Diana J Bigelow

Washington State University, پولمن، واشینگتن, Washington, United States

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Publications (97)340.16 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Stimulus-responsive hydrogel materials that stabilize and control protein dynamics have the potential to enable a range of applications that take advantage of the inherent specificity and catalytic efficiencies of proteins. Here we describe the modular construction of a hydrogel using an engineered calmodulin (CaM) within a polyethylene glycol (PEG) matrix that involves the reversible tethering of proteins through an engineered CaM-binding sequence. For these measurements, maltose binding protein (MBP) was isotopically labeled with [13C] and [15N], permitting dynamic structural measurements using TROSY-HSQC NMR spectroscopy. Protein dynamics are suppressed upon initial formation of hydrogels, with concomitant increases in protein stability. Relaxation of the hydrogel matrix following transient heating results in enhanced protein dynamics and resolution of substrate-induced large-amplitude domain rearrangements.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 09/2014; 136(38). DOI:10.1021/ja506717v · 12.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Airway inflammation has a pathophysiological role in asthma. Eosinophils, which are commonly increased in asthmatic airways, express eosinophil peroxidase and thereby produce hypobromite and bromotyrosine. Bromotyrosine is believed to be a specific marker for eosinophil activity, but developing an antibody against monobromotyrosine, the predominant brominated tyrosine residue found in vivo has proven difficult. We evaluated whether a 3-bromobenozoic acid hapten antigen produced antibodies that recognized halogenated tyrosine residues. Studies with small-molecule inhibitors or brominated or chlorinated protein suggested that a mouse monoclonal antibody (BTK-94C) selectively bound free and protein mono- and dibromotyrosine and, to a lesser degree, chlorotyrosine, and thus was designated a general halotyrosine antibody. We evaluated if this antibody had potential for characterizing human asthma using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) microarray platform to examine the halogenation of 23 proteins in three independent sets of sputum samples (52 samples total). In 15 healthy control or asthmatic subjects, ICAM, PDGF and RANTES had greater proportional amounts of halogenation in asthmatic subjects and the halogenation signal was associated with the severity of exercise-induced airway hyperresponsiveness. In 17 severe asthma patients treated with placebo or mepolizumab to suppress eosinophils, drug-related decreases in halogenation were observed with p values ranging from 0.006 to 0.11 for these 3 proteins. Analysis of 20 subjects that either had neutrophilic asthma or were healthy controls demonstrated a broad increase in halotyrosine (possibly chlorotyrosine) in neutrophilic asthmatics. Overall, these results suggest that an ELISA utilizing BTK-94C could prove useful for assessing airway inflammation in asthma patients.
    Journal of immunological methods 11/2013; 403(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.jim.2013.11.013 · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Smoking and obesity are each well-established risk factors for cardiovascular heart disease, which together impose earlier onset and greater severity of disease. To identify early signaling events in the response of the heart to cigarette smoke exposure within the setting of obesity, we exposed normal weight and high fat diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6 mice to repeated inhaled doses of mainstream (MS) or sidestream (SS) cigarette smoke administered over a two week period, monitoring effects on both cardiac and pulmonary transcriptomes. MS smoke (250 μg wet total particulate matter (WTPM)/L, 5 h/day) exposures elicited robust cellular and molecular inflammatory responses in the lung with 1466 differentially expressed pulmonary genes (p < 0.01) in normal weight animals and a much-attenuated response (463 genes) in the hearts of the same animals. In contrast, exposures to SS smoke (85 μg WTPM/L) with a CO concentration equivalent to that of MS smoke (∼250 CO ppm) induced a weak pulmonary response (328 genes) but an extensive cardiac response (1590 genes). SS smoke and to a lesser extent MS smoke preferentially elicited hypoxia- and stress-responsive genes as well as genes predicting early changes of vascular smooth muscle and endothelium, precursors of cardiovascular disease. The most sensitive smoke-induced cardiac transcriptional changes of normal weight mice were largely absent in DIO mice after smoke exposure, while genes involved in fatty acid utilization were unaffected. At the same time, smoke exposure suppressed multiple proteome maintenance genes induced in the hearts of DIO mice. Together, these results underscore the sensitivity of the heart to SS smoke and reveal adaptive responses in healthy individuals that are absent in the setting of high fat diet and obesity.
