O Johnell

Karolinska University Hospital, Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden

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Publications (376)1262.18 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: MEDOS is a case-control study where 9,000 persons were interviewed with an extensive questionnaire, either at time of fracture or in age-matched controls. Both men and women were studied. The MEDOS study has shown that several life-style factors were related with hip fractures, for example a low body mass index is associated with hip fractures and so was low calcium intake. Low physical exercise and immobilization were associated with a higher frequency of hip fractures. The attributable risk has been calculated so one can determine how many hip fractures a specific intervention could reduce, assuming a causal relationship.
    Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology 07/2009; 25(s103):112-112. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The world population aged more than 50 years will increase in number from 396 million in 1950 to 2129 million in 2025. We are facing an era of elderly, physically increasingly incapacitated populations. Degenerative and other age-dependent disorders, diseases and handicaps will increase in all countries during the next thirty years. Since, in addition, the elderly parts of the populations increase proportionately faster than other age-groups, the increasing economic burden of health expenditure will be carried by relatively smaller parts of populations.
    Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology 07/2009; 25(s103):127-128. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Wrist fracture causes pain and decreased physical, social and emotional function. The International Osteoporosis Foundation has developed a specific questionnaire to assess quality of life in patients with wrist fracture. This questionnaire, including 12 questions, was validated in a multicentre study and compared with an osteoporosis-specific questionnaire (Qualeffo-41) and a generic questionnaire (EQ-5D). The study included 105 patients with a recent wrist fracture and 74 sex- and age-matched control subjects. The questionnaire was administered as soon as possible after the fracture, at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months and 1 year after the fracture. Test-retest reproducibility, internal consistency and sensitivity to change were assessed. The results showed adequate repeatability and internal consistency of the International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) wrist fracture questionnaire. The discriminatory capacity between patients and control subjects was very high, with significant odds ratios for each question and domain. The IOF-wrist fracture questionnaire domain scores showed significant improvement after 3 and 6 months and some improvement from 6 months up to 1 year. The sensitivity to change was much higher for the IOF-wrist fracture total score than for Qualeffo-41 and EQ-5D. In conclusion, the IOF-wrist fracture questionnaire appears to be a reliable and responsive quality of life questionnaire.
    Osteoporosis International 07/2009; 21(1):61-70. · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the effects of the use of clinical risk factors (CRFs) alone, BMD alone or the combination using the FRAX tool for the detection of women at risk of hip fracture. BMD tests alone selected women at higher risk and a greater number of hip fracture cases were identified compared to the use of CRFs alone. The combined use of CRFs and BMD identified fewer women above a threshold risk than the use of BMD alone, but with a higher hip fracture risk and thus had the more favourable positive predictive value (PPV) and number needed to treat (NNT). Algorithms have recently become available for the calculation of hip fracture probability from CRFs with and without information on femoral neck BMD. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the use of CRFs alone, BMD alone or their combination using the FRAX tool for the detection of women at risk of hip fracture. Data from 10 prospective population based cohorts, in which BMD and CRFs were documented, were used to compute the 10-year probabilities of hip fracture calibrated to the fracture and death hazards of the UK. The effects of the use of BMD tests were examined in simulations where BMD tests were used alone, CRFs alone or their combined use. The base case examined the effects in women at the age of 65 years. The principal outcome measures were the number of women identified above an intervention threshold, the number of hip fracture cases that would be identified, the positive predicted value and the NNT to prevent a hip fracture during a hypothetical treatment with an effectiveness of 35% targeted to those above the threshold fracture risk. We also examined BMD values in women selected for treatment. Sensitivity analysis examined the effect of age and limited use of BMD resources. BMD tests alone selected women at higher risk of hip fracture than the use of CRFs alone (6.1% versus 5.3%). BMD tests alone also identified a greater number of hip fracture cases (219/1,000) compared to the use of CRFs alone (140/1,000). The combined use of CRFs and BMD identified fewer women above a threshold risk than the use of BMD alone (168/1,000 versus 219/1,000, respectively), but with a higher hip fracture risk (PPV, 8.6% versus 6.1%), and consequently a lower number needed to treat (NNT) (33 versus 47). In sensitivity analyses, the PPV and NNT were always better for the combination than either BMD or CRFs alone across all ages studied (50-70 years). The use of FRAX in combination with BMD increases the performance characteristics of fracture risk assessment.
