Mitsuru Akashi

Osaka University, Suika, Ōsaka, Japan

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Publications (582)2178.02 Total impact

  • Takami Akagi · Mitsuru Akashi ·
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    ABSTRACT: Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology and related study to the prevention and treatment of disease in the human body. In recent years, signifi cant effort has been directed to develop nanotechnology for drug delivery devices since it offers a suitable means of delivering small-molecule drugs, as well as biomacromolecules such as proteins, peptides, or oligonucleotides by either localized or targeted delivery to cells and tissues of interest. Until now, lipid-, polymer-, or nano-/microparticle-based drug delivery systems (DDS) have been developed to improve the effi cacy and reduce the systemic toxicity of a wide range of drugs. Several DDS formulations of anticancer drugs, antifungal drugs, and vaccines are approved for clinical use. In this chapter, we will mainly focus on the clinical use of DDS on therapy and prevention of infectious diseases.
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    ABSTRACT: We have established a novel three-dimensional (3D) tissue-constructing technique, referred to as the 'cell-accumulation method', which is based on the self-assembly of cultured human cells. In this technique, cells are coated with fibronectin and gelatin to construct extracellular matrix (ECM) nanofilms and cultured to form multi-layers in vitro. By using this method, we have successfully fabricated artificial tissues with vascular networks constructed by co-cultivation of human umbilical vein-derived vascular endothelial cells between multi-layers of normal human dermal fibroblasts. In this study, to assess these engineered vascular tissues as therapeutic implants, we transplanted the 3D human tissues with microvascular networks, fabricated based on the cell-accumulation method, onto the back skin of nude mice. After the transplantation, we found vascular networks with perfusion of blood in the transplanted graft. At the boundary between host and implanted tissue, connectivity between murine and human vessels was found. Transmission electron microscopy of the implanted artificial vascular tubules demonstrated the ultrastructural features of blood capillaries. Moreover, maturation of the vascular tissues after transplantation was shown by the presence of pericyte-like cells and abundant collagen fibrils in the ECM surrounding the vasculature. These results demonstrated that artificial human vascular tissues constructed by our method were engrafted and matured in animal skin. In addition, the implanted artificial human vascular networks were connected with the host circulatory system by anastomosis. This method is an attractive technique for engineering prevascularized artificial tissues for transplantation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine 11/2015; DOI:10.1002/term.2108 · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA)-based polymers are well-known to form functional hydrogels with self-healing properties by chelating metal ions. However, DOPA-based hydrogels with self-healing properties are difficult to obtain in the absence of the metal ions, as previously reported. Thus, the aim of this study is to prepare a self-healable DOPA-based hydrogel in the absence of metal ions. Firstly, poly(vinyl alcohol)–DOPA (PVA–DOPA) was synthesized by modifying PVA with DOPA through an esterification reaction. The composition of the PVA–DOPA polymer was determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy. Then, the PVA–DOPA hydrogel in a metal-free environment could be easily prepared by dissolving the polymer in buffer solution. Rheological analyses showed that the PVA–DOPA polymers had different dynamic moduli depending on the pH of the buffer solutions. The results from the FTIR and UV-vis spectra indicated that there were hydrogen bond interactions between the PVA–DOPA polymers under low pH conditions, while there were both hydrogen bond and covalent interactions under high pH conditions. The PVA–DOPA hydrogel could be rapidly self-healed within 270 s, which was much quicker than the hydrogel prepared in the presence of Fe3+ (about 600 s). The metal-free PVA–DOPA hydrogel has the potential for application in coating and biomedical fields.
    RSC Advances 09/2015; 5(100). DOI:10.1039/C5RA15991A · 3.84 Impact Factor
  • Hiroharu Ajiro · Ayaka Kuroda · Kai Kan · Mitsuru Akashi ·
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    ABSTRACT: The stereocomplex formation of poly(L,L-lactide) (PLLA) and poly(D,D-lactide) (PDLA) using an inkjet system was expanded to the amphiphilic copolymers, using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as hydrophilic polymer. The diblock copolymers which are composed of PEG and PLLA (MPEG-co-PLLA) and PEG and PDLA (MPEG-co-PDLA) were employed for thin film preparation using an aqueous inkjet system. The solvent and temperature conditions were optimized for the stereocomplex formation between MPEG-co-PLLA and MPEG-co- PDLA. As a result, the stereocomplex was adequately formed in acetonitrile/water (1/1, v/v) at 40 ºC. The aqueous conditions improved the stereocomplex film preparation, which have suffered from clogging when using the organic solvents in previous work. The triblock copolymers, PLLA-co-PEG-co-PLLA and PDLA-co-PEG-co-PDLA, were employed for square patterning with the inkjet system, which produced thin films. The amphiphilic polymer film was able to retain hydrophobic compounds inside. The present result contributed to the rapid film preparation by inkjet, retaining drugs with difficult solubility in water, such as paclitaxel within the films.
    Langmuir 09/2015; 31(38). DOI:10.1021/acs.langmuir.5b03169 · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gas hydrates in the upstream oil and gas industry often cause problems during production, such as plugged pipelines causing down time and loss of revenue. Kinetic hydrate inhibitors (KHIs) have successfully been used in the field for about 2 decades. KHIs work to delay hydrate nucleation and/or crystal growth in the hydrate-stable operating region. KHIs, such as polymers containing N-vinyl amide units, for example, methacrylamide-based KHI polymers with isopropyl groups, have been commercialized and are now used in field operations. However, there are no reports of polymers with n-propyl groups that have been commercialized as a KHI. Using a structure-II-forming natural gas, we have now investigated the KHI performance of homopolymers with n-propyl and isopropyl groups based on the N-vinylformamide (NVF) monomer. A range of copolymers with NVF with higher cloud points were also synthesized and tested because the cloud points of these homopolymers were found to be lower than preferred for most field operations. The polymer series containing nPr-NVF monomer was found to perform better as KHIs than the iPr-NVF series as KHIs at 2500 ppm concentration in deionized water at all copolymer ratios with a similar molecular weight. Two of the best polymers from each of the nPr-NVF and iPr-NVF series were tested at varying concentrations from 1500 to 5000 ppm. A similar trend was found as with the tests of the complete series, in which the nPr-NVF polymer performed better than the iPr-NVF polymer. Poly(N-(n-propyl)-N-vinylformamide) homopolymer gave a similar KHI performance as a commercial sample of polyvinylcaprolactam (PVCap).
    Energy & Fuels 08/2015; 29(8):150804112154002. DOI:10.1021/acs.energyfuels.5b01251 · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    Akihiro Nishiguchi · Michiya Matsusaki · Mitsuru Akashi ·

    07/2015; DOI:10.1021/acsbiomaterials.5b00188
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    ABSTRACT: Surface modification can play a crucial role in enhancing cell adhesion to synthetic polymer-based scaffolds in tissue engineering applications. Here, we report a novel approach for layer-by-layer (LbL) fabrication of nanometer-size fibronectin and gelatin (FN-G) layers on electrospun fibrous poly(carbonate urethane)urea (PCUU) scaffolds. Alternate immersions into the solutions of fibronectin and gelatin provided thickness-controlled FN-G nano-layers (PCUU(FN-G) ) which maintained the scaffold's 3D structure and width of fibrous bundle of PCUU as evidenced by scanning electron miscroscopy. The PCUU(FN-G) scaffold improved cell adhesion and proliferation of bladder smooth muscles (BSMCs) when compared to uncoated PCUU. The high affinity of PCUU(FN-G) for cells was further demonstrated by migration of adherent BSMCs from culture plates to the scaffold. Moreover, the culture of UROtsa cells, human urothelium-derived cell line, on PCUU(FN-G) resulted in an 11-15 μm thick multilayered cell structure with cell-to-cell contacts although many UROtsa cells died without forming cell connections on PCUU. Together these results indicate that this approach will aid in advancing the technology for engineering bladder tissues in vitro. Because FN-G nano-layers formation is based on nonspecific physical adsorption of fibronectin onto polymer and its subsequent interactions with gelatin, this technique may be applicable to other polymer-based scaffold systems for various tissue engineering/regenerative medicine applications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.a.35544 · 3.37 Impact Factor
  • Chun-Yen Liu · Michiya Matsusaki · Mitsuru Akashi ·
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    ABSTRACT: In the field of tissue engineering, fabrication of millimeter- or centimeter-sized three-dimensional (3D) human tissues with controlled 3D cell density, 3D cell components, and 3D cell locations has been a goal of researchers. In this study, we fabricated collagen nanofiber layers of varying thicknesses on cell surfaces by previously reported collagen-coating techniques and then constructed millimeter-sized 3D human tissues, controlling the 3D cell–cell distance. In these 3D tissues, cells in the constructed 3D tissues kept a constant cell–cell distance after 24 h of incubation. Thickness of the obtained 3D tissues was controlled successfully by altering the number of cells seeded and coating times. The maximum thickness was over 2 mm when coating was carried out three times. Cell–cell distance was also controllable from approximately 15–30 μm. When cells coated once and twice with collagen nanofibers were used for the continuous construction of 3D tissues, millimeter-sized 3D tissues with areas of different cell density were obtained. The interfaces between higher and lower cell density areas were slightly mixed, but more than 80% viability was maintained after 4 days of incubation. The results suggested that stable millimeter-sized 3D tissues can be achieved using collagen nanofiber-coated cells. In addition, 3D tissues constructed by collagen-coated iPS-CM and human cardiac fibroblast were also successful.
    07/2015; 1(8):150715113613001. DOI:10.1021/acsbiomaterials.5b00015
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    ABSTRACT: The cellular uptake of biodegradable particles as drug or vaccine carriers was observed by scanning electron microscopy employing an ionic liquid. The samples were observed by simply dipping them into the ionic liquid, and high-resolution images (sub-nanometer order) were achieved. The cellular uptake of polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) composed of biodegradable amphiphilic polymers was observed using an ionic liquid method for the first time. In particular, these NPs were observed when the quantum dots were immobilized on the NPs. In addition, when the cells were incubated with microparticles (MPs), the filopodia that covered the MPs were observed, and the cellular uptake of the MPs was evaluated in a time-dependent manner. This ionic liquid method is a promising technique for evaluating the cellular uptake behavior of drug or vaccine carriers. This method also provides a strategy for observing carriers that are sensitive to conventional pretreatment conditions by choosing a suitable ionic liquid.
    Polymer Journal 07/2015; 47(9). DOI:10.1038/pj.2015.40 · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hydroxyapatite (HA) or calcium carbonate (CaCO3) formed on an organic polymer of agarose gel is a biomaterial that can be used for bone tissue regeneration. However, in critical bone defects, the regeneration capability of these materials is limited. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that can differentiate into bone forming osteoblasts. In this study, we loaded MSCs on HA- or CaCO3-formed agarose gel and cultured them with dexamethasone, which triggers the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. High alkaline phosphatase activity was detected on both the HA- and CaCO3-formed agarose gels; however, basal activity was only detected on bare agarose gel. Bone-specific osteocalcin content was detected on CaCO3-formed agarose gel on Day 14 of culture, and levels subsequently increased over time. Similar osteocalcin content was detected on HA-formed agarose on Day 21 and levels increased on Day 28. In contrast, only small amounts of osteocalcin were found on bare agarose gel. Consequently, osteogenic capability of MSCs was enhanced on CaCO3-formed agarose at an early stage, and both HA- and CaCO3-formed agarose gels well supported the capability at a later stage. Therefore, MSCs loaded on either HA- or CaCO3-formed agarose could potentially be employed for the repair of critical bone defects.
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 06/2015; 16(6):14245-58. DOI:10.3390/ijms160614245 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Phase-sensitive vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy has been utilized to study the molecular orientation of molecules adsorbed on dielectric solid substrates. Our results show that the complex second-order nonlinear susceptibility χ(2) spectra of various organic thin films can be obtained by using a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) as a standard sample for the phase correction and a gold thin film as a local oscillator. Furthermore, by using the present phase-sensitive SFG setup, the orientation flipping of water molecules on positively and negatively charged solid/liquid interface can be distinguished.
    Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 06/2015; 17(27). DOI:10.1039/C5CP02702K · 4.49 Impact Factor
  • Yukie Takemoto · Hiroharu Ajiro · Mitsuru Akashi ·
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    ABSTRACT: Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly based on hydrogen-bonding interactions is generating great interest for biomedical applications because it is composed of neutral polymers, while LbL assembly based on electrostatic interaction requires polycations which may induce toxicity issues. As a neutral polymer, poly(N-vinylamide), which has low toxicity compared to poly(acrylamide), has the potential to fabricate LbL thin films via hydrogen-bonding interactions. Herein we report interpolymer complexes of poly(N-vinylamide)s and natural polyphenol tannic acid to form the multilayered thin film. Poly(N-vinylformamide) and poly(N-vinylacetamide), which are water-soluble and insoluble in acetonitrile, could not form complexes with TA in water. On the other hand, N-alkylated poly(N-vinylamide) such as poly(N-ethyl-N-vinylformamide) and poly(N-methyl-N-vinylacetamide) was soluble in acetonitrile and allowed the LbL assembly to proceed with TA. Furthermore, the QCM frequency shift with films composed of poly(N-ethyl-N-vinylformamide) and TA were stable in water, while those of poly(N-methyl-N-vinylacetamide) and TA were instable in water, possibly because formamide has lower steric hindrance compared to acetamide to allow stronger hydrogen-bonding interactions to take place. Thus, LbL assembly reactions with alkylated poly(N-vinylamide)s and TA were investigated and revealed that poly(N-ethyl-N-formamide) and TA, which are water-soluble, effectively interacted with one another to generate water-stable hydrogen-bonded multilayered films.
    Langmuir 06/2015; 31(24). DOI:10.1021/acs.langmuir.5b00767 · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The porous isotactic (it-) poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin film, which is prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly with it-PMMA and syndiotactic (st-) poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) on a substrate and the successive extraction of st-PMAA, was investigated on the aspect of the mechanism of stereoregular template polymerization, inspired by the idea “molecular technology”. The porous it-PMMA film was analyzed with XRD and FT-IR spectra, after the treatment with acetonitrile or a heating process, resulting in partially crystallized it-PMMA, which gave low efficiency of stereoregular template polymerization. The template polymerization under various conditions was also tested, using methacrylamide, methyl methacrylate, and acrylic acid as methacrylic acid derivatives. Furthermore, st-PMAAs with different syndiotacticity were employed to prepare the porous it-PMMA film after LbL film preparation, resulting in low yields and stereoregularity on template polymerization. The results imply that perfect polymer-polymer interaction is essential to achieve precise polymerization in stereoregular template polymerization.
    Kōbunshi rombun shū 05/2015; 72(5). DOI:10.1295/koron.2014-0090 · 0.18 Impact Factor
  • Fumiaki Shima · Takami Akagi · Mitsuru Akashi ·
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    ABSTRACT: The new generation vaccines are safe but poorly immunogenic, and thus they require the use of adjuvants, and adjuvants which can control the balance and induction level of cellular and humoral immunities are urgently required for the treatment and/or protection of infectious diseases and cancers. Although, there have no adjuvants which can achieve these requirements. In this study, amphiphilic poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) with various kinds of hydrophobic amino acid ethyl esters (AAE), was synthesized (γ-PGA-AAE) and prepared antigen-encapsulated nanoparticles (NPs). γ-PGA-graft-Leu (γ-PGA-Leu, Leu; leucine ethyl ester), γ-PGA-graft-Phe (γ-PGA-Phe, Phe; phenylalanine ethyl ester), and γ-PGA-graft-Trp (γ-PGA-Trp, Trp; tryptophan ethyl ester) formed monodispersed NPs that encapsulated ovalbumin (OVA). The type and the induction level of the antigen-specific cellular and humoral immunities could be controlled by the kinds of hydrophobic segments and vaccine formulation (encapsulation or mixture). When OVA was encapsulated into NPs, the cellular immunity was dominantly induced, while humoral immunity was dominant when OVA was mixed with NPs. These results are a first report that demonstrated the balance and induction level of cellular and humoral immunities could be controlled by modifying compositions of NPs and vaccine formulation. Our results suggest that γ-PGA-AAE NPs can provide safe and efficient nanoparticle-based vaccine adjuvants, and provide guidelines in the rational design of amphiphilic polymers as vaccine adjuvants which can control the balance of immune responses.
    Bioconjugate Chemistry 04/2015; 26(5). DOI:10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.5b00106 · 4.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Urethane-crosslinked β-cyclodextrin polymers are prepared by crosslinking heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin (DM-β-CD) with various diisocyanate linkers, such as 4,4′-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate) (MDI), 1,4-phenylene diisocyanate (PDI) and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI), in DMF. Among these polymers, MDI- and PDI-crosslinked polymers have high adsorption capabilities toward polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), such as tetra, penta and hexachlorobiphenyl, in isooctane. Toward hexachlorobiphenyl in insulating oil, the adsorption capability of the MDI-crosslinked polymer increases with the adsorption temperature. In addition, using acetone as a washing solvent gives the highest recovery percentage of the PCB from the PCB-adsorbed polymer.
    Polymer Journal 04/2015; 47(6). DOI:10.1038/pj.2015.13 · 1.65 Impact Factor
  • Kazuya Takemura · Hiroharu Ajiro · Tomoko Fujiwara · Mitsuru Akashi ·
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    ABSTRACT: The androgen testosterone is less expensive than bone morphogenetic proteins and has been shown to effectively repair bone fractures. However, testosterone is lipophilic and insoluble in water, making it difficult to load into hydrogels, which are common drug carriers. In this study, we prepared a novel oil gel composed of poly(L-lactide) and a poly(trimethylene carbonate) derivative and studied the release of testosterone from the gel. Dimethyl sulfoxide and dimethyl carbonate, which are organic solvents with relatively low toxicities, were used as dispersion media. The oil gel in dimethyl sulfoxide released testosterone faster than that in dimethyl carbonate. In addition, the dimethyl carbonate oil gel was vacuum-dried to reduce the gel porosity and thus slow testosterone release. Therefore, oil gel is a promising substrate for lipophilic drugs, including testosterone.
    Polymer Journal 04/2015; 47(6). DOI:10.1038/pj.2015.17 · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We developed a human skin equivalent (HSE) containing blood and lymph-like capillary networks using a cell coating technique, which is a rapid fabrication technology of three-dimensional cellular constructs by cell surface coating using layer-by-layer assembled nanofilms of extracellular matrices. The thickness of dermis consisting of normal human dermal fibroblasts was easily controlled from approximately 5 to 100 µm by altering the seeded cell number. Keratinocytes as a major cell population showed homogeneous differentiation on the surface of the dermis by lifting to air-liquid interface. Histological analysis revealed four distinct layers such as basal layer, spinous layer, granular layer and cornified cell layer in the epidermis. Interestingly, the measurement of trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) indicated prolongation of the attainment time for maximum value by increasing the number of the dermal fibroblasts, and the HSEs with six-layers of dermis revealed the longest period maintaining over 500 Ω·cm(2) of TEER. The co-sandwich culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and normal human dermal lymphatic microvascular endothelial cells within eight-layered dermis showed in vitro co-network formation of individual blood and lymph-like capillaries inside the dermis. This is the first report for homogeneous full-thickness HSEs with blood and lymph capillary networks, which will be useful for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 04/2015; 103(10). DOI:10.1002/jbm.a.35473 · 3.37 Impact Factor
  • Tomofumi Uto · Takami Akagi · Mitsuru Akashi · Masanori Baba ·
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    ABSTRACT: Development of effective and simple vaccine preparation is desired for prophylaxis and treatment of a variety of infectious diseases and cancers. We have created novel polyion complex (PIC) nanoparticle (NPs) composed of amphiphilic anionic biodegradable poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) and cationic polymers as a vaccine adjuvant. PIC NPs can be prepared by mixing γ-PGA-graft-l-phenylalanine ethylester (γ-PGA-Phe) polymer with cationic polymer in phosphate buffered saline. We examined the efficacy of PIC NPs for their antigen delivery and immunostimulatory activity in vitro and in vivo. PIC NPs enhanced the uptake of ovalbumin (OVA) by dendritic cells (DCs) and subsequently induced DC maturation. The immunization of mice with OVA-carrying PIC NPs could induce potent and antigen-specific cellular and humoral immunity. Since PIC NPs can be created with water-soluble anionic γ-PGA-Phe and a cationic polymer by simple mixing in the absence of any organic solvents, PIC NPs may have potential as a novel candidate for an effective antigen carrier and vaccine adjuvant. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
    Clinical and vaccine Immunology: CVI 03/2015; 22(5). DOI:10.1128/CVI.00080-15 · 2.47 Impact Factor
  • Chizuru Kogame · Toshiyuki Kida · Tomoko Fujiwara · Mitsuru Akashi ·
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclic l-lactic acid octamer (l-COLA-8) shows a unique complexing capability towards alkali and alkali earth metal cations in acetonitrile-d3/chloroform-d (9/1). The valence of the cation affects the stoichiometry of the complexes between l-COLA-8 and the cation; l-COLA-8 forms a 2:1 complex with alkali metal cations, but forms a 1:1 complex with alkali earth metal cations. Additionally, l-COLA-8 shows a binding selectivity for Rb+ and Ba2+, which have a diameter about 3 Å.
    Tetrahedron Letters 03/2015; 56(13). DOI:10.1016/j.tetlet.2015.02.037 · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    Akihiro Nishiguchi · Michiya Matsusaki · Mitsuru Akashi ·
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    ABSTRACT: Front Cover: Heparin-based ECM nanofilms formed on living cells by layer-by-layer assembly induce cell-cell crosslinking through bio-molecular recognition between highly-sulfated polymers and membrane proteins. Cell aggregates display network structures of cells and the cell-cell crosslinking process leads to in vitro 3D-tissue construction with rich glycosaminoglycan. The cellular assembly technique presented by M. Akashi and co-workers on page 312 has potential for tissue engineering and intercellular signalling assay. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
    Macromolecular Bioscience 03/2015; 15(3):293. DOI:10.1002/mabi.201570009 · 3.85 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

11k Citations
2,178.02 Total Impact Points


  • 2003-2015
    • Osaka University
      • • Division of Applied Chemistry
      • • Division of Molecular Biochemistry
      • • Graduate School of Engineering
      Suika, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 2006-2013
    • Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2012
    • RWTH Aachen University
      • Institute of Inorganic Chemistry
      Aachen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1984-2010
    • Kagoshima University
      • • Faculty of Engineering
      • • Center for Educational Research and Development
      • • Graduate School of Science and Engineering
      Kagosima, Kagoshima, Japan
  • 2009
    • Jiangnan University
      • School of Chemical and Material Engineering
      Wuxi, Jiangsu Sheng, China
  • 2007
    • Kyoto Institute of Technology
      Kioto, Kyōto, Japan
  • 2005
    • Yangtze University
      Hu-pei-ts’un, Shanxi Sheng, China
  • 2004
    • Chulalongkorn University
      • Petroleum and Petrochemical College
      Krung Thep, Bangkok, Thailand
  • 1997
    • Slovak Academy of Sciences
      • Polymer Institute
      Presburg, Bratislavský, Slovakia
  • 1991
    • University of Tsukuba
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan