dose of TVX to cause liver injury. The purpose of this study was to explore mechanisms by which TVX interacts with TNF to cause liver injury. TVX pretreatment prolonged the peak of plasma TNF after its administration. This prolongation of TNF by TVX was critical to the development of hepatotoxicity. The prolongation of TNF concentration in plasma was primarily due to reduced clearance when compared with secondary biosynthesis. TNF is cleared from plasma by binding to soluble TNF receptors (TNFRs) which are eliminated by the kidney; however, the plasma concentrations of soluble TNFRs were not reduced, and biomarkers of renal dysfunction were not elevated in TVX/TNF-treated mice. Two injections of TNF mimicked the prolongation of the TNF peak by TVX and caused liver injury, but injury was less severe than after TVX/TNF coexposure. TVX enhanced the induction of proinflammatory cytokines by TNF. Additionally, TVX sensitized Hepa1c1c7 cells to TNF-induced killing in a concentration-dependent manner and increased both potency and efficacy of TNF to activate effector caspases that were critically involved in cell death from TVX/TNF coexposure. In summary, TVX reduced the clearance of TNF independent of either receptor shedding or kidney dysfunction. Additionally, TVX interacted with TNF to enhance inflammation and sensitize hepatocytes to TNF-induced cell death.
    Toxicological Sciences 08/2009; 111(2):288-301. · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sulindac (SLD) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that has been associated with a greater incidence of idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity in human patients than other NSAIDs. One hypothesis regarding idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions is that interaction of a drug with a modest inflammatory episode precipitates liver injury. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) interacts with SLD to cause liver injury in rats. SLD (50 mg/kg) or its vehicle was administered to rats by gavage 15.5 h before LPS (8.3 x 10(5) endotoxin unit/kg) or its saline vehicle (i.v.). Thirty minutes after LPS treatment, SLD or vehicle administration was repeated. Rats were killed at various times after treatment, and serum, plasma, and liver samples were taken. Neither SLD nor LPS alone caused liver injury. Cotreatment with SLD/LPS led to increases in serum biomarkers of both hepatocellular injury and cholestasis. Histological evidence of liver damage was found only after SLD/LPS cotreatment. As a result of activation of hemostasis induced by SLD/LPS cotreatment, fibrin and hypoxia were present in liver tissue before the onset of hepatotoxicity. Heparin treatment reduced hepatic fibrin deposition and hypoxia and protected against liver injury induced by SLD/LPS cotreatment. These results indicate that cotreatment with nontoxic doses of LPS and SLD causes liver injury in rats, and this could serve as a model of human idiosyncratic liver injury. The hemostatic system is activated by SLD/LPS cotreatment and plays an important role in the development of SLD/LPS-induced liver injury.
    Toxicological Sciences 01/2009; 108(1):184-93. · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diclofenac (DCLF) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that is associated with idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions in humans. Previous studies revealed a crucial role for intestine-derived bacteria and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in DCLF-induced hepatotoxicity. We further explored this mechanism by conducting gene expression analysis of livers from rats treated with a hepatotoxic dose of DCLF (100 mg/kg) with or without oral antibiotic pretreatment. Genes for which expression was altered by DCLF were divided into two groups: genes with expression altered by antibiotic treatment and those unaffected by antibiotics. The former group of genes represented the ones for which DCLF-induced alterations in expression depended on intestinal bacteria. The expression of the latter group of genes was probably changed by direct effect of DCLF rather than by intestinal bacteria. Functional analysis of genes in the former group revealed LPS-related signaling, further suggesting a role for bacterial endotoxin in the liver injury. Functional analysis of genes in the latter group revealed changes in signaling pathways related to inflammation, hypoxia, oxidative stress, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. Neutrophil depletion failed to protect from DCLF-induced hepatotoxicity, suggesting that intestinal bacteria contribute to liver injury in a neutrophil-independent manner. Hypoxia occurred in the livers of rats treated with DCLF, and hypoxia in vitro rendered hepatocytes sensitive to DCLF-induced cytotoxicity. These results support the hypothesis that intestinal bacteria are required for DCLF-induced hepatotoxicity and suggest that hypoxia plays an important role in the pathogenesis.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 10/2008; 327(3):634-44. · 3.89 Impact Factor