    Chemical Research in Toxicology 06/2013; 26(7). DOI:10.1021/tx400078b · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reversible disulfide oxidation between proximal cysteines in proteins represents a common regulatory control mechanism to modulate flux through metabolic pathways in response to changing environmental conditions. To enable in vivo measurements of cellular redox changes linked to disulfide bond formation, we have synthesized a cell-permeable thiol-reactive affinity probe (TRAP) consisting of a monosubstituted cyanine dye derivatized with arsenic (i.e., TRAP_Cy3) to trap and visualize dithiols in cytosolic proteins. Alkylation of reactive thiols prior to displacement of the bound TRAP_Cy3 by ethanedithiol permits facile protein capture and mass spectrometric identification of proximal reduced dithiols to the exclusion of individual cysteines. Applying TRAP_Cy3 to evaluate cellular responses to increases in oxygen and light levels in the photosynthetic microbe Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, we observe large decreases in the abundance of reduced dithiols in cellular proteins, which suggest redox-dependent mechanisms involving the oxidation of proximal disulfides. Under these same growth conditions that result in the oxidation of proximal thiols, there is a reduction in the abundance of post-translational oxidative protein modifications involving methionine sulfoxide and nitrotyrosine. These results suggest that the redox status of proximal cysteines respond to environmental conditions, acting to regulate metabolic flux and minimize the formation of reactive oxygen species to decrease oxidative protein damage.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 02/2013; 135(9). DOI:10.1021/ja3117284 · 12.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The co-occurrence of environmental factors is common in complex human diseases and, as such, understanding the molecular responses involved is essential to determine risk and susceptibility to disease. We have investigated the key biological pathways that define susceptibility for pulmonary infection during obesity in diet-induced obese (DIO) and regular weight (RW) C57BL/6 mice exposed to inhaled lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS induced a strong inflammatory response in all mice as indicated by elevated cell counts of macrophages and neutrophils and levels of proinflammatory cytokines (MDC, MIP-1γ, IL-12, RANTES) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Additionally, DIO mice exhibited 50% greater macrophage cell counts, but decreased levels of the cytokines, IL-6, TARC, TNF-α, and VEGF relative to RW mice. Microarray analysis of lung tissue showed over half of the LPS-induced expression in DIO mice consisted of genes unique for obese mice, suggesting that obesity reprograms how the lung responds to subsequent insult. In particular, we found that obese animals exposed to LPS have gene signatures showing increased inflammatory and oxidative stress response and decreased antioxidant capacity compared to RW. Because signaling pathways for these responses can be common to various sources of environmentally induced lung damage, we further identified biomarkers that are indicative of specific toxicant exposure by comparing gene signatures after LPS exposure to those from a parallel study with cigarette smoke. These data show obesity may increase sensitivity to further insult and that co-occurrence of environmental stressors result in complex biosignatures that are not predicted from analysis of individual exposures.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 01/2013; 267(2). DOI:10.1016/j.taap.2012.12.020 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: S-nitrosylation, the formation of S-nitrosothiol (SNO), is an important reversible thiol oxidation eventthat that has been increasingly recognized for its role in cell signaling. While many proteins susceptible to S-nitrosylation have been reported, site-specific identification of physiologically relevant SNO modifications remains an analytical challengebecause of the lowabundance and labile nature of thismodification. Herein we presentfurther improvement and optimization of the recentlyreported resin-assisted cysteinyl peptide enrichment protocol for SNO identification and the application to mouse skeletal muscle to identify specific cysteine sites sensitive to S-nitrosylationby a quantitative reactivity profiling strategy.Our results indicate that the protein- and peptide-level enrichment protocols provide comparable specificity and coverage of SNO-peptide identifications.S-nitrosylation reactivity profiling was performed by quantitatively comparing the site-specific SNO modification levels in samples treated with S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), an NO donor, at two different concentrations (i.e., 10μM and 100μM).The reactivity profiling experiments led to the identification of 488SNO-modified sites from 197proteins with specificity of ~95% at the uniquepeptidelevel;i.e., ~95% of enriched peptides contain cysteine residuesas the originally SNO-modified sites.Among these sites, 281sites from 145proteins were considered more sensitive to S-nitrosylation based on the ratios of observed SNO levels between the two treatments.These SNO-sensitive sites are more likely to be physiologically relevant.Many of the SNO-sensitiveproteins are localized in mitochondria, contractile fiber, and actin cytoskeleton, suggesting the susceptibility of these subcellular compartments to redox regulation.Moreover, theseobserved SNO-sensitive proteins are primarily involved in metabolic pathways, including TCA cycle, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, glutathione metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism, suggesting the importance of redox regulation in muscle metabolism and insulin action.