    Osteoporosis International 04/2009; 20(10):1675-82. · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: From a longitudinal prospective study, 160 women with spontaneous menopause and without steroid medication were followed during the transition from pre- to postmenopause. After 12 years 152 women were still participating in the study. Blood samples were drawn every 6 months until 1 year after the menopause and every 12 months thereafter. Measurements of bone mineral density (BMD) on the forearm were performed every second year. All women routinely completed a questionnaire concerning symptoms frequently attributed to the climacteric period. All data were grouped around the onset of the menopause, thereby allowing longitudinal evaluation of the changes in the variables from the premenopausal to the postmenopausal period. The beginning of the perimenopausal period was characterized by transitory elevations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). A significant increase in serum levels of gonadotropins was observed for both FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH) from about 5 years before the menopause. Within the 6 month period around the menopause there was a further increase which culminated within the first postmenopausal year for LH and 2-3 years postmenopause for FSH. Thereafter, a continuous decrease in LH occurred over the following 8 years. With respect to FSH, there was a slight decline starting about 4 years postmenopause. During the premenopausal period an increasing frequency of inadequate luteal function or anovulation occurred and, in the postmenopausal years, the serum levels of progesterone (P) were invariably low. Gradually, the ratio between estrone (E1) and 17-beta-estradiol (E2) increased, reflecting the declining follicular steroidogenesis. A marked decrease in estrogen levels occurred during the 6 month period around the menopause, most pronounced in E2. During the next 3 years, the levels of E2 and E1 showed an essentially parallel, moderate decline. Around the menopause, serum levels of testosterone (T), delta4-androstenedione (A) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) showed small but significant decreases. From about 3 years postmenopause, the levels were relatively constant over the following 5 years. A decrease in BMD was observed in the postmenopause, and from about 3 years postmenopause, estradiol correlated positively with BMD. Before, as well as after the menopause, body mass index (BMI) showed an inverse correlation with SHBG. Postmenopausal androstenedione correlated positively with E1, E2 and T. BMI correlated positively with E1 and E2. The concentrations of the free fraction of E2 and T are dependent on the levels of SHBG, which in turn has a negative correlation with BMI. The impact of this will influence the severity of symptoms, the degree of bone loss and the need for supplementary therapy.
    Maturitas 09/2008; 61(1-2):67-77. · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX) is developed based on the use of clinical risk factors with or without bone mineral density tests applied to the UK. The aim of this study was to apply an assessment tool for the prediction of fracture in men and women with the use of clinical risk factors (CRFs) for fracture with and without the use of femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD). The clinical risk factors, identified from previous meta-analyses, comprised body mass index (BMI, as a continuous variable), a prior history of fracture, a parental history of hip fracture, use of oral glucocorticoids, rheumatoid arthritis and other secondary causes of osteoporosis, current smoking, and alcohol intake 3 or more units daily. Four models were constructed to compute fracture probabilities based on the epidemiology of fracture in the UK. The models comprised the ten-year probability of hip fracture, with and without femoral neck BMD, and the ten-year probability of a major osteoporotic fracture, with and without BMD. For each model fracture and death hazards were computed as continuous functions. Each clinical risk factor contributed to fracture probability. In the absence of BMD, hip fracture probability in women with a fixed BMI (25 kg/m(2)) ranged from 0.2% at the age of 50 years for women without CRF's to 22% at the age of 80 years with a parental history of hip fracture (approximately 100-fold range). In men, the probabilities were lower, as was the range (0.1 to 11% in the examples above). For a major osteoporotic fracture the probabilities ranged from 3.5% to 31% in women, and from 2.8% to 15% in men in the example above. The presence of one or more risk factors increased probabilities in an incremental manner. The differences in probabilities between men and women were comparable at any given T-score and age, except in the elderly where probabilities were higher in women than in men due to the higher mortality of the latter. The models provide a framework which enhances the assessment of fracture risk in both men and women by the integration of clinical risk factors alone and/or in combination with BMD.
