Ilker Uçkay

University of Geneva, Genève, Geneva, Switzerland

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Publications (126)323.56 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Diabetic foot infections (DFI) are a common cause of morbidity and, on occasion, even mortality. Infection can be either mono- or polymicrobial, with a wide variety of potential pathogens. Anaerobes may be involved, particularly in wounds that are deeper or more chronic, and are more frequently identified when using modern molecular techniques, such as 16s PCR and pyrosequencing. It remains unclear whether the presence of anaerobes in DFI leads to more severe manifestations, or if these organisms are largely colonizers associated with the presence of greater degrees of tissue ischemia and necrosis. Commonly used empiric antibiotic therapy for diabetic foot infections is generally broad-spectrum and usually has activity against the most frequently identified anaerobes, such as Peptostreptococcus and Bacteroides species. Adequate surgical debridement and, when needed, foot revascularization may be at least as important as the choice of antibiotic to achieve a successful treatment outcome. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Anaerobe 04/2015; 34. DOI:10.1016/j.anaerobe.2015.03.009 · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diagnosing the presence of infection in the foot of a patient with diabetes can sometimes be a difficult task. Because open wounds are always colonized with microorganisms, most agree that infection should be diagnosed by the presence of systemic or local signs of inflammation. Determining whether or not infection is present in bone can be especially difficult. Diagnosis begins with a history and physical examination in which both classic and 'secondary' findings suggesting invasion of microorganisms or a host response are sought. Serological tests may be helpful, especially measurement of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate in osteomyelitis, but all (including bone biomarkers and procalcitonin) are relatively non-specific. Cultures of properly obtained soft tissue and bone specimens can diagnose and define the causative pathogens in diabetic foot infections. Newer molecular microbial techniques, which may not only identify more organisms but also virulence factors and antibiotic resistance, look very promising. Imaging tests generally begin with plain X-rays; when these are inconclusive or when more detail of bone or soft tissue abnormalities is required, more advanced studies are needed. Among these, magnetic resonance imaging is generally superior to standard radionuclide studies, but newer hybrid imaging techniques (single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography, positron emission tomography/computed tomography and positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging) look to be useful techniques, and new radiopharmaceuticals are on the horizon. In some cases, ultrasonography, photographic and thermographic methods may also be diagnostically useful. Improved methods developed and tested over the past decade have clearly increased our accuracy in diagnosing diabetic foot infections. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Diabetic Medicine 03/2015; DOI:10.1111/dme.12750 · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    Journal of Infection 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jinf.2015.02.014 · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Diabetic foot ulcers, especially when they become infected, are a leading cause of morbidity and may lead to severe consequences, such as amputation. Optimal treatment of these diabetic foot problems usually requires a multidisciplinary approach, typically including wound debridement, pressure off-loading, glycemic control, surgical interventions and occasionally other adjunctive measures. Areas covered: Antibiotic therapy is required for most clinically infected wounds, but not for uninfected ulcers. Unfortunately, clinicians often prescribe antibiotics when they are not indicated, and even when indicated the regimen is frequently broader spectrum than needed and given for longer than necessary. Many agents are available for intravenous, oral or topical therapy, but no single antibiotic or combination is optimal. Overuse of antibiotics has negative effects for the patient, the health care system and society. Unnecessary antibiotic therapy further promotes the problem of antibiotic resistance. Expert opinion: The rationale for prescribing topical, oral or parenteral antibiotics for patients with a diabetic foot wound is to treat clinically evident infection. Available published evidence suggests that there is no reason to prescribe antibiotic therapy for an uninfected foot wound as either prophylaxis against infection or in the hope that it will hasten healing of the wound.
    Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy 03/2015; DOI:10.1517/14656566.2015.1021780 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical experience suggests fluctuation in the occurrence of osteoarticular infections. We performed a single-centre study during 2004-2012, dividing each year into the four seasons according to the Gregorian calendar. A total of 455 episodes of osteoarticular infections were retrieved. There were 91 prosthetic joint infections (45 of haematogenous origin) and 159 cases of septic arthritis. The median period between early symptoms and diagnosis of infection was 27 days. The overall number of infections per season, cumulated over the 8-year study period, was 119 in spring, 129 in summer, 95 in fall, and 112 in winter, which did not reflect any significant seasonal fluctuation. None of the different subgroups of infections, namely arthroplasties (p for trend = 0.755), haematogenous arthroplasty infections (p = 0.493), gram-negative episodes or arthritis (p = 0.290), showed any season-related fluctuation. We conclude that osteoarticular infections, including haematogenous prosthetic joint infections, do not show any significant seasonality.