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 12/2012; 57. DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.12.010 · 5.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Development of efficient microbial biofuel cells requires an ability to exploit interfacial electron transfer reactions to external electron acceptors, such as metal oxides; such reactions occur in the facultative anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 through the catalytic activity of the outer membrane decaheme c-type cytochrome MtrC. Central to the utility of this pathway to synthetic biology is an understanding of cellular mechanisms that maintain optimal MtrC function, cellular localization, and renewal by degradation and resynthesis. In order to monitor trafficking to the outer membrane, and the environmental sensitivity of MtrC, we have engineered a tetracysteine tag (i.e., CCPGCC) at its C-terminus that permits labeling by the cell impermeable biarsenical fluorophore carboxy-FlAsH (CrAsH) of MtrC at the surface of living Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 cells. In comparison, the cell permeable reagent FlAsH permits labeling of the entire population of MtrC, including proteolytic fragments resulting from incorrect maturation. We demonstrate specific labeling by CrAsH of engineered MtrC (MtrC*) which is dependent on the presence of a functional type 2 secretion system (T2S), as evidenced by T2S system gspD or gspG deletion mutants which are incapable of CrAsH labeling. Under these latter conditions, MtrC* undergoes proteolytic degradation to form a large 35-38 kDa fragment; this degradation product is also resolved during normal turnover of the CrAsH-labeled MtrC protein. No MtrC protein is released into the medium during turnover, suggesting the presence of cellular turnover systems involving MtrC reuptake and degradation. The mature MtrC localized on the outer membrane is a long-lived protein, with a turnover rate of 0.043 h(-1) that is insensitive to O(2) concentration. Maturation of MtrC is relatively inefficient, with substantial rates of turnover of the immature protein prior to export to the outer membrane (i.e., 0.028 h(-1)) that are consistent with the inherent complexity associated with correct heme insertion and acylation of MtrC that occurs in the periplasm prior to its targeting to the outer membrane. These latter results suggest that MtrC protein trafficking to the outer membrane and its subsequent degradation are tightly regulated, which is consistent with cellular processing pathways that target MtrC to extracellular structures and their possible role in promoting electron transfer from Shewanella to extracellular acceptors.
    Biochemistry 11/2011; 50(45):9738-51. DOI:10.1021/bi200602f · 3.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide is a physiological regulator of endothelial function and hemodynamics. Oxidized products of nitric oxide can form nitrotyrosine, which is a marker of nitrative stress. Cigarette smoking decreases exhaled nitric oxide, and the underlying mechanism may be important in the cardiovascular toxicity of smoking. Even so, it is unclear if this effect results from decreased nitric oxide production or increased oxidative degradation of nitric oxide to reactive nitrating species. These two processes would be expected to have opposite effects on nitrotyrosine levels, a marker of nitrative stress. In this study, we evaluated associations of cigarette smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with nitrotyrosine modifications of specific plasma proteins to gain insight into the processes regulating nitrotyrosine formation. A custom antibody microarray platform was developed to analyze the levels of 3-nitrotyrosine modifications on 24 proteins in plasma. In a cross-sectional study, plasma samples from 458 individuals were analyzed. Average nitrotyrosine levels in plasma proteins were consistently lower in smokers and former smokers than in never smokers but increased in smokers with COPD compared with smokers who had normal lung-function tests. Smoking is associated with a broad decrease in 3-nitrotyrosine levels of plasma proteins, consistent with an inhibitory effect of cigarette smoke on endothelial nitric oxide production. In contrast, we observed higher nitrotyrosine levels in smokers with COPD than in smokers without COPD. This finding is consistent with increased nitration associated with inflammatory processes. This study provides insight into a mechanism through which smoking could induce endothelial dysfunction and increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 06/2011; 119(9):1314-20. DOI:10.1289/ehp.1103745 · 7.98 Impact Factor
  • Diana J Bigelow · Thomas C Squier
