H G Kristensen

University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Capital Region, Denmark

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Publications (36)115.24 Total impact

  • Kaisa Naelapää, Peep Veski, Henning Gjelstrup Kristensen, Jukka Rantanen, Poul Bertelsen
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    ABSTRACT: An effective approach towards optimal development strategy is to use the quality by design principle. However, this approach can first be implemented when possible risks impacting critical quality attributes are defined and interactions between those are fully understood. The objective of this study was to identify critical variables that affect the final modified release product performance using a risk management approach with supporting statistical tool. After risk ranking and filtering a full mixed factorial experimental design of coating experiments was performed. Experimental design clearly indicated that studied critical processes parameters have a great impact on coat integrity and hence on drug release.
    Pharmaceutical Development and Technology 09/2009; 15(1):35-45. · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is a recognized need for new approaches to understand unit operations with pharmaceutical relevance. A method for analyzing complex interactions in experimental data is introduced. Higher-order interactions do exist between process parameters, which complicate the interpretation of experimental results. In this study, experiments based on mixed factorial design of coating process were performed. Drug release was analyzed by traditional analysis of variance (ANOVA) and generalized multiplicative ANOVA (GEMANOVA). GEMANOVA modeling is introduced in this study as a new tool for increased understanding of a coating process. It was possible to model the response, that is, the amount of drug released, using both mentioned techniques. However, the ANOVA model was difficult to interpret as several interactions between process parameters existed. In contrast to ANOVA, GEMANOVA is especially suited for modeling complex interactions and making easily understandable models of these. GEMANOVA modeling allowed a simple visualization of the entire experimental space. Furthermore, information was obtained on how relative changes in the settings of process parameters influence the film quality and thereby drug release.
    Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 10/2008; 98(5):1852-61. · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • Anne Flachs Nielsen, Poul Bertelsen, Henning Gjelstrup Kristensen, Lars Hovgaard
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    ABSTRACT: There is a need for a fast and reliable method to evaluate the development in coating quality during coating, especially for fast dissolving coatings. In the present study, pycnometric density was evaluated as a tool for assessment of coating quality in terms of sealing efficiency for microspheres coated with polymeric aqueous solutions. Further, it was investigated if the method could be used to study effects of spray variables on the sealing efficiency of coated microspheres. The microcrystalline cellulose particles Ethispheres250 were coated with aqueous solutions of Hypromellose 5 and Povidone K-90F by Wurster bottom-spray technique. End products and samples drawn during coating were analysed in terms of pycnometric helium density and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Experiments constituted a 2(3) factorial design with the following spray related variables: atomisation air flow, polymer type, and solution concentration/viscosity. Helium pycnometric density was seen to lower gradually during coating in all experiments and to follow a common pattern. The quantitative lowering in density was further seen to correlate to sealing of voids by gradual covering of the microsphere surface and thus the sealing efficiency. Hence, the present data suggests helium pycnometry as a tool for assessment of coating quality in terms of sealing efficiency. This goes particularly for testing of products coated with water-soluble coatings, where dissolution testing obviously is compromised. The specific data on sealing efficiency might also add to other analytical methods in the analysis of coating quality, in general. End point densities of coated microspheres were seen to reveal differences in sealing efficiency between polymers. Measured densities of final products were also generally seen to reflect differences in coating permeability caused by variations in spray conditions. Thus, the measurement of density is a potential a tool for evaluation of spray conditions with respect to sealing of microspheres and identification of critical spray conditions.
    European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 01/2008; 32(4-5):318-27. · 2.99 Impact Factor
  • K. Naelapää, P. Veski, H. G. Kristensen, P. Bertelsen
    European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 09/2007; 32(1). · 2.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to investigate the potential of acoustic monitoring of a production scale fluidized bed coating process. The correlation between sensor signals and the estimated amount of film applied and percentage release, respectively, were investigated in coating potassium chloride (KCl) crystals with ethylcellulose (EC). Vibrations were measured with two different types of accelerometers. Different positions for placing the accelerometers and two different product containers were included in the study. Top spray coating of KCl was chosen as a 'worst case' scenario from a coating point perspective. The acoustic monitoring has the potential of summarising the commonly used means to monitor the coating process. The best partial least squares (PLS) regressions, obtained by the high frequency accelerometer, showed for the release a correlation coefficient of 0.92 and a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 5.84% (31-82.8%), and for the estimated amount of film applied a correlation coefficient of 0.95 and RMSEP of 0.52% (0.6-6%). The results of the preliminary investigation are considered promising. There is however a need for further investigations on sampling procedures and product characterisation before a final conclusion on the applicability of acoustic monitoring can be made.
    International Journal of Pharmaceutics 04/2007; 332(1-2):90-7. · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aqueous solutions of lactose and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were spray dried in a Büchi Model 191 spray dryer with the aim to investigate the effect of PEG on the crystallinity of the composite. A PEG concentration of 10.7% by weight of solids was studied for PEG 200, 600, 1500, 4000 and 8000. For PEG 200 and 4000 additional concentrations from 1.5-19.3% to 1.5-32.4%, respectively, were investigated. The spray dried composites were analysed with X-ray powder diffraction and modulating differential scanning calorimetry. The crystallinity of lactose in the composites varied from 0% to 60%, dependent on the molecular weight and concentration of PEG. Apparently, lactose crystallinity is promoted by low molecular weight and high concentration of the PEG. PEG did not affect the lactose glass transition temperature. It is suggested that lactose and PEG are solidified separately during spray drying and that partial crystallization of lactose is associated with effects of PEG on the rate of drying.
    European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics 11/2006; 64(2):206-11. · 3.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The intramolecular structure of dietary triacylglycerols (TAG) influences absorption. In this study, two different pharmaceutical formulations were compared containing TAG differing in fatty acid profiles and intramolecular structures: LML and MLM, where M represented medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA; 8:0) and L represented long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). Lymph was collected from thoracic duct-cannulated canines for 12 h and the fatty acid composition was determined. The lymphatic transport of total fatty acids was significantly higher than the amount dosed; hence, the small exogenously dosed lipid recruited a large pool of endogenous fatty acids. The LML vehicle led to a significantly higher total fatty acid transport than the MLM vehicle. The amount of 8:0 recovered in lymph was almost similar and low for both groups. The amount of LCFA recovered from the animals dosed with the LML vehicle was generally higher than from the animals dosed with the MLM vehicle; however, statistically significant differences were only found for 18:0 and 18:3n-3. In conclusion, these results indicated that the fatty acid profile and intramolecular structure of administered TAG influenced the absorption of fatty acids in canines, also when the TAG was incorporated into a pharmaceutical formulation in low amounts.
    European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 08/2006; 108(9):714 - 722. · 2.27 Impact Factor
  • David Ilardia-Arana, Henning G Kristensen, Anette Müllertz
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    ABSTRACT: Biorelevant dissolution media containing bile salt and lecithin at concentrations appropriate for fed and fasted state are useful when testing oral solid formulations of poorly water-soluble drugs. Dilution of amphiphile solutions affects the aggregation state of the amphiphiles because bile salt is partitioned between the aqueous phase and the aggregates. The aim of the investigation was to study the effect of dilution on the size distribution of aggregates and its effect on the solubilization capacity. Clear buffered solutions of four intestinal amphiphiles (sodium glycocholate, lecithin, monoolein, and oleic acid) and a combination of these were prepared at high bile salt concentration. Micelles in the glycocholate solutions decreased in size when diluted. The addition of insoluble amphiphiles led to bigger micelles with no clear correlation between size of the micelles and amphiphile concentration. Dilution of the two- and four component media caused enlargement of the mixed micelles and formation of vesicles. The solubility of estradiol in the buffer solution was increased with addition of the amphiphiles. A good correlation (R(2) = 0.987) was found between estradiol solubility and mass concentration of the amphiphiles. The results demonstrate that, in the case of estradiol, the concentration of amphiphiles rather than the aggregation state determines the solubilization capacity of the medium.
    Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 03/2006; 95(2):248-55. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cationic solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) have recently been suggested for non-viral gene delivery, as these particles consist of well tolerated substances, can bind DNA directly via electrostatic interactions and mediate gene transfer in vitro. We here report the development of SLN complexes, which can be targeted to specific surface receptors. A formulation of SLN was prepared by the microemulsion technique comprising of stearylamine and the matrix lipid Compritol ATO 888 with a size of approximately 100 nm and a zeta-potential of +15. These SLN are able to condense DNA in complexes, which are very stable under physiological conditions, and they display low cytotoxicity in cell culture. In addition to binding of DNA, the SLN can simultaneously bind substantial amounts of streptavidin directly via electrostatic interactions. The SLN:DNA: streptavidin complexes are stable and are capable of binding biotinylated ligands, which can interact with surface receptors. This method allows for development of a fast and simple method of preparing a targeted non-viral gene therapy vector.
    European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics 03/2006; 62(2):155-62. · 3.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Effervescent atomizers belong to the group of internal mixing atomizers. The effervescent approach might be a potential alternative to traditional atomization techniques, e.g., for applications where low atomization air consumption is advantageous In this paper, performance of one proposed design of the effervescent atomizer is investigated and compared to that of a standard pneumatic atomizer. The purpose of the comparison is to evaluate the actual potential of the specific effervescent atomizer in pharmaceutical relevant aqueous coating applications. Aqueous solutions of Hypromellose 5 as well as Povidone K-90F were characterized in terms of rheological properties and surface tension. Solutions were atomized by means of a standard Schlick pneumatic atomizer as well as a customized inside-out type effervescent atomizer. Spray droplet size distributions were recorded by a Spraytec instrument. Increased shear viscosity in the range 24-836 mPa.s had a modest effect on spray mean diameters for pneumatic sprays of the Newtonian solutions of Hypromellose 5. In contrast, mean droplet diameters increased by a factor of 3-5 in pneumatic sprays of Povidone K-90F solutions 11-175 mPa.s in viscosity, where non-Newtonian behavior was observed. Further, sprays of all solutions of Povidone K-90F have considerably larger mean droplet size. The effervescent atomizer atomized low viscosity solutions of Povidone K-90F more efficiently than Hypromellose 5 solutions of corresponding shear viscosity. However, atomization of high viscosity Povidone K-90F results in a coarser spray than that of the corresponding Hypromellose 5 solution. Viscosity, visco-elasticity, and surface tension of solutions all seem to affect atomization efficiency. The pneumatic atomizer was not sensitive to changes in airflow above 8.4 kg/h and liquid flow only had a considerable effect at suboptimal air flows. In its current design the effervescent atomizer improved efficiency throughout the investigated range of air flow of 0.18-0.84 kg/h and consistently produced smaller drops at liquid flow of 10 g/min compared to 35 g/min. In spite of the very low level of air consumption, the effervescent atomizer can produce fine sprays. Within its working range, the standard pneumatic atomizer, however, is capable of producing sprays of even smaller mean droplet size. All together this suggests the described effervescent atomizer as an alternative for applications where advantages of reduced atomization air flow outweigh the disadvantages of a less fine spray, e.g., in coating of attrition-prone substrate.
    Pharmaceutical Development and Technology 02/2006; 11(2):243-53. · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to design dissolution tests that were able to distinguish between the behaviour of danazol under fasted and fed conditions, by using biorelevant media. In vitro dissolution of 100mg danazol capsules was performed using the flow-through dissolution method. Flow rates were 8, 16 or 32 ml/min, corresponding to total volumes dissolution medium of 960, 1920 and 3840 ml, respectively. The media used contained bile salt and phospholipid levels relevant for either fasted or fed conditions in vivo. Crude and inexpensive bile components, Porcine Bile Extract and soybean phospholipids, were used as the bile source. The effect of adding different concentrations and molar ratios of monoglycerides and fatty acids to the fed state media was investigated. In vivo release profiles under fasted and fed conditions were obtained from a previous study by deconvolution [Sunesen, V.H., Vedelsdal, R., Kristensen, H.G., Christrup, L., Müllertz, A. 2005. Effect of liquid volume and food intake on the absolute bioavailability of danazol, a poorly soluble drug, Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. 24, 297-303]. In the fasted state, the physiologically most relevant correlation with in vivo results was achieved with a medium containing 6.3 mM bile salts and 1.25 mM phospholipids (8 ml/min). A medium containing 18.8 mM bile salts, 3.75 mM phospholipids, 4.0 mM monoglycerides and 30 mM fatty acids (8 ml/min) gave the closest correlation with fed state in vivo results. By using the flow-through dissolution method it was possible to obtain correlations with in vivo release of danazol under fasted and fed conditions. Both hydrodynamics and medium composition were important for the dissolution of danazol. In the fed state an IVIVC could only be obtained by including monoglycerides and fatty acids in the medium.
    European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 04/2005; 24(4):305-13. · 2.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The influence of liquid intake and a lipid-rich meal on the bioavailability of a lipophilic drug was investigated. Danazol was used as the model substance. In a randomized four-way crossover study eight healthy male volunteers received four different treatments with danazol at 2-week intervals following an overnight fast (one I.V. infusion and three oral treatments). The I.V. formulation contained 50mg danazol solubilized in 40% hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin. The oral treatments were a Standard treatment, a Standard + 800 ml water treatment and a Standard + lipid-rich meal treatment. The Standard oral treatment consisted of 200 ml water and one capsule containing 100mg danazol, three 500 mg paracetamol tablets and two 500 mg sulfasalazine tablets. Paracetamol and sulfasalazine were used as markers for gastric emptying and small intestinal transit times. Intake of danazol with a lipid-rich meal or extra 800 ml water increased the bioavailability by 400 and 55%, respectively. Gastric emptying times increased in the following order: Standard<Standard + 800 ml water<Standard + lipid-rich meal. The effects of food and liquid on danazol bioavailability can at least partly be explained by a delay in the gastric emptying time.
    European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 04/2005; 24(4):297-303. · 2.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An investigation of the spray drying process is made in great detail regarding particle formation and capture efficiency with focus on the production of inhalable particles. Mannitol was spray dried as model substance and the spray-dried products were characterized. The resulting products consisted of smooth spheres with a volume median diameter of 2.2-5.5 microm, and narrow size distributions. The investigation was performed in pilot scale of sufficient size to draw general conclusions and make some recommendations. It has been shown that the size of particles is decreased when the feed concentration is decreased, the nozzle gas/feed flow mass ratio increased, and the droplet size decreased. The collection efficiency of the cyclone device used in this study was shown to have a cut-off of 2 microm, i.e., 50% of the particles less than 2 microm are not captured. The data reported indicate that the majority of the single particles formed here, <5 microm, arise from single droplets (of about 10 microm) and are solid, nonporous particles.
    Pharmaceutical Development and Technology 12/2004; 9(4):409-17. · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The partitioning of poorly soluble drugs into an aqueous micellar phase was exploited using an in vitro lipid digestion model, simulating the events taking place during digestion of acylglycerols in the duodenum. The aqueous micellar phase was isolated after ultracentrifugation of samples obtained at different degrees of triacylglycerol hydrolysis. Flupentixol, 1'-[4-[1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-H-indol-3-yl]-1-butyl]spiro[iso-benzofuran-1(3H), 4' piperidine] (LU 28-179) and probucol were studied. The effect of the alkyl chain length of the triacylglycerol was studied using a medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT) and a long-chain triacylglycerol (LCT), respectively. In general, an oil solution was used as the lipid source in the model. Samples were analysed in regard to micellar size, lipid composition and drug concentration. During lipolysis, the content of lipolytic products in the aqueous micellar phase increased. The micellar size (R(H) approximately 3 nm) only increased when long-chain lipolytic products were incorporated in the mixed micelles (R(H) approximately 7.8 nm). Flupentixol was quickly transferred to the mixed micelles due to high solubility in this phase (100% released). A tendency towards higher solubilisation of LU 28-179, when it was administered in the LCT (approximately 24% released) compared to when it was administered in the MCT (approximately 15% released) at 70% hydrolysis, and a lagphase was observed. There was no difference in the solubilisation of probucol using MCT or LCT ( approximately 20% released), respectively. Differences in the physicochemical properties of the drugs resulted in differences in their distribution between the phases arising during lipolysis.
    European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 12/2004; 23(3):287-96. · 2.99 Impact Factor
  • Ditte M Karpf, René Holm, Henning G Kristensen, Anette Müllertz
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the lymphatic transport and the portal absorption of halofantrine (Hf) when administered in (i) a triacylglycerol (TG) solution, (ii) an o/w-emulsion that contains a metabolizable surfactant, and (iii) an o/w-emulsion that contains a synthetic surfactant. Lymph cannulated rats were orally dosed with Hf in a TG solution or in o/w-emulsions dispersed by lecithin or Cremophor RH40. Lymph was continuously collected, and blood was sampled periodically in the course of 30 h. Hf in the lymph and blood and TG and phosphatidyl choline (PC) in the lymph were analyzed. A significantly (p < 0.05) higher level of Hf was found in the intestinal lymph when dosed in one of the emulsions (22.8+/-2.8% and 20.2+/-2.5%) compared to in the TG solution (7.9+/-1.1%). No difference in the lymphatic transport of Hf was observed between the two emulsions. The portal absorption of Hf was similar for the three vehicles. The emulsified vehicles favor an increased lymphatic transport of Hf. The portal transport of Hf was not significantly different for the three vehicles. This indicates that a different degree of dispersion of the TG vehicle can change the route of transportation of Hf.
    Pharmaceutical Research 09/2004; 21(8):1413-8. · 4.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The potential for lipidic self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) containing triglycerides with a defined structure, where the different fatty acids on the glycerol backbone exhibit different metabolic fate, to improve the lymphatic transport and the portal absorption of a poorly water-soluble drug, halofantrine, were investigated in fasted lymph cannulated canines. Two different structured triglycerides were incorporated into the SMEDDS; 1,3-dioctanoyl-2-linoleyl-sn-glycerol (C8:0-C18:2-C8:0) (MLM) and 1,3-dilinoyl-2-octanoyl-sn-glycerol (C18:2-C8:0-C18:2) (LML). A previously optimised SMEDDS formulation for halofantrine, comprising of triglyceride, Cremophor EL, Maisine 35-1 and ethanol was selected for bioavailability assessment. The extent of lymphatic transport via the thoracic duct was 17.9% of the dose for the animals dosed with the MLM SMEDDS and 27.4% for LML. Also the plasma availability was affected by the triglyceride incorporated into the multi-component delivery system and availabilities of 56.9% (MLM) and 37.2% (LML) were found. These data indicate that the pharmaceutical scientist can use the structure of the lipid to affect the relative contribution of the two absorption pathways. The MLM formulation produced a total bioavailability of 74.9%, which is higher than the total absorption previously observed after post-prandial administration. This could indicate the utility of disperse lipid-base formulations based on structured triglycerides for the oral delivery of halofantrine, and potentially other lipophilic drugs.
    European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 10/2003; 20(1):91-7. · 2.99 Impact Factor
  • Anette Seo, Per Holm, Henning Gjelstrup Kristensen, Torben Schaefer
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to prepare by melt agglomeration agglomerates containing solid dispersions of diazepam as poorly water-soluble model drug in order to evaluate the possibility of improving the dissolution rate. Lactose monohydrate was melt agglomerated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3000 or Gelucire 50/13 (mixture of glycerides and PEG esters of fatty acids) as meltable binders in a high shear mixer. The binders were added either as a mixture of melted binder and diazepam by a pump-on procedure or by a melt-in procedure of solid binder particles. Different drug concentrations, maximum manufacturing temperatures, and cooling rates were investigated. It was found to be possible to increase the dissolution rate of diazepam by melt agglomeration. A higher dissolution rate was obtained with a lower drug concentration. Admixing the binders by the melt-in procedure resulted in similar dissolution rates as the pump-on procedure. The different maximum manufacturing temperatures and cooling rates were found to have complex effects on the dissolution rate for formulations containing PEG 3000, whereas only minor effects of the cooling procedure were found with Gelucire 50/13. Gelucire 50/13 resulted in faster dissolution rates compared to PEG 3000.
    International Journal of Pharmaceutics 07/2003; 259(1-2):161-71. · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cationic solid lipid nanospheres (SLN) were prepared by the microemulsion technique with polysorbate 80 (Tween 80) and butanol as surfactants. The SLN (diameter 100-500 nm, zetapotential around +15 mV) consisted mainly of stearylamine (SA) and different triglycerides. Three different purification methods, ultrafiltration, ultracentrifugation and dialysis, were investigated and compared with the cellular toxicity and physical stability of the dispersions. The cell toxicity was dependent on both the SLN composition and the purification method. Dialysis was found to easily and efficiently remove excessive surfactant determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS), leading to reduced cell toxicity and increased physical stability of the SLN on storage. The cationic SLN might constitute a promising DNA delivery system.
    International Journal of Pharmaceutics 04/2003; 254(1):83-7. · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the influence of triglyceride vehicle intramolecular structure on the intestinal lymphatic transport and systemic absorption of halofantrine in conscious rats. Conscious, lymph cannulated and nonlymph cannulated rats were dosed orally with three structurally different triglycerides; sunflower oil, and two structured triglycerides containing different proportion and position of medium-(M) and long-chain (L) fatty acids on the glycerol backbone. The two structured triglycerides were abbreviated MLM and LML to reflect the structural position on the glycerol. The concentration of halofantrine in blood and lymph samples was analyzed by HPLC. Both the lymphatic transport and the total absorption of halofantrine were enhanced by the use the MLM triglyceride. The estimated total absorption of halofantrine in the lymph cannulated animals was higher than in the nonlymph cannulated animals, and this was most pronounced for the animals dosed with the structured triglycerides. Using MLM as vehicle increases the portal absorption of halofantrine and results in similar lymphatic transport levels when compared to sunflower oil. Total absorption when assessed as absorption in the blood plus lymphatic transport for halofantrine after administration in the MLM triglyceride was higher than after administration in sunflower oil.
    Pharmaceutical Research 10/2002; 19(9):1354-61. · 4.74 Impact Factor
  • K L Christensen, G P Pedersen, H G Kristensen
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to estimate the stability of redispersible dry emulsions containing amorphous sucrose. Dry emulsions were prepared by spray drying liquid o/w-emulsions in a laboratory spray dryer. The effect of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) on the glass transition temperature T(g) of spray dried sucrose-HPMC mixtures, relative to the T(g) of amorphous sucrose, was investigated. For the sucrose-HPMC mixtures the values of T(g) followed the ideal Gordon-Taylor equation up to 30% HPMC. For dry emulsions containing 40% HPMC, 30% lipid and 30% sucrose, the T(g) was increased by 12 degrees C relative to the T(g) of amorphous sucrose. The stability of the dry emulsions was investigated by a conventional stability study and by an enthalpy relaxation study. The measured enthalpy recovery of amorphous sucrose below T(g) was used to calculate molecular relaxation time parameters based on the Williams-Watts equation. The molecular mobility of amorphous sucrose at temperatures 50 degrees C below T(g) was low and negligible with respect to the shelf life stability. It was concluded that the dry emulsions are physically stable with respect to the lifetime of a pharmaceutical product when stored in dry condition and at temperatures up to 28 degrees C.
    European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics 04/2002; 53(2):147-53. · 3.83 Impact Factor