    01/2015; DOI:10.3109/00365548.2014.979436
  • Orthopedic Research and Reviews 01/2015; DOI:10.2147/ORR.S54494
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    ABSTRACT: Non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections of the hand are difficult to treat and require a long time before remission. But how long should we wait to see an improvement? To answer this question, the published scientific literature was reviewed in English, French and German. Tuberculosis, arthritis and osteomyelitis cases were excluded. A total of 241 non-tuberculous mycobacterial hand infections in 38 scientific publications were retrieved. Most were case reports or series. The median age of the patients was 58 years and one third was female. Patients were immunocompromised in 17 episodes. The most common species were Mycobacterium marinum in 198 episodes (82%), followed by M. chelonae in 13 cases (5%). There were no cases of mixed infection. Most infections were aquatic in origin and community-acquired, and were treated with a combination of surgical debridement and long-duration systemic combination antibiotic therapy (14 different regimens; no local antibiotics) for a median duration of 6 months. The median number of surgical procedures was 2.5 (range 1–5). Clinical success was not immediate: a median period of 3 months (range 2–6) was necessary before the first signs of improvement were observed. The majority (173 cases; 76%) remained entirely cured after a median follow-up time of 1.7 years (range, 1–6). Only two microbiological recurrences occurred (1%). However, 49 patients (21%) had long-term sequelae such as pain, stiffness and swelling. The approach of long-duration antibiotic treatment in combination with repeated surgery for mycobacterial soft tissue infections of the hand leads to few recurrences. However, clinical success is not immediate and may take up to 3 months.
    Chirurgie de la Main 12/2014; 34(1). DOI:10.1016/j.main.2014.12.004 · 0.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The main causes of lower limb amputations are peripheral artery disease (92% of the cases) and trauma (7%). The selection of the amputation level aims at optimizing the chances of healing and the functionality of the involved limb. Foot preserving amputations offer the best functional outcome but the healing process is frequently slow and difficult. After a below-knee amputation, 60% of the patients are capable of ambulating again, whereas only 20% of the patients undergoing an above-knee amputation ambulate autonomously. Complications after amputations are frequent, can occur a long time after surgery and must be managed by a highly specialized team.
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    ABSTRACT: There is controversy as to whether or not diabetic foot infections (DFIs) caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are associated with worse outcomes than DFIs caused by other pathogens. To address this issue we performed a nonsystematic literature search of published articles in English language journals seeking studies reporting on the outcomes of DFIs related to their microbiology. We retrieved 48 articles published from 1999 to 2013 that described a total of 7771 cases of DFI. The overall proportion of DFIs with an isolate of S aureus was about 30%; just over one third of these (11% of all cases) were MRSA strains. Among the DFI cases caused by MRSA 1543 were episodes of soft tissue infections and 113 of osteomyelitis, while non-MRSA organisms caused 5761 soft tissue infections and 354 cases of osteomyelitis. Only 5 of the included articles attempted a comparison between DFI caused by MRSA and those caused by other pathogens, with no clear differences noted. The median total duration of antibiotic therapy for DFI caused by MRSA was 26 days, of which a median of 10 days was given intravenously. Only a few articles reported the proportion of patients with a recurrence, but they often did not differentiate between MRSA and non-MRSA cases. Four publications reported a worse functional or microbiological outcome in MRSA, compared to non-MRSA, cases, but the findings were variable and differences did not seem to be significant. Many trials failed to adjust for case-mix or to definitively demonstrate a relationship between microbiology and outcomes. Few of the articles specifically commented on whether the MRSA isolates were health care- or community-acquired strains. Notwithstanding the substantial limitations of the available literature, there does not appear to be a need for any special treatment for DFI caused by MRSA. The current guidelines for treating according to established international recommendations seem appropriate.
    The International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds 10/2014; 13(4). DOI:10.1177/1534734614550311 · 1.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The therapeutic arsenal for MRSA infections is limited. The aim of this study was to assess the non-inferiority of a combination of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole plus rifampicin versus linezolid alone for the treatment of MRSA infection.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 09/2014; DOI:10.1093/jac/dku352 · 5.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The debridement, antibiotic and implant retention (DAIR) procedure is an option for patients with prosthetic hip joint infections for whom arthroplasty removal is problematic. Unfortunately, some of the guidelines proposed for deciding on DAIR management of arthroplasty infections fail to take into consideration the role of the infecting pathogen. While Staphylococcus aureus and streptococci are major contributors to infected hip arthroplasties, their respective contributions to treatment success or failure rates with the DAIR procedure have not been thoroughly analysed from a microbiological perspective.
