P Rindi

Windsor Regional Hospital, Windsor, Ontario, Canada

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Publications (64)149.28 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Cardiovascular diseases represent the major cause of mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. HD increases oxidative stress and oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is a crucial step in the development of atherosclerosis. Vitamin E has been shown to reduce LDL oxidation. Our aim was to test the effect of a single HD session and chronic vitamin E supplementation on LDL oxidizability in HD patients. Methods: LDL susceptibility to copper-induced oxidation (lag-phase, LP) was measured in 19 HD patients, both immediately before and after hemodialysis; 18 age-matched healthy subjects served as controls. Both pre-HD and post-HD measurements were repeated after 12 weeks of vitamin E supplementation (800 IU/day) in a placebo-controlled, randomized design. Results: At baseline, HD patients showed hypertriglyceridemia, a significant triglyceride enrichment in LDL and HDL and an enhanced LDL resistance to oxidation (186 ± 6 vs. 163 ± 4 min, p<0.003). A single HD session decreased (to 172 ± 6 min, or -8%, p<0.002), and chronic vitamin E administration increased, LDL resistance to oxidation (+19%, p = 0.002 vs. placebo) without changing the serum lipid profile or lipoprotein lipid composition. Conclusions: We conclude that in patients on chronic hemodialysis, hypertriglyceridemia and triglyceride enrichment of LDL and HDL particles are associated with increased resistance of LDL to in vitro oxidation despite the fact that each dialysis session acutely increases LDL oxidizability. Vitamin E supplementation improves LDL resistance to oxidation without modifying circulating lipid levels and partitioning.
    Journal of nephrology 08/2012; 26(3). · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The clinical course of primary Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is frequently complicated by nephrotic range proteinuria and progression to renal failure. The high recurrence rate of the disease in transplanted kidney suggests the hypothesis that such patients have a circulating factor that alters glomerular capillary permeability. In recent years some authors found that serum from patients with FSGS increases glomerular permeability to albumin and partially identified the permeability factor (PF) as a protein of 30-50 Kd m.w. The removal of this protein by means of Plasma Exchange (PE) or plasma Immunoadsorption by Protein A (IA) decreased proteinuria. In this report we provide preliminary data about the prevalence of PF and the therapeutic effect of its removal by IA, in 3 pts with recurrence in the transplanted kidney, and 4 with FSGS of the native kidneys. They were resistant to corticosteroids (CS) and immunosuppressive (IS) therapy. 10 IA sessions were performed in 4 weeks: if a remission was achieved IA was gradually tapered. The level of PF in the serum was measured by an in vitro assay to determine the glomerular permeability to albumin. The FSGS was histologically proven in all cases and the degree of evolution was evaluated. PF levels, serum creatinine, daily proteinuria and serum albumin were monitored. The 3 patients with recurrent FSGS had a normalization of the PF levels; 2 had a clinical remission. In FSGS of native kidneys PF was elevated in 3/4 cases; 1 had a clinical remission; 2 with extensive sclerohyalinosis and 1 without PF levels did not improve. Our results confirm that most patients with FSGS have high PF serum levels and suggest that its removal can be beneficial.