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    ABSTRACT: The sensitive oxidations of sulfur containing amino acids (i.e., cysteines and methionines) commonly control protein function, and act as important signaling mechanisms to modify metabolic responses to environmental stressors. Mechanisms associated with cysteine oxidation to form sulfenic acid and disulfides (i.e., cystine and glutathione adducts), and their reversibility through thioredoxin-dependent mechanisms, are broadly appreciated as important regulatory mechanisms that control the function of a range of different proteins. Less commonly understood are the cellular consequences of methionine oxidation to form methionine sulfoxide, as the structural requirements for their thioredoxin-dependent reduction by methionine sulfoxide reductases limit the reversibility of methionine oxidation to sequences within surface exposed and conformationally disordered regions of proteins. Surface exposed methionines are commonly involved in molecular recognition between transient protein signaling complexes, where their oxidation disrupts productive protein-protein interactions linked to a range of cellular responses. Such a signaling protein is calmodulin, which represents an early and central point in calcium signaling pathways important to stress responses in plants. We describe recent work elucidating fundamental mechanisms of reversible methionine oxidation within calmodulin, including the physical basis for differences in the sensitivity of individual methionines within plant and animal calmodulin to reactive oxygen species (ROS), the structural and functional consequences of their oxidation, and the interactions of oxidized calmodulin with methionine sulfoxide reductase enzymes. It is suggested that, in combination with high-throughput proteomic methods and current generation informatics tools, these mechanistic insights permit useful predictions of oxidatively sensitive signaling proteins that act as redox and stress sensors in response to methionine oxidation.
    Molecular BioSystems 01/2011; 7(7):2101-9. DOI:10.1039/c1mb05081h · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative modifications of protein tyrosines have been implicated in multiple human diseases. Among these modifications, elevations in levels of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), a major product of hydroxyl radical addition to tyrosine, has been observed in a number of pathologies. Here we report the first proteome survey of endogenous site-specific modifications, i.e. DOPA and its further oxidation product dopaquinone in mouse brain and heart tissues. Results from LC-MS/MS analyses included 50 and 14 DOPA-modified tyrosine sites identified from brain and heart, respectively, whereas only a few nitrotyrosine-containing peptides, a more commonly studied marker of oxidative stress, were detectable, suggesting the much higher abundance for DOPA modification as compared with tyrosine nitration. Moreover, 20 and 12 dopaquinone-modified peptides were observed from brain and heart, respectively; nearly one-fourth of these peptides were also observed with DOPA modification on the same sites. For both tissues, these modifications are preferentially found in mitochondrial proteins with metal binding properties, consistent with metal-catalyzed hydroxyl radical formation from mitochondrial superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. These modifications also link to a number of mitochondrially associated and other signaling pathways. Furthermore, many of the modification sites were common sites of previously reported tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting potential disruption of signaling pathways. Collectively, the results suggest that these modifications are linked with mitochondrially derived oxidative stress and may serve as sensitive markers for disease pathologies.
    Molecular &amp Cellular Proteomics 06/2010; 9(6):1199-208. DOI:10.1074/mcp.M900321-MCP200 · 6.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Three new sandwich immunoassays for detection of nitrated biomarker have been established with potential applications in biomedical studies and clinical practice. In this study, nitrated human fibrinogen, a potential oxidative stress biomarker for several pathologies, was chosen as the target. To improve the sensitivity and overcome the interference caused by the complexity of human biofluids, we developed three sandwich strategies using various combinations of primary antibody and secondary antibody. All three strategies demonstrated high sensitivity and selectivity towards nitrated forms of fibrinogen in buffer, but their performances were dramatically reduced when tested with human plasma and serum samples. Systematically optimizations were carried out to investigate the effects of numerous factors, including sampling, coating, blocking, and immunoreactions. Our final optimization results indicate that two of these strategies retain sufficient sensitivity and selectivity for use as assays in human physiological samples. Specifically, detection limits reached the pM level and the linear response ranges were up to nM level with a correlation coefficient>0.99. To our best knowledge, this is the first example of using an electrochemical immunoassay for a nitrated biomarker in a physiological fluid. This novel approach provides a rapid, sensitive, selective, cost efficient and robust bioassay for detection of oxidative stress in pathology and for clinical applications. Moreover, the sandwich strategies developed in this paper can be readily used to establish effective methods targeting other nitration biomarkers.
    Talanta 06/2010; 81(4-5):1662-9. DOI:10.1016/j.talanta.2010.03.022 · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 2D-LC-MS/MS was applied to comparatively analyze the proteome changes in four brain regions (striatum, cerebellum, cortex, and the rest of brain) from a MPTP-induced Parkinson’s disease mouse model. A total of 518 proteins were observed with substantial abundance changes across different brain regions based on spectral count quantification. Many of the proteins were associated with dopamine signaling, mitochondrial dysfunction, the ubiquitin system, calcium signaling, oxidative stress response, and apoptosis.
    Journal of Proteome Research 02/2010; 9(3):1496-509. DOI:10.1021/pr901024z · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The oxidative inactivation of rabbit skeletal muscle Ca 2+-ATPase in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) vesicles by peroxynitrite (ONOO−) was investigated. The exposure of SR vesicles (10 mg/ml protein) to low peroxynitrite concentrations (≤0.2 mM) resulted in a decrease of Ca2+-ATPase activity primarily through oxidation of sulf-hydryl groups. Most of this deactivation (ca. 70%) could be chemically reversed by subsequent reduction of the enzyme with either dithiothreitol (DTT) or sodium borohydride (NaBH4), indicating that free cysteine groups were oxidized to disulfides. The initial presence of 5 mM glutathione failed to protect the SR Ca2+-ATPase activity. However, as long as peroxynitrite concentrations were kept ≤0.45 mM, the efficacy of DTT to reverse Ca 2+-ATPase inactivation was enhanced for re action mixtures which initially contained 5 mM gluta thione. At least part of the disulfides were formed intermolecularly since gel electrophoresis revealed protein aggregation which could be reduced under reducing conditions. The application of higher Peroxnitrite concentrations (≥0.45 mM) resulted in Ca2+-ATPase in activation which could not be restored by exposure of the modified protein to reducing agents. On the other hand, treatment of modified protein with NaBH4 recovered all SR protein thiols. This result indicates that possibly the oxidation of other amino acids contributes to enzyme inactivation, corroborated by amino acid analysis which revealed some additional targets for peroxynitrite or peroxynitrite-induced processes such as Met, Lys, Phe, Thr, Ser, Leu and Tyr. Tyr oxidation was confirmed by a significant lower sensitivity of oxidized SR proteins to the Lowry assay. However, neither bityrosine nor nitrotyrosine were formed in significant yields, as monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy and immunodetection, respectively. The Ca2+-ATPase of SR is involved in cellular Ca2+-homeostasis. Thus, peroxynitrite mediated oxidation of the Ca2+-ATPase might significantly contribute to the loss of Ca2+-homeostasis observed under biological conditions of oxidative stress.
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    ABSTRACT: A protein TRAP: The in vivo photocrosslinking of TRAP after its intracellular targeting to a binding sequence on the bait protein stabilizes protein interactions. Because the crosslinker is releasable, simple mass spectrometry can be used to identify the protein binding sites after purification. Protein crosslinking, especially coupled to mass-spectrometric identification, is increasingly used to determine protein binding partners and protein–protein interfaces for isolated protein complexes. The modification of crosslinkers to permit their targeted use in living cells is of considerable importance for studying protein-interaction networks, which are commonly modulated through weak interactions that are formed transiently to permit rapid cellular response to environmental changes. We have therefore synthesized a targeted and releasable affinity probe (TRAP) consisting of a biarsenical fluorescein linked to benzophenone that binds to a tetracysteine sequence in a protein engineered for specific labeling. Here, the utility of TRAP for capturing protein binding partners upon photoactivation of the benzophenone moiety has been demonstrated in living bacteria and mammalian cells. In addition, ligand exchange of the arsenic–sulfur bonds between TRAP and the tetracysteine sequence to added dithiols results in fluorophore transfer to the crosslinked binding partner. In isolated protein complexes, this release from the original binding site permits the identification of the proximal binding interface through mass spectrometric fragmentation and computational sequence identification.
    ChemBioChem 06/2009; 10(9):1507-18. DOI:10.1002/cbic.200900029 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oligomeric interactions between Ca-ATPase polypeptide chains and their modulation by phospholamban (PLB) were measured in native cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) microsomes. Progressive modification of Lys(514) with fluorescein 5-isothiocyanate (FITC), which physically blocks access to the nucleotide binding site by ATP, demonstrates that Ca-ATPase active sites function independently of one another prior to the phosphorylation of PLB. However, upon cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) phosphorylation of PLB, a second-order dependence between residual enzyme activity and the fraction of active sites is observed, consistent with a dimeric functional complex. Complementary distance measurements were made using FITC or 5-iodoacetamidofluorescein (IAF) bound to Cys(674) within the N- or P-domains, respectively, to detect structural coupling within oligomeric complexes. Accompanying the phosphorylation of PLB, neighboring Ca-ATPase polypeptide chains exhibit a 4 +/- 2 A decrease in the proximity between FITC sites within the N-domain and a 9 +/- 3 A increase in the proximity between IAF sites within P-domains. Thus, the phosphorylation of PLB induces spatial rearrangements between the N- and P-domain elements of proximal Ca-ATPase polypeptide chains which restore functional interactions between neighboring polypeptide chains and, in turn, result in increased rates of catalytic turnover. These results are interpreted in terms of a structural model, calculated through optimization of shape complementarity, desolvation, and electrostatic energies, which suggests a dimeric arrangement of Ca-ATPase polypeptide chains through the proximal association of N-domains that accommodates interaction with PLB. We suggest that the phosphorylation of PLB acts to release constraints involving interdomain subunit interactions that enhance catalytically important N-domain motions.
    Biochemistry 03/2009; 48(11):2411-21. DOI:10.1021/bi8021526 · 3.02 Impact Factor
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    Biophysical Journal 02/2009; 96(3). DOI:10.1016/j.bpj.2008.12.1636 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Calcium-dependent domain movements of the actuator (A) and nucleotide (N) domains of the SERCA2a isoform of the Ca-ATPase were assessed using constructs containing engineered tetracysteine binding motifs, which were expressed in insect High-Five cells and subsequently labeled with the biarsenical fluorophore 4',5'-bis(1,3,2-dithioarsolan-2-yl)fluorescein (FlAsH-EDT(2)). Maximum catalytic function is retained in microsomes isolated from High-Five cells and labeled with FlAsH-EDT(2). Distance measurements using the nucleotide analog 2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) adenosine 5'-triphosphate (TNP-ATP), which acts as a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) acceptor from FlAsH, identify a 2.4 A increase in the spatial separation between the N- and A-domains induced by high-affinity calcium binding; this structural change is comparable to that observed in crystal structures. No significant distance changes occur across the N-domain between FlAsH and TNP-ATP, indicating that calcium activation induces rigid body domain movements rather than intradomain conformational changes. Calcium-dependent decreases in the fluorescence of FlAsH bound, respectively, to either the N- or A-domains indicate coordinated and noncooperative domain movements, where both A- and N-domains display virtually identical calcium dependencies (i.e., K(d) = 4.8 +/- 0.4 microM). We suggest that occupancy of a single high-affinity calcium binding site induces the rearrangement of the A- and N-domains of the Ca-ATPase to form an intermediate state, which facilitates phosphoenzyme formation from ATP upon occupancy of the second high-affinity calcium site.
    Biochemistry 11/2008; 47(47):12448-56. DOI:10.1021/bi8014289 · 3.02 Impact Factor
  • Curt B Boschek · Hongye Sun · Diana J Bigelow · Thomas C Squier
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    ABSTRACT: We have used fluorescence spectroscopy to investigate the structure of calmodulin (CaM) bound with CaM-binding sequences of either the plasma membrane Ca-ATPase or the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RyR1) calcium release channel. Following derivatization with N-(1-pyrene)maleimide at engineered sites (T34C and T110C) within the N- and C-domains of CaM, contact interactions between these opposing domains of CaM resulted in excimer fluorescence that permits us to monitor conformational states of bound CaM. Complementary measurements take advantage of the unique conserved Trp within CaM-binding sequences that functions as a hydrophobic anchor in CaM binding and permits measurements of both a local and global peptide structure. We find that CaM binds with high affinity in a collapsed structure to the CaM-binding sequences of both the Ca-ATPase and RyR1, resulting in excimer formation that is indicative of contact interactions between the N- and the C-domains of CaM in complex with these CaM-binding peptides. There is a 4-fold larger amount of excimer formation for CaM bound to the CaM-binding sequence of the Ca-ATPase in comparison to RyR1, indicating a closer structural coupling between CaM domains in this complex. Prior to CaM association, the CaM-binding sequences of the Ca-ATPase and RyR1 are conformationally disordered. Upon CaM association, the CaM-binding sequence of the Ca-ATPase assumes a highly ordered structure. In comparison, the CaM-binding sequence of RyR1 remains conformationally disordered irrespective of CaM binding. These results suggest an important role for interdomain contact interactions between the opposing domains of CaM in stabilizing the structure of the peptide complex. The substantially different structural responses associated with CaM binding to Ca-ATPase and RyR1 indicates a plasticity in their respective binding mechanisms that accomplishes different physical mechanisms of allosteric regulation, involving either the dissociation of a C-terminal regulatory domain necessary for pump activation or the modulation of intersubunit interactions to diminish RyR1 channel activity.
    Biochemistry 03/2008; 47(6):1640-51. DOI:10.1021/bi701987n · 3.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The molecular mechanisms underlying the changes in the nigrostriatal pathway in Parkinson's disease (PD) are not completely understood. Here, we use mass spectrometry and microarrays to study the proteomic and transcriptomic changes in the striatum of two mouse models of PD, induced by the distinct neurotoxins 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and methamphetamine (METH). Proteomic analyses resulted in the identification and relative quantification of 912 proteins with two or more unique peptides and 86 proteins with significant abundance changes following neurotoxin treatment. Similarly, microarray analyses revealed 181 genes with significant changes in mRNA, following neurotoxin treatment. The combined protein and gene list provides a clearer picture of the potential mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration observed in PD. Functional analysis of this combined list revealed a number of significant categories, including mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress response, and apoptosis. These results constitute one of the largest descriptive data sets integrating protein and transcript changes for these neurotoxin models with many similar end point phenotypes but distinct mechanisms.
    Journal of Proteome Research 03/2008; 7(2):666-77. DOI:10.1021/pr070546l · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The oxidation of methionines in calmodulin (CaM) can affect the activity of calcium pumps and channels to modulate the amplitude and duration of calcium signals. We have therefore investigated the possible oxidation of CaM in skeletal muscle and its effect on the CaM-dependent regulation of the RyR1 calcium release channel. Taking advantage of characteristic reductions in electrophoretic mobility determined by SDS-PAGE, we find that approximately two methionines are oxidized in CaM from skeletal muscle. The functional effect of CaM oxidation on the open probability of the RyR1 calcium release channel was assessed through measurements of [3H]ryanodine binding using a heavy sarcoplasmic reticulum preparation enriched in RyR1. There is a biphasic regulation of RyR1 by unoxidized CaM, in which calcium-activated CaM acts to enhance the calcium sensitivity of channel closure, while apo-CaM functions to enhance channel activity at resting calcium levels. We find that physiological levels of CaM oxidation preferentially weaken the CaM-dependent inhibition of the RyR1 calcium release channel observed at activating micromolar levels of calcium. In contrast, the oxidation of CaM resulted in minimal functional changes in the CaM-dependent activation of RyR1 at resting nanomolar calcium levels. Oxidation does not significantly affect the high-affinity binding of calcium-activated CaM to the CaM-binding sequence of RyR1; rather, methionine oxidation disrupts interdomain interactions between the opposing domains of CaM in complex with the CaM-binding sequence of RyR1 that normally function as part of a conformational switch associated with RyR1 inhibition. These results suggest that the oxidation of CaM can contribute to observed elevations in intracellular calcium levels in response to conditions of oxidative stress observed during biological aging. We suggest that the sensitivity of RyR1 channel activity to CaM oxidation may function as part of an adaptive cellular response that enhances the duration of calcium transients to promote enhanced contractility.
    Biochemistry 02/2008; 47(1):131-42. DOI:10.1021/bi701352w · 3.02 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
340.16 Total Impact Points


  • 2003–2014
    • Washington State University
      • • School of Biological Sciences
      • • School of Molecular Biosciences
      پولمن، واشینگتن, Washington, United States
  • 2002–2013
    • Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
      • Biological Sciences Division
      Richland, Washington, United States
  • 1992–2009
    • University of Kansas
      • • Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry
      • • Department of Molecular Biosciences
      Lawrence, Kansas, United States
  • 2007
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
  • 1988–1993
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States