    International Orthopaedics 09/2014; 39(3). DOI:10.1007/s00264-014-2510-z · 2.02 Impact Factor
  • Clinical Infectious Diseases 07/2014; 59(10). DOI:10.1093/cid/ciu604 · 9.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose In Gustilo grade III open fractures, it remains unknown which demographic or clinical features may be associated with an infection resistant to the administered prophylactic agent, compared to one that is susceptible. Methods This was a retrospective case-control study on patients hospitalized from 2004 to 2009. Results We identified 310 patients with Gustilo-III open fractures, 36 (12 %) of which became infected after a median of ten days. In 26 (72 %) of the episodes the pathogen was susceptible to the prophylactic antibiotic agent prescribed upon admission, while in the other ten it was resistant. All antibiotic prophylaxis was intravenous; the median duration of treatment was three days and the median delay between trauma and surgery was one day. In multivariate analysis adjusting for case-mix, only Gustilo-grade-IIIc fractures (vascular lesions) showed tendency to be infected with resistant pathogens (odds ratio 10; 95 % confidence interval 1.0-10; p = 0.058). There were no significant differences between cases caused by antibiotic resistant and susceptible pathogen cases in patient's sex, presence of immune suppression, duration and choice of antibiotic prophylaxis, choice of surgical technique or materials, time delay until surgery, use of bone reaming, fracture localization, or presence of compartment syndrome. Conclusion We were unable to identify any specific clinical parameters associated with infection with antibiotic resistant pathogens in Gustilo-grade III open fractures, other than the severity of the fracture itself. More research is needed to identify patients who might benefit from a broader-spectrum antibiotic prophylaxis.
    International Orthopaedics 06/2014; 38(11). DOI:10.1007/s00264-014-2395-x · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Increased antibiotic resistance against Staphylococcus aureus and low penetration into bone requires regimen optimization of available drugs. Methods We evaluate pharmoacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters (PK/PD) as well as in vivo interactions of continuous flucloxacillin 12 g/d administration combined with high dose oral rifampicin 600 mg bid in the serum of 15 adult patients with bone and soft tissue infections. We use the patient’s own serum directed against his own isolated S. aureus strain to reproduce in vivo conditions as closely as possible. Results The continuous flucloxacillin infusion constantly generated plasma free drug levels largely exceeding the serum minimal inhibitory concentrations (mean 74-fold). Combination with rifampicin significantly increased flucloxacillin levels by 44.5%. Such an increase following rifampicin introduction was documented in 10/15 patients, whereas a decrease was observed in 1/15 patients. Finally, all infections were cured and the combination was well tolerated. Conclusions In this in vivo methodological pilot study among adult patients with orthopaedic infections due to S. aureus, we describe a new method and reveal substantial but inconsistent interactions between flucloxacillin and rifampicin, of which the clinical significance remains unclear.
    SpringerPlus 06/2014; 3:287. DOI:10.1186/2193-1801-3-287
  • Journal of Plastic Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery 05/2014; 67(10). DOI:10.1016/j.bjps.2014.05.025 · 1.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. To test the hypothesis that methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) carriage may protect against nosocomial methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) acquisition by competing for colonization of the anterior nares. Design. Prospective cohort and nested case-control study. Setting. Swiss university hospital. Patients. All adult patients admitted to 14 wards of the general medicine division between April 1 and October 31, 2007. Methods. Patients were screened for MRSA and MSSA carriage at admission to and discharge from the division. Associations between nosocomial MRSA acquisition and MSSA colonization at admission and other confounders were analyzed by univariable and multivariable analysis. Results. Of 898 patients included, 183 (20%) were treated with antibiotics. Nosocomial MRSA acquisition occurred in 70 (8%) of the patients (case patients); 828 (92%) of the patients (control subjects) were free of MRSA colonization at discharge. MSSA carriage at admission was 20% and 21% for case patients and control subjects, respectively. After adjustment by multivariate logistic regression, no association was observed between MSSA colonization at admission and nosocomial MRSA acquisition (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.2 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.6-2.3]). By contrast, 4 independent predictors of nosocomial MRSA acquisition were identified: older age (aOR per 1-year increment, 1.05 [95% CI, 1.02-1.08]); increased length of stay (aOR per 1-day increment, 1.05 [95% CI, 1.02-1.09]); increased nursing workload index (aOR per 1-point increment, 1.02 [95% CI, 1.01-1.04]); and previous treatment with macrolides (aOR, 5.6 [95% CI, 1.8-17.7]). Conclusions. Endogenous MSSA colonization does not appear to protect against nosocomial MRSA acquisition in a population of medical patients without frequent antibiotic exposure.
    Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 05/2014; 35(5):527-33. DOI:10.1086/675825 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The clinical presentations of deep soft tissue infections can