    Renal Failure 07/2009; 23(3-4):533-41. · 0.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The 'RISchio CArdiovascolare nei pazienti afferenti all' Area Vasta In Dialisi' (RISCAVID) study is an observational and prospective trial including the whole chronic haemodialysis (HD) population in the northwest part of Tuscany (1.235 million people). The aim of the study was to elucidate the relevance of traditional and non-traditional risk factors of mortality and morbidity in HD patients as well as the impact of different HD modalities. A total of 757 HD patients (mean age 66 +/- 14 years, mean dialytic age 70 +/- 76 months, diabetes 19%) were prospectively followed up for 30 months and all-cause mortality, cardiovascular (CV) mortality and non-fatal CV events (acute myocardial infarction and stroke) were registered. At the time of the enrolment, demographic, clinical and laboratory data of the whole population were entered into a centralized database. Serum albumin, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were centrally determined at the start of the study. Patients were stratified into three groups according to the HD modality: standard bicarbonate HD (BHD) (n = 424), haemodiafiltration (HDF) with sterile bags (n = 204) and online HDF (n = 129). The Cox proportional hazards regression assessed adjusted differences in CV morbidity and mortality risk; a multivariate analysis was also performed. All-cause and CV mortality was 12.9%/year and 5.9%/year, respectively. Patients with combined high levels of CRP and pro-inflammatory cytokines showed an increased risk for CV (RR 1.9, P < 0.001) and all-cause mortality (RR 2.57, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis adjusted for comorbidity and demographic showed CRP as the most powerful mortality predictor (P < 0.001) followed by IL-6. The Cox proportional hazards regression assessed that online HDF and HDF patients had a significantly increased adjusted cumulative survival than BHD (P < 0.01). Data at 30 months from this study showed the synergic effect of CRP and pro-inflammatory cytokines as the strong predictors of all-cause and CV mortality. HDF was associated with an improved cumulative survival independent of the dialysis dose.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 07/2008; 23(7):2337-43. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with chronic renal failure, especially those treated with haemodialysis, have an increased risk of developing atherosclerotic vascular disease probably as a result of enhanced oxidative stress. The human cell membrane possesses electron transfer systems which protect against extracellular pro-oxidant challenge. We evaluated (1) the erythrocyte velocity of ferricyanide reduction (RBC vfcy) in 25 uraemic patients (aged 25-71 years; 14 males), (2) the changes induced by a single haemodialysis session and (3) biomarkers of oxidative stress. Before and after a mid-week dialysis session, we measured RBC vfcy, erythrocyte glutathione (RBC GSH), plasma and red cell membrane malondialdehyde (P and RBC MDA), plasma sulphydryl groups (P SH), plasma vitamin C levels and haemolysis percentage. Pre-dialysis RBC GSH (0.68+/-0.13 vs 0.80+/-0.13 mg/mL, p<0.01), P SH (266+/-74 vs 406+/-78 micromol/L, p<0.01) and plasma vitamin C (7.0+/-5.1 vs 21.5+/-8.5mg/L, p<0.001) were lower than in 25 age-sex-matched healthy controls; P MDA (1.57+/-0.52 vs 0.54+/-0.29 nmol/mL, p<0.001), RBC MDA (0.42+/-0.13 vs 0.34+/-0.16 nmol/mL, p<0.05) and haemolysis (1.2+/-0.3 vs 0.7+/-0.3%, p<0.001) were increased. Baseline RBC vfcy did not differ from normals (13.1+/-5.2 vs 12.9+/-3.2 mmol/mL/h). Following dialysis, RBC vfcy (to 8.9+/-4.5 mmol/mL/h, p<0.001) decreased, as well as P MDA, RBC MDA and plasma vitamin C (to 2.5+/-1.4 mg/L, p<0.001), whereas P SH groups increased (to 413+/-99 micromol/L, p<0.001); haemolysis percentage remained high. RBC vfcy values were correlated to RBC GSH and vitamin C levels. Uraemic patients showed signs of oxidative stress. Pre-dialysis RBC vfcy is maintained in the normal range on account of a reduced intracellular content of GSH and in spite of low plasma ascorbate. A single haemodialysis treatment reduced biomarkers of protein and lipid oxidation but markedly impaired transmembrane electron transfer, which could be explained by acute depletion of electron donors.
    Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD 05/2007; 17(4):288-93. · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The 2004 SIN census of the Italian nephrology and dialysis centres showed many interesting data about the epidemiology and the organization in the Regions of Emilia-Romagna (ER) and Tuscany (T). A) Epidemiology: incidence of dialysis patients 169 pmp (patients per million population) in ER, 147 ppm in T; prevalence of dialysis patients 639 pmp and 665 pmp, respectively; prevalence of transplanted patients 325 ppm in ER and 233 pmp in T; gross mortality of dialysis patients 16.3% and 13.4%, respectively; B) Type of vascular access in prevalently dialysis patients: arteriovenous fistula 83% and 78%; central venous catheter 13% and 12%; vascular graft 5% and 9%. C) Structural resources: nephrology beds 44 mp (per million population) and 50 mp; dialysis places 157 and 146 mp. D) Personnel resources : renal physicians 29 and 41 mp; renal nurses 171 and 202 mp ; each renal physician cares for 22 and 16 dialysis patients, and each renal nurse takes care of 3.7 and 3.3 dialysis patients. E) Activity: hospital admissions 1572, 1769 pmp; renal biopsies 115 and 166 pmp.
    Giornale italiano di nefrologia: organo ufficiale della Societa italiana di nefrologia 01/2006; 23(2):203-11.
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the well known association between interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cardiovascular mortality, no study has so far verified whether IL-6 adds prognostic information to that provided by C-reactive protein (CRP). A cohort of 218 haemodialysis patients from four different dialytic centres was followed-up retrospectively. Plasma IL-6 and CRP concentrations were determined. Full information on co-morbidities was available in 162 patients. With respect to the lowest quartile (< 3.6 pg/ml for IL-6, and < 2.2 mg/l for CRP), the crude relative risk (RR) of death from all causes of the upper quartile (> 13.9 pg/ml for IL-6, and > 12.8 mg/l for CRP) was 5.20 (95% confidence interval 2.06-13.011) for IL-6 and 3.16 (1.41-7.12) for CRP. When both variables were included, the estimates were 4.10 (1.30-12.96) for IL-6 and 1.29 (0.47-3.57) for CRP. As to continuous variables, the relationship between both variables and mortality tended to level off for the highest values, but became fairly linear after log transformation of the variables. For one unit SD of the log (variable), the RR was 2.09 (1.52-2.88) for IL-6 and 1.66 (1.23-2.24) for CRP. When they were included in the same model, the estimates were 1.90 (1.18-2.82) for IL-6 and 1.16 (0.81-1.66) for CRP. IL-6 has a stronger predictive value than CRP for cardiovascular mortality and provides independent prognostic information, while conveying most of that provided by CRP.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 05/2004; 19(5):1154-60. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Am J Hypertens (2001) 14, 67A–67A; doi:10.1016/S0895-7061(01)01664-8 P-113: Vitamin C reverses endothelial dysfunction in the brachial artery of chronic uremic patients on hemodialysis Lorenzo Ghiadoni1, Adamasco Cupisti1, Paola Mattei1, Yale Huang1, Stefano Taddei1, Paolo Rindi1, Giuliano Barsotti1 and Antonio Salvetti11Internal Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
    American Journal of Hypertension 03/2001; · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) is a useful tool to evaluate cardiac autonomic modulation, which is frequently impaired in chronic uremia. The aim of this study was to evaluate HRV in chronic uremics and to separately investigate the acute changes induced by volume depletion and solute removal during a hemodialysis session. Fourteen uremic patients (8 males and 6 females, aged 50 +/- 15 years) on maintenance hemodialysis and 14 sex- and age-matched healthy controls were studied. Both groups underwent ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring to evaluate the HRV time and frequency domain indices. The hemodialysis session was performed by 1 h of high-rate isolated ultrafiltration followed by 3 h of bicarbonate diffusive procedure. In uremic patients, the overall variability in the frequency [low-frequency power (LF): 505 +/- 473, vs. 1,446 +/- 654; high-frequency power (HF): 133 +/- 162 vs. 512 +/- 417; p < 0.001] and time domain indices (standard deviation of normal R-R intervals: 101.9 +/- 33.3 vs. 181.7 +/- 44.1 ms; p < 0.001) was markedly reduced compared to controls, whereas mean heart rate (83 +/- 12.4 vs. 60.9 +/- 8.8 bpm; p < 0.001) and LF/HF ratio (5.8 +/- 3.5 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.8; p < 0.001) were increased. Isolated ultrafiltration produced a marked further decrease in HRV indices, but the subsequent diffusive hemodialysis procedure, with a low ultrafiltration rate, made HRV increase again. Chronic uremics showed abnormal autonomic modulation with sympathetic-vagal imbalance. The unbalanced hypersympathetic response to body fluid depletion is related to the ultrafiltration rate. Low interdialytic weight gain and a low ultrafiltration rate, associated with adequate hemodialysis, should be the preferable strategy for uremic patients with autonomic dysfunction.
    Blood Purification 01/2001; 19(4):395-400. · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA) have been described in patients suffering from systemic vasculitis such as Wegener granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, Churg-Strauss syndrome and other pathological conditions. In this paper we report a greater incidence of ANCA in hemodialysis patients as compared to peritoneal dialysis patients, pre-dialytic uremic patients and non-renal patients; a possible role for dialysis bioincompatibility in ANCA generation was also investigated. A total of 335 uremics in substitutive treatment (176 in hemodialytic treatment and 159 in peritoneal dialysis) were examined for ANCA positivity. A total of 189 patients with advanced renal failure in conservative treatment and 100 healthy subjects were used as control. The dialysis techniques were standard hemodialysis (n = 119), low volume hemodiafiltration (n = 26) and hemofiltration (n = 31). ANCA positivity was examined by immunofluorescence (IF): diffuse finely granular staining was considered as classical positive reaction (C-ANCA) and P-ANCA was diagnosed if a perinuclear staining was observed. EIA for proteinase-3 (anti PR-3) and myeloperoxidase-antibodies (anti-MPO) were also performed. In non-renal patients and in patients with pre-dialytic renal insufficiency none were found ANCA positive. In peritoneal dialysis patients all but one were ANCA negative with IF, with all EIA test resulting negative. In hemodialytic patients, a positive IF test was found in 26 (14.7%) for P-ANCA and in 5 (2.8%) for C-ANCA; using the EIA test 23 (13%) patients were positive for MPO and 12 (6.8%) for PR-3. No correlation with age, primary renal diseases, dialytic age, dialysis membrane materials was found; regarding the different extracorporeal dialytic techniques a higher incidence (p < 0.02) was detected in patients undergoing HDF Backfiltration of contaminated dialysate may induce ANCA via an increased cytokine generation.
    The International journal of artificial organs 03/2000; 23(2):97-103. · 1.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In hemodialysis patients, C-reactive protein (CRP), an acute-phase reactant, is a sensitive and independent marker of malnutrition, anemia, and amyloidosis. The aim of the present studies was to evaluate CRP and interleukin 6 levels in plasma samples from long-term hemodialysis patients on different extracorporeal modalities associated with or without backfiltration. Two hundred and forty-seven patients were recruited in eight hospital-based centers. All patients had been on their dialytic modality for at least 6 months. At enrollment, 46 hemodialysis patients out of 247 (18.6%) had clinical evidence of pathologies known to be associated with high CRP values. The 201 remaining patients were defined as clinically stable and were on conventional hemodialysis (34%), hemodiafiltration with infusion volumes <10 liters/session (10%), hemodiafiltration with infusion volumes <20 liters/session (32%), and double-chamber hemodiafiltration with infusion volumes <10 liters/session (22%). Analysis of CRP values in the clinically stable patients showed that an unexpectedly high proportion (47%) of the patients had CRP values higher than 5 mg/l (taken as the upper limit in normal human subjects). The values of CRP and interleukin 6 were significantly higher in hemodiafiltration with infusion volumes <10 liters/session than in hemodiafiltration with infusion volumes >20 liters/session, in hemodialysis and in double-chamber hemodiafiltration. The same pattern occurred after 6 months of follow-up in 171 out of 201 clinically stable patients. Hemodialytic conditions that expose to the risk of backfiltration such as low exchange volume hemodiafiltration may induce a chronic inflammatory state as reflected by increased plasma values of both CRP and interleukin 6, thus suggesting the need for hemodialytic strategies that reduce (hemodialysis with low-permeability membranes or hemodiafiltration with infusion volumes >20 liters) or eliminate (double-chamber hemodiafiltration) backfiltration of bacteria-derived contaminants.
    Blood Purification 01/2000; 18(1):30-6. · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) develop nephrotic syndrome and terminal renal failure in most cases. FSGS reappears in 15-50% of transplanted kidneys and frequently causes the graft loss. Sera from patients with FSGS of native or transplanted kidneys contain some proteinuric or permeability factors (PF) which can be removed by means of plasma exchange (PE) or protein A Immunoadsorption (IA). We suggest a therapeutic protocol, for patients with biopsy proven FSGS of native or transplanted kidneys, resistant to steroid and immunosuppressive therapy, based on the association of PE or IA to conventional drug therapy. Daily proteinuria, renal function, serum albumin and circulating level of proteinuric factors (permeability test) will be monitored at regular time intervals during the apheresis cycle, which will be intensive at the beginning (8-10 sessions in 4 weeks) and very gradually discontinued. Results. We will consider satisfactory remission the reduction of proteinuria below 1 g/day, improvement of renal function, normalization of serum albumin level (> 3.5 g/dl). Partial remission will be considered: proteinuria below 3 g/day, stable renal function, serum albumin level between 3 and 3.5 g/dl. Permeability test, if positive at baseline examination, should be negative after apheresis. The primary endpoint of our protocol is: lasting remission (satisfactory or partial) after the apheresis suspension. Secondary endpoints are: maintained remission with continuing apheresis sessions, correlation between permeability activity and disease activity, identification of responders and non responders patients on the basis of positive permeability test.
    Journal of nephrology 01/2000; 13(5):347-51. · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was planned to clarify the mechanism(s) by which hemodialysis increases the QTc dispersion, a marker of risk of ventricular arrhythmias. To this aim, 10 uremic patients, without any relevant heart diseases, underwent two different types of hemodialysis schedules. In the first, 1 h of isolated high rate ultrafiltration preceded the standard diffusive procedure. In the second, during the first hour of standard bicarbonate hemodialysis, the decrease of plasma potassium concentration was prevented by increasing K+ concentration in the dialysate, according to its pre dialysis plasma levels. During the high rate ultrafiltration period, together with ECG signs of increased sympathetic nervous system activity and catecholamines secretion, the QTc dispersion did not change significantly. Instead, an evident increment was observed 1 h after the start of the diffusive hemodialysis, then slowly progressing until the end of the dialysis and finally returning to the pre dialysis values within 2 h after the end of the session. To the contrary, the increase of the QTc dispersion was totally blunted during a standard hemodialysis procedure in absence of plasma K+ decrease, but appeared again when the K+ dialysate fluid concentration was restored to 2 mmol/l. This study provides evidence that the increase of QTc dispersion occurring on hemodialysis is mainly related to the diffusive process, more precisely to the K+ removal. This is one more reason to focus attention on K+ removal rate especially when hemodialysis treatment is given in uremics affected by cardiac diseases with high risk of arrhythmias.
    Nephron 07/1999; 82(2):122-6. · 13.26 Impact Factor
  • Transplantation Proceedings 02/1999; 31(1-2):1162-4. · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • Transplantation Proceedings 09/1998; 30(5):2048. · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • Transplantation Proceedings 09/1998; 30(5):2047. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bacterial contamination of dialysate may enhance cytokine production in hemodialysis. The authors tested the hypothesis that C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 (IL-6) may be linked in a large group of patients exposed to backfiltration of dialysate over a long period of observation. Plasmas stored in a recently published multicenter study were reevaluated. Plasma C-reactive protein and IL-6 concentrations in patients with chronic uremia undergoing hemodiafiltration, which is known to be associated with backfiltration (Group II, 12 patients), were compared with those found in patients treated with a modified hemodiafiltration modality without backfiltration (Group I, 16 patients), and in patients shifted from one modality to the other (Group III, 27 patients), and in 10 patients on hemodialysis (Group IV) in a 1 year multicenter study. Plasma C-reactive and IL-6 both increased significantly (p<0.002), but slowly (after 8 months) in Group II compared with I, and during the 4 month period in hemodiafiltration with backfiltration in Group III. Backfiltration of dialysate with a moderate to low degree of contamination may enhance synthesis of cytokine and C-reactive protein in the long term. Thus, the relevance for dialytic strategies aiming at improving dialysate quality or at reducing backfiltration is highlighted. (C)1998Amercian Society of Artificial Internal Organs
    ASAIO Journal 08/1998; 44(5). · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bacterial contamination of dialysate may enhance cytokine production in haemodialysis. We tested the hypothesis that intracellular cytokines could be enhanced in a large group of patients exposed to backfiltration of dialysate over a long period of observation. The intracellular cytokine (interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and interleukin-1beta) concentrations in chronic uraemic patients undergoing haemodiafiltration, which is known to be associated with backfiltration (Group II, 12 patients), were compared to those found in patients treated with a modified haemodiafiltration modality without backfiltration (Group I, 16 patients), in patients shifted from one modality to the other (Group III, 27 patients) and in 10 patients on haemodialysis (Group IV) in a 1-year multicentre study. Group V comprised 10 healthy volunteers. All dialysis monitors were equipped with dialysate ultrafiltration systems. Dialysate contamination was studied by the LAL and the peripheral mononuclear cell/interleukin-1beta assays in the presence or absence of polymyxin B. Intracellular interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and interleukin-1beta both increased significantly (P < 0.002) but slowly (after 8 months) in Groups II vs I, and during the 4-month period in haemodiafiltration with backfiltration in Group III. The incidence of post/predialysis concentration ratio (over 1.5) increased two- to threefold in patients treated with haemodiafiltration with backfiltration with respect to haemodiafiltration without backfiltration. Results on the assays for LAL (< 0.5 E/ml) and interleukin-1beta (range 80.1-90.2 pg/5 x 10(6) cells; 70.2-81.3 pg/5 x 10(6) cells with polymyxin B) showed a moderate-to-low degree of dialysate contamination. Backfiltration of dialysate with moderate-to-low degree of contamination may enhance cytokine synthesis in the long term. Thus, the relevance for dialytic strategies aiming at improving dialysate quality and/or at reducing backfiltration is highlighted.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 07/1998; 13(7):1737-44. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Delayed graft function, defined as the need of dialysis in the first week after transplantation, neither due to immunological nor technical causes, determines a poor outcome of renal grafts. Delayed graft function is related to the cold ischemia time, which is shorter in local allocation programs. These, however, do not assure an optimal HLA-A,B,DR matching that can be provided by national allocation organizations. We reviewed 160 cadaveric kidney grafts performed in our local transplant network. Owing to the long waiting list caused by organ shortage, we were able to ensure both a high-grade histocompatibility and short cold ischemia times. The mean HLA-B,DR mismatch was 1.17. Cold ischemia time was < 24 h in 85% of cases. The incidence of DGF was 23.1%. In our experience a regional sharing program in the case of organ shortage provides good graft outcome (86.9% graft survival at 1 yr) with low incidence of delayed graft function.
    Clinical Transplantation 06/1997; 11(3):214-6. · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The authors evaluated the behavior of protein C activity, factor X and factor VII coagulant activity and serum lipoprotein(a) before and after dialytic treatment in patients on maintenance hemodialysis. They observed depressed protein C activity that significantly (p < 0.005) increased and became normal immediately after hemodialysis while factor X and factor VII increased (p < 0.01; p < 0.05) despite heparinization together with amount of serum lipoprotein(a). In vitro incubation (30' at 37 degrees C) of uremic and healthy blood showed a decrease in serum lipoprotein(a) concentration. After heparin addition (final concentration 0.5 U/ml) lipoprotein(a) increased in the uremic blood only. The clinical and physiopathological implications of these results are discussed.
    The International journal of artificial organs 04/1997; 20(3):163-5. · 1.45 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

508 Citations
149.28 Total Impact Points


  • 2004
    • Windsor Regional Hospital
      Windsor, Ontario, Canada
  • 1990–1995
    • Università di Pisa
      • Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
      Pisa, Tuscany, Italy
  • 1989–1995
    • Santa Chiara Hospital
      Trient, Trentino-Alto Adige, Italy