    Osteoporosis International 05/2008; 19(4):385-97. · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Few economic or quality-of-life studies have investigated the long-term consequences of fragility fractures. This prospective observational data collection study assessed the cost and quality of life related to hip, vertebral, and wrist fracture 13-18 months after the fracture, based on 684 patients surviving 18 months after fracture. Data regarding resource use and quality of life related to fractures was collected using questionnaires at 7 research centers in Sweden. Information was collected using patient records, register sources, and by asking the patient. Quality of life was estimated using the EQ-5D questionnaire. Direct and indirect costs were estimated from a societal standpoint. The mean fracture-related cost 13-18 months after a hip, vertebral, or wrist fracture were estimated to be euro2,422, euro3,628, and euro316, respectively. Between 12 and 18 months after hip, vertebral, and wrist fracture, utility increased by 0.03, 0.05, and 0.02, respectively. Compared to prefracture levels, the mean loss in quality of life between 13 and 18 months after fracture was estimated to be 0.05, 0.11, and 0.005 for hip, vertebral, and wrist fracture. The sample of vertebral fracture patients was fairly small and included a high proportion of fractures leading to hospitalization, but the results indicate higher long-term costs and greater loss in quality of life related to vertebral fracture than previously believed.
    Acta Orthopaedica 05/2008; 79(2):269-80. · 2.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BMD and clinical risk factors predict hip and other osteoporotic fractures. The combination of clinical risk factors and BMD provide higher specificity and sensitivity than either alone. INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESES: To develop a risk assessment tool based on clinical risk factors (CRFs) with and without BMD. Nine population-based studies were studied in which BMD and CRFs were documented at baseline. Poisson regression models were developed for hip fracture and other osteoporotic fractures, with and without hip BMD. Fracture risk was expressed as gradient of risk (GR, risk ratio/SD change in risk score). CRFs alone predicted hip fracture with a GR of 2.1/SD at the age of 50 years and decreased with age. The use of BMD alone provided a higher GR (3.7/SD), and was improved further with the combined use of CRFs and BMD (4.2/SD). For other osteoporotic fractures, the GRs were lower than for hip fracture. The GR with CRFs alone was 1.4/SD at the age of 50 years, similar to that provided by BMD (GR = 1.4/SD) and was not markedly increased by the combination (GR = 1.4/SD). The performance characteristics of clinical risk factors with and without BMD were validated in eleven independent population-based cohorts. The models developed provide the basis for the integrated use of validated clinical risk factors in men and women to aid in fracture risk prediction.
    Osteoporosis International 09/2007; 18(8):1033-46. · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment with alendronate (Fosamax) has been shown to significantly reduce the risk of fragility fractures. Cost-effectiveness of treatment was assessed in nine European countries in a Markov model and was generally found to be cost effective in women with a previous spine fracture. Treatment with alendronate (Fosamax) reduces the risk of osteoporotic fractures at the spine, hip and wrist in women with and without prevalent vertebral fracture. Cost-effectiveness estimates in one country may not be applicable elsewhere due to differences in fracture risks, costs and drug prices. The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of treating postmenopausal women with alendronate in nine European countries, comprising Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and the UK. A Markov model was populated with data for the nine European populations. Effect of treatment was taken from the Fracture Intervention Trial, which recruited women with low BMD alone or with a prior vertebral fracture. The cost per QALY gained of treating postmenopausal women with prior vertebral fractures ranged in the base case from "cost saving" in the Scandinavian countries to 15,000 in Italy. Corresponding estimates for women without prior vertebral fractures ranged from "cost saving" to 40,000. In relation to thresholds generally used, the analysis suggests that alendronate is very cost effective in the treatment of women with previous vertebral fracture, and in women without previous vertebral fracture, cost-effectiveness depends on the country setting, discount rates, and chosen monetary thresholds.
    Osteoporosis International 08/2007; 18(8):1047-61. · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological observations suggest that sunlight exposure is an important determinant of hip fracture risk. The aim of this ecological study was to examine the relationship between latitude and hip fracture probability. Hip fracture incidence and mortality were obtained from literature searches and 10-year hip fracture probability computed from fracture and death hazards. There was a significant association between latitude and 10-year hip fracture probability. For each 10 degrees change in latitude from the equator (e.g., from Paris to Stockholm), fracture probability increased by 0.3% in men, by 0.8% in women and by 0.6% in men and women combined. There was also a significant association between economic prosperity and hip fracture risk as judged by gross domestic product (GDP)/capita or the use of mobile phones/capita. A US $10,000 higher GDP/capita was associated with a 1.3% increase in hip fracture probability. The association between latitude and hip fracture probability persisted after adjusting for indices of economic prosperity. These findings provide support for an important role of sunlight exposure in the global variation of hip fracture risk. In addition, there is a need to identify the factors related to socioeconomic prosperity that may provide mechanisms for the variation in hip fracture probability worldwide.
    Osteoporosis International 04/2007; 18(3):333-7. · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    O Johnell, J A Kanis
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to quantify the global burden of osteoporotic fracture worldwide. The incidence of hip fractures was identified by systematic review and the incidence of osteoporotic fractures was imputed from the incidence of hip fractures in different regions of the world. Excess mortality and disability weights used age- and sex-specific data from Sweden to calculate the Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost due to osteoporotic fracture. In the year 2000 there were an estimated 9.0 million osteoporotic fractures of which 1.6 million were at the hip, 1.7 million at the forearm and 1.4 million were clinical vertebral fractures. The greatest number of osteoporotic fractures occurred in Europe (34.8%). The total DALYs lost was 5.8 million of which 51% were accounted for by fractures that occurred in Europe and the Americas. World-wide, osteoporotic fractures accounted for 0.83% of the global burden of non-communicable disease and was 1.75% of the global burden in Europe. In Europe, osteoporotic fractures accounted for more DALYs lost than common cancers with the exception of lung cancer. For chronic musculo-skeletal disorders the DALYs lost in Europe due to osteoporosis (2.0 million) were less than for osteoarthrosis (3.1 million) but greater than for rheumatoid arthritis (1.0 million). We conclude that osteoporotic fractures are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in the developed countries.
    Osteoporosis International 01/2007; 17(12):1726-33. · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: SHBG regulates free sex steroid levels, which in turn regulate skeletal homeostasis. Twin studies have demonstrated that genetic factors largely account for interindividual variation in SHBG levels. Glucuronidated androgen metabolites have been proposed as markers of androgenic activity. Our objective was to investigate whether polymorphisms in the SHBG gene promoter [(TAAAA)(n) microsatellite and rs1799941 single-nucleotide polymorphism] are associated with serum levels of SHBG, sex steroids, or bone mineral density (BMD) in men. DESIGN AND STUDY SUBJECTS: We conducted a population-based study of two cohorts of Swedish men: elderly men (MrOS Sweden; n congruent with 3000; average age, 75.4 yr) and young adult men (GOOD study; n = 1068; average age, 18.9 yr). We measured serum levels of SHBG, testosterone, estradiol, dihydrotestosterone, 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol glucuronides, androsterone glucuronide, and BMD determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. In both cohorts, (TAAAA)(n) and rs1799941 genotypes were associated with serum levels of SHBG (P < 0.001), dihydrotestosterone (P < 0.05), and 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol glucuronides (P < 0.05). In the elderly men, they were also associated with testosterone and BMD at all hip bone sites. The genotype associated with high levels of SHBG was also associated with high BMD. Interestingly, male mice overexpressing human SHBG had increased cortical bone mineral content in the femur, suggesting that elevated SHBG levels may cause increased bone mass. Our findings demonstrate that polymorphisms in the SHBG promoter predict serum levels of SHBG, androgens, and glucuronidated androgen metabolites, and hip BMD in men.
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 12/2006; 91(12):5029-37. · 6.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intervention thresholds (ITs), the 10-year hip fracture risk at which treatment can be considered to be cost-effective, have previously been estimated for Sweden and the UK. The aim of this study was to provide a Markov cohort model platform for a multinational estimation of thresholds at which intervention becomes cost-effective and to investigate and determine the main factors behind differences in these thresholds between countries. Intervention thresholds were estimated for Australia, Germany, Japan, Sweden, Spain, the UK and USA using a societal perspective. The model was populated with as much relevant country-specific data as possible. Intervention was assumed to be given for 5 years and to decrease the risk of all osteoporotic fractures by 35%. The societal willingness to pay (WTP) for a quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained was set to the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita multiplied by two. In the base case analysis, the 10-year hip fracture probability at which intervention became cost-effective varied across ages and countries. For women starting therapy at an age of 70 years, the IT varied from a hip fracture probability of 5.6% in Japan to 14.7% in Spain. The main factors explaining differences in the IT between countries were the WTP for a QALY gained, fracture-related costs and intervention costs. The ITs presented in this paper are appropriate for use in treatment guidelines that consider health economic aspects, and they can be used in combination with fracture risk prediction algorithms to improve the selection of patients who are suitable for osteoporotic intervention.
    Osteoporosis International 11/2006; 17(10):1459-71. · 4.17 Impact Factor
  • Revue du Rhumatisme 11/2006; 73(10):1057-1058.
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    ABSTRACT: Postmenopausal women treated with corticosteroids are regarded as a high-risk group due to the effect of both natural bone loss and possible adverse effects of treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (IC). To compare bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women exposed only to IC (IC group, n = 106) with that of BMD in women not exposed to corticosteroids (n = 124) and women exposed to oral and/or intra-articular injections in addition to inhaled corticosteroids (OC group, n = 31). The women were recruited from a population-based prospective cohort study. Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) technique was used to measure BMD in whole body, spine, pelvis and lower extremities. A health questionnaire and an interview about past and present medication use were used. The mean duration and dose of IC were 9.5 +/- 4.5 years and 615 microg daily. Whole body BMD did not significantly differ between the IC group (1.103 g/cm(2)) and the unexposed group (1.087 g/cm(2)). Within the IC group, BMD stratified for cumulative dose of IC, duration or current dose above or below 800 microg did not differ. Z-score BMD for tertiles did not differ when comparing the IC and OC groups. No difference in BMD was noted between postmenopausal women exposed to inhaled corticosteroids and unexposed controls nor was there any dose response relationship between inhaled corticosteroid therapy and BMD.
    Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 08/2006; 15(7):527-35. · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    Cecilia Rogmark, Olof Johnell
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    ABSTRACT: The treatment of displaced femoral neck fractures has long been debated. 14 randomized controlled studies (RCTs) comparing internal fixation with primary arthroplasty may give material for evidence-based decision making. Computerized databases were searched for RCTs published between 1966 and 2004. 14 RCTs containing 2,289 patients were included in a metaanalysis regarding complications, reoperations and mortality. The analysis was performed with software from the Cochrane collaboration. Primary arthroplasty leads to significantly fewer major method-related hip complications and reoperations, compared to internal fixation. There was no significant difference in mortality between the two groups at 30 days and 1 year. Most of the studies found better function and less pain after primary arthroplasty. Primary arthroplasty should be used in most patients with displaced femoral neck fracture. The healthy, lucid individual, 70-80 years old, should be given a total hip arthroplasty. The older, impaired or institutionalized patient would benefit from a hemiarthroplasty.
    Acta Orthopaedica 07/2006; 77(3):359-67. · 2.45 Impact Factor
  • Revue de Chirurgie Orthopédique et Réparatrice de l Appareil Moteur 05/2006; 92(2):165-74. · 0.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of androgens for bone health in elderly men is unclear. We show that free testosterone within the normal range is a predictor of BMD at predominantly cortical bone sites and of previous osteoporosis-related fractures in elderly Swedish men. Osteoporosis-related fractures constitute a major health concern not only in women but also in men. Previous studies have clearly shown that serum levels of estradiol are associated with BMD, whereas more conflicting data have been presented regarding the predictive value of testosterone (T) for bone health in elderly men. The aim of this study was to investigate if serum levels of T are associated with BMD and/or prevalent fractures in a large cohort of elderly men. In the Swedish part of the MrOS study (n = 2908; average age, 75.4 years), bone parameters were measured using DXA, and prevalent fractures were recorded using standardized questionnaires and by vertebral X-ray analyses. Serum levels of total T, total estradiol (E2), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured by radioimmunoassay, and free T (FT) and free E2 (FE2) were derived from the mass action equations. Height, weight, age, physical activity, smoking habits, and calcium intake were included together with FT and FE2 in regression models for BMD. FT was an independent positive predictor of BMD in total body, total hip, femur trochanter, and arm but not in the lumbar spine. The highest independent predictive value of FT was found in the arm and the hip (with a relatively high content of cortical bone). FE2 was an independent predictor of BMD at all bone sites studied, and the highest predictive value was seen for lumbar spine (with relatively high content of trabecular bone) BMD. FT but not FE2 was a positive predictor of total body bone area and BMC. FT levels below the median were independent predictors of prevalent osteoporosis-related fractures (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.14-2.14; p < 0.01) and X-ray-verified vertebral fractures (OR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.34-2.86; p < 0.001). The predictive value of FT for prevalent fractures was not affected by adjustment for BMD. These findings show that variation of FT within the normal range is an independent but modest predictor of BMD at predominantly cortical bone sites and of previous osteoporosis-related fractures in elderly men. Our data indicate that not only estrogens but also androgens are of importance for bone health in elderly men. Longitudinal studies investigating the predictive value of T for fracture risk in elderly men are required.
    Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 04/2006; 21(4):529-35. · 6.59 Impact Factor
  • Revue de Chirurgie Orthopédique et Réparatrice de l'Appareil Moteur. 04/2006; 92(2):165–174.
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    ABSTRACT: Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a new treatment for osteoporosis and has been shown to reduce the risks of vertebral and non-vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women in clinical trials. The objective of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of teriparatide in addition to calcium and vitamin D, using a simulation model. The base case analysis was conducted for a cohort of 69-year-old women in Sweden who had at least one previous vertebral fracture and low bone mineral density. The model simulated the course of events in 6-month cycles in individual patients until death or 100 years of age. During each cycle the patients were at risk of experiencing clinical vertebral, hip or wrist fractures, or death. Total accumulated life-time costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were estimated. Swedish data on fracture costs, utility reductions after fracture, fracture risks and mortality rates were used. The model incorporated new epidemiological evidence that indicates fracture risks and mortality rates are higher in the subsequent years post-fracture. The results showed that the cost-effectiveness of the treatment is highly dependant on the risk profile of the treated patients and the timing of starting treatment relative to previous fractures. The cost per QALY gained for treatment of a population of 69-year-olds with a T-score at the femoral neck of -3 was in the base case estimated to be between EUR (euro) 20,000 and 64,000 for patients with a recent or historic vertebral fracture respectively. The study provides further evidence of the benefit and cost-effectiveness of starting osteoporotic treatments early in patients with a new fracture, and also that teriparatide may provide valuable clinical benefits for these patients and may be considered a cost-effective intervention when targeted to the appropriate patients.
    Osteoporosis International 03/2006; 17(2):201-11. · 4.17 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

25k Citations
1,262.18 Total Impact Points


  • 1993–2009
    • Karolinska University Hospital
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden
    • Akademiska Sjukhuset
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 2008
    • City of Malmö
      Malmö, Skåne, Sweden
  • 1982–2007
    • Malmö University
      Malmö, Skåne, Sweden
  • 2006
    • Södersjukhuset
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2000–2006
    • The University of Sheffield
      • Medical School
      Sheffield, England, United Kingdom
    • Saint George Hospital University Medical Center
      Beyrouth, Beyrouth, Lebanon
  • 1997–2006
    • University of Cambridge
      • • Cambridge Institute of Public Health
      • • Department of Medicine
      Cambridge, ENG, United Kingdom
    • VU University Amsterdam
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 1977–2006
    • Lund University
      • • Department of Orthopaedics
      • • Department of Orthopedic Surgery
      Lund, Skane, Sweden
  • 2005
    • Belgian Scientific Institute for Public Health
      Bruxelles, Brussels Capital Region, Belgium
  • 2004
    • Universitair Ziekenhuis Leuven
      Louvain, Flanders, Belgium
    • Universität Ulm
      Ulm, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • Mid Sweden University
      Härnösand, Västernorrland, Sweden
    • Karolinska Institutet
      • Institutionen för lärande, informatik, management och etik
      Solna, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 1995–2004
    • The University of Manchester
      Manchester, England, United Kingdom
  • 2003
    • Freie Universität Berlin
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
    • Uppsala University
      • Department of Medical Sciences
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 1992–2003
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      • Department of Health Sciences Research
      Scottsdale, AZ, United States
  • 2001–2002
    • Skåne University Hospital
      Malmö, Skåne, Sweden
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics
      San Francisco, CA, United States
  • 1999–2002
    • Stockholm School of Economics
      • Department of Economics
      Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden
    • Academisch Medisch Centrum Universiteit van Amsterdam
      • Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 1991–2000
    • Sahlgrenska University Hospital
      • Department of Cardiology
      Goeteborg, Västra Götaland, Sweden
    • Uppsala University Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 1998
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      • Department of Health Science Research
      Rochester, MN, United States
  • 1996–1998
    • New Mexico Clinical Research and Osteoporosis Center
      Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States
    • University of Amsterdam
      • Department of Endocrinology
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands