Eihachiro Kawase

Kyoto University, Kioto, Kyōto, Japan

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Publications (29)148.85 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: One of the current obstacles to stem cell therapy is the tumorigenic potential of residual undifferentiated stem cells. The present study reports rediscovery of a synthetic derivative of okadaic acid, a marine polyether toxin, as a reagent that selectively induces the death of human pluripotent stem cells. Cell-based screening of 333 cytotoxic compounds identified methyl 27-deoxy-27-oxookadaate (molecule 1) as a substrate of two ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, ABCB1 (MDR1) and ABCG2 (BCRP), whose expression is repressed in human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. The results demonstrate that selective elimination of human pluripotent stem cells can be achieved by designing cytotoxic small molecules with appropriate ABC-transporter selectivity.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 07/2014; · 10.68 Impact Factor
  • Eihachiro Kawase
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    ABSTRACT: Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including human embryonic stem cells and human-induced pluripotent stem cells, are a renewable cell source for a wide range of applications in regenerative medicine and useful tools for human disease modeling and drug discovery. For these purposes, large numbers of high-quality cells are essential. Recently, we showed that a biological substrate, recombinant E8 fragments of laminin isoforms, sustains long-term self-renewal of hPSCs in defined, xeno-free medium with dissociated single-cell passaging. Here, we describe a modified culture system with similar performance to efficiently expand hPSCs under defined, xeno-free conditions using a non-biological synthetic substrate.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 05/2014; · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A small-molecule fluorescent probe specific for human pluripotent stem cells would serve as a useful tool for basic cell biology research and stem cell therapy. Screening of fluorescent chemical libraries with human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and subsequent evaluation of hit molecules identified a fluorescent compound (Kyoto probe 1 [KP-1]) that selectively labels human pluripotent stem cells. Our analyses indicated that the selectivity results primarily from a distinct expression pattern of ABC transporters in human pluripotent stem cells and from the transporter selectivity of KP-1. Expression of ABCB1 (MDR1) and ABCG2 (BCRP), both of which cause the efflux of KP-1, is repressed in human pluripotent stem cells. Although KP-1, like other pluripotent markers, is not absolutely specific for pluripotent stem cells, the identified chemical probe may be used in conjunction with other reagents.
    Cell Reports 03/2014; · 7.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent cells have the potential to provide an unlimited source of tissues for regenerative medicine. For this purpose, development of defined/xeno-free culture systems under feeder-free conditions is essential for the expansion of hESCs. Most defined/xeno-free media for the culture of hESCs contain basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Therefore, bFGF is thought to have an almost essential role for the expansion of hESCs in an undifferentiated state. Here, we report identification of small molecules, some of which were neurotransmitter antagonists (trimipramine and ethopropazine), which promote long-term hESC self-renewal without bFGF in the medium. The hESCs maintained high expression levels of pluripotency markers, had a normal karyotype after 20 passages, and could differentiate into all three germ layers.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 03/2013; · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have the potential to provide an infinite source of tissues for regenerative medicine. Although defined xeno-free media have been developed, culture conditions for reliable propagation of hESCs still require considerable improvement. Here we show that recombinant E8 fragments of laminin isoforms (LM-E8s), which are the minimum fragments conferring integrin-binding activity, promote greater adhesion of hESCs and hiPSCs than do Matrigel and intact laminin isoforms. Furthermore, LM-E8s sustain long-term self-renewal of hESCs and hiPSCs in defined xeno-free media with dissociated cell passaging. We successfully maintained three hESC and two hiPSC lines on LM-E8s in three defined media for 10 passages. hESCs maintained high level expression of pluripotency markers, had a normal karyotype after 30 passages and could differentiate into all three germ layers. This culture system allows robust proliferation of hESCs and hiPSCs for therapeutic applications.
    Nature Communications 12/2012; 3:1236. · 10.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Low efficiencies of gene targeting via homologous recombination (HR) have limited basic research and applications using human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Here, we show highly and equally efficient gene knockout and knock-in at both transcriptionally active (HPRT1, KU80, LIG1, LIG3) and inactive (HB9) loci in these cells using high-capacity helper-dependent adenoviral vectors (HDAdVs). Without the necessity of introducing artificial DNA double-strand breaks, 7-81% of drug-resistant colonies were gene-targeted by accurate HR, which were not accompanied with additional ectopic integrations. Even at the motor neuron-specific HB9 locus, the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene was accurately knocked in in 23-57% of drug-resistant colonies. In these clones, induced differentiation into the HB9-positive motor neuron correlated with EGFP expression. Furthermore, HDAdV infection had no detectable adverse effects on the undifferentiated state and pluripotency of hESCs and hiPSCs. These results suggest that HDAdV is one of the best methods for efficient and accurate gene targeting in hESCs and hiPSCs and might be especially useful for therapeutic applications.
    Molecular Therapy 12/2011; 20(2):424-31. · 7.04 Impact Factor
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    08/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-797-0
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiomyocytes arise from cells that migrate to the mid-to-anterior region of the primitive streak (PS) during embryogenesis. We previously showed that canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway signaling leads to the development of nascent PS populations from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and that synergistic activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling by Noggin induced the formation of anterior PS cells. We herein demonstrate that anterior PS cells induced by the activation of β-catenin with Noggin differentiate into functional cardiomyocytes when cultured in suspension with BMP4 and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). All aggregates generated from the anterior PS cells developed into contracting cells demonstrating their cardiac potential. More than 30% of the cells in each aggregate were α-actinin-positive cardiomyocytes. In addition, these cardiomyocytes could be easily purified up to 80% by simple size fractionation. In contrast, the posterior PS cells induced by β-catenin activation without Noggin showed poor cardiac potential. These results show that the commitment to a cardiac lineage in vitro occurs through similar cellular and molecular signaling pathways involved in cardiac development in vivo, thus providing a valuable culture model for studying early cardiac developmental events in hESCs.
    Genes to Cells 11/2010; 15(12):1216-27. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human embryonic stem cell (ESC) pluripotency is thought to be regulated by several key transcription factors including OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2. Although the functions of OCT4 and NANOG in human ESCs are well defined, that of SOX2 has not been fully characterized. To investigate the role of SOX2, we modulated the level of SOX2 expression in human ESCs. Reduction of SOX2 expression in human ESCs induced trophectodermal and partial endodermal differentiation. Interestingly, CDX2, a typical trophectoderm-associated gene, was not up-regulated. In contrast, using the Tet-on gene inducible system, SOX2 over-expression in human ESCs induced trophectoderm differentiation accompanied by increased CDX2 expression. Additionally, SOX2 over-expression resulted in an increase in CGalpha-positive cells, which marks later stage trophectoderm development, rather than placental lactogen-positive cells. Thus, over-expression as well as repression of SOX2 expression in human ESCs resulted in their differentiation into the trophectoderm lineage. Our data show that SOX2 plays an important role in the maintenance of pluripotency of human ESCs and possibly, trophoblast development.
    Genes to Cells 04/2010; 15(5):455-70. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Random integration is one of the more straightforward methods to introduce a transgene into human embryonic stem (ES) cells. However, random integration may result in transgene silencing and altered cell phenotype due to insertional mutagenesis in undefined gene regions. Moreover, reliability of data may be compromised by differences in transgene integration sites when comparing multiple transgenic cell lines. To address these issues, we developed a genetic manipulation strategy based on homologous recombination and Cre recombinase-mediated site-specific integration. First, we performed gene targeting of the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (HPRT) locus of the human ES cell line KhES-1. Next, a gene-replacement system was created so that a circular vector specifically integrates into the targeted HPRT locus via Cre recombinase activity. We demonstrate the application of this strategy through the creation of a tetracycline-inducible reporter system at the HPRT locus. We show that reporter gene expression was responsive to doxycycline and that the resulting transgenic human ES cells retain their self-renewal capacity and pluripotency.
    Nucleic Acids Research 04/2010; 38(7):e96. · 8.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are an attractive cell source for regenerative medicine. We previously reported the differentiation of hESCs into alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing endodermal cells by using extracellular matrix and growth factors. We also reported the establishment of the MLSgt20 cell line, which was derived from mesenchymal cells residing in murine fetal livers and accelerated the hepatic maturation of both murine hepatic progenitor cells and murine ESCs. In this study, hESC-derived AFP-producing cells were isolated by using a flow cytometer and co-cultured with MLSgt20 cells. The co-cultured hESC-derived AFP-producing cells had the immunocytological characteristics of hepatocytes, expressed mature hepatocyte markers (as indicated by reverse transcription and the polymerase chain reaction), and displayed higher hepatocyte functions including ammonia removal, cytochrome P450 3A4/7 activity, and the ability to produce and store glycogen. However, the MLSgt20 cells did not directly cause undifferentiated hESCs to mature into hepatocyte-like cells. The co-culture method was thus successfully shown to induce the differentiation of hESC-derived endodermal cells into functional hepatocyte-like cells.
    Cell and Tissue Research 03/2010; 339(3):505-12. · 3.68 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Hepatology - J HEPATOL. 01/2010; 52.
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    ABSTRACT: Human pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), have the ability to differentiate into various cell types, and will become a potential source of cellular materials for regenerative medicine. To make full use of hESCs or hiPSCs for both basic and clinical research, genetic modification, especially gene targeting via homologous recombination (HR), would be an essential technique. This report describes the successful gene targeting of the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase 1 (HPRT1) and the NANOG loci in human pluripotent stem cells with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors. At the HPRT1 locus, up to 1% of stable transformants were targeted via HR with an AAV-HPRT1 targeting vector, without loss of pluripotency. On the other hand, 20-87% of stable transformants were targeted using an AAV-NANOG-targeting vector designed for the promoter-trap strategy. In the KhES-3 cell line, which shows particularly high fragility to experimental manipulation, gene targeting was successful only by using an AAV vector but not by electroporation. In addition to hESC, gene targeting was achieved in hiPSC lines at similar frequencies. These data indicate that AAV vectors may therefore be a useful tool to introduce genetic modifications in hESCs and hiPSCs.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/2009; 388(4):711-7. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stromal cells residing in murine fetal livers have the ability to promote the hepatic maturation of murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) 3848 in vitro. These stromal cells were isolated as the CD49f(+/-)CD45(-)Thy1(+)gp38(+) cell fraction. The present study established a murine fetal liver stromal cell line that induced hepatic maturation in mouse ESCs and HPCs. A transgene containing a temperature-sensitive SV40 large T antigen was transfected into the primary fetal liver stromal cells. These immortalized cells, which were named as the gp38-positive and Thy1-positive murine liver stromal (MLSgt) cells, induced both mouse ESCs and HPCs to differentiate into mature hepatocyte-like cells using a coculture method. Since MLSgt is not a cloned cell line, one clone, MLSgt20, was selected as a line with the characteristic to induce hepatic differentiation, which was comparable to its parental stromal cells. The ESC-derived endoderm cells cocultured with the MLSgt20 cells expressed mature hepatocyte-specific gene markers, including glucose-6-phosphatase, tyrosine aminotransferase, tryptophan 2,3-dioxgenase, and cytochrome P450 (CYP1a1, Cyp1b1, Cyp1a2, and Cyp3a11). In addition, these cells also exhibited hepatic functions, such as glycogen storage and ammonia metabolism. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the cocultured ESCs expressed the morphologic features of mature hepatocytes. In conclusion, a cell line was established that has the characteristic to promote the hepatic maturation of mouse ESCs and HPCs by a coculture method.
    Tissue Engineering Part A 07/2009; 15(12):3847-56. · 4.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are thought to be a promising cell source for cell transplantation therapy. For such a clinical application, the hESCs should be manipulated using appropriate and qualified materials. In this study, we examined the efficacy of recombinant human laminin (rhLM) isoforms on the undifferentiated growth of hESCs. We first determined the major integrins expressed on the hESCs to reveal the preference of the hESCs for rhLMs, and found that the hESCs mainly expressed integrin alpha6beta1, which binds predominantly to laminin-111, -332 and -511/-521. When the hESCs were seeded onto rhLMs, the cells indeed adhered markedly to rhLM-332, and to rhLM-511 and rhLM-111 to a lesser extent. The hESCs proliferated on these three rhLMs for several passages while preserving their pluripotency. These results show that rhLM-111, -332, and -511 are good substrates to expand undifferentiated hESCs due to their high affinity to integrin alpha6beta1 expressed on hESCs.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 11/2008; 375(1):27-32. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human embryonic stem (hES) cells are regarded as a potentially unlimited source of cellular materials for regenerative medicine. For biological studies and clinical applications using primate ES cells, the development of a general strategy to obtain efficient gene delivery and genetic manipulation, especially gene targeting via homologous recombination (HR), would be of paramount importance. However, unlike mouse ES (mES) cells, efficient strategies for transient gene delivery and HR in hES cells have not been established. Here, we report that helper-dependent adenoviral vectors (HDAdVs) were able to transfer genes in hES and cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fasicularis) ES (cES) cells efficiently. Without losing the undifferentiated state of the ES cells, transient gene transfer efficiency was approximately 100%. Using HDAdVs with homology arms, approximately one out of 10 chromosomal integrations of the vector was via HR, whereas the rate was only approximately 1% with other gene delivery methods. Furthermore, in combination with negative selection, approximately 45% of chromosomal integrations of the vector were targeted integrations, indicating that HDAdVs would be a powerful tool for genetic manipulation in hES cells and potentially in other types of human stem cells, such as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2008; 105(37):13781-6. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are a potential cell source for regenerative medicine. However, the definitive factors that are responsible for hepatic differentiation of hESCs remain unclear. We aimed to evaluate the effects of various extracellular matrixes and growth factors on endodermal differentiation and to optimize the culture conditions to induce hepatic differentiation of hESCs. The transgene vector that contained enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of human alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) enhancer/promoter was transfected into hESC lines. The transgenic hESCs were cultured on extracellular matrixes (collagen type I, laminin, and Matrigel) in the presence or absence of growth factors including hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), bone morphogenetic protein 4, fibroblast growth factor 4, all-trans-retinoic acid, and activin A. The expression of AFP-EGFP was measured by flow cytometry. The culture on Matrigel-coated dishes with 100 ng/ml activin A showed 19.5% of EGFP-positive proportions. Moreover, the sequential addition of 100 ng/ml activin A and 20 ng/ml HGF resulted in 21.7% and produced a higher yield of EGFP-positive cells than the group stimulated by activin A alone. RT-PCR and immunocytochemical staining revealed these EGFP-positive cells to differentiate into mesendoderm-like cells by use of activin A and then into hepatic endoderm cells by use of HGF. Two other hESC lines also differentiated into endoderm on the hepatic lineage by our method. In conclusion, we therefore found this protocol to effectively differentiate multiple hESC lines to early hepatocytes using activin A and HGF on Matrigel.
    AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 07/2008; 295(2):G313-21. · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rapid progress has recently been made regarding how the niche controls stem cell function, but little is yet known about how stem cells in the same niche interact with one another. In this study, we show that differentiation-defective Drosophila ovarian germline stem cells (GSCs) can outcompete normal ones for niche occupancy in a cadherin-dependent manner. The differentiation-defective bam or bgcn mutant GSCs invade the niche space of neighboring wild-type GSCs and gradually push them out of the niche by upregulating E-cadherin expression. Furthermore, the bam/bgcn-mediated GSC competition requires E-cadherin and normal GSC division, but not the self-renewal-promoting BMP niche signal, while different E-cadherin levels can sufficiently stimulate GSC competition. Therefore, we propose that GSCs have a competitive relationship for niche occupancy, which may serve as a quality control mechanism to ensure that accidentally differentiated stem cells are rapidly removed from the niche and replaced by functional ones.
    Cell stem cell 02/2008; 2(1):39-49. · 23.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) would provide a potentially unlimited source for cell replacement therapies. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the maintenance of "stemness" are not fully understood. Monkey ESCs are much more similar in character to human ESCs than are mouse ESCs. Therefore, studies using monkey ESCs can give conclusions that are more relevant and may be readily applicable to both basic research and clinical applications for future regenerative medicine. For such studies, generation of a gene-inducible system regulatable in primate ESCs would serve as a powerful tool. Here, we established a Tet-Off gene-inducible system in monkey ESC lines. Such manipulated cells maintained ESC characteristics, and inducible gene expression in both the stem cells and differentiated cells could be reliably controlled by doxycycline administration.
    Stem Cells 12/2006; 24(11):2566-72. · 7.70 Impact Factor
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    Ting Xie, Eihachiro Kawase, Daniel Kirilly, Marco D Wong
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    ABSTRACT: Stem cells have the unique potential to self-renew and to supply differentiated cells that replenish lost cells throughout an organism's lifetime. This unique property makes stem cells powerful therapeutic tools for future regenerative medicine. However, the molecular mechanisms of stem cell regulation are still poorly understood in many stem cell systems. Stem cell function has been shown recently to be controlled by concerted actions of extrinsic signals from its regulatory niche and intrinsic factors inside the stem cell. Stem cells in the Drosophila reproductive systems provide excellent models to understand the fundamental mechanisms underlying stem cell regulation, including the relationships between stem cells and their niches. Within the past few years, much progress in understanding stem cells in Drosophila has been made, and the knowledge gained from studying these stem cells greatly advances our understanding of stem cells in other systems, including humans. In this review, we summarize the recent progress and describe future challenges in understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling stem cell self-renewal, division, and differentiation in the Drosophila reproductive systems.
    Developmental Dynamics 04/2005; 232(3):775-90. · 2.59 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

797 Citations
148.85 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2014
    • Kyoto University
      • • Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences
      • • Graduate School of Medicine / Faculty of Medicine
      Kioto, Kyōto, Japan
  • 2008–2011
    • Saitama Medical University
      • Research Center for Genomic Medicine
      Saitama, Saitama-ken, Japan
  • 2005
    • Stowers Institute for Medical Research
      Kansas City, Kansas, United States
  • 2000–2004
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • • Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences
      • • Center for Reproductive Sciences
      San Francisco, CA, United States
  • 2003
    • National Institute of Genetics
      • Laboratory of Mammalian Development
      Mishima, Shizuoka-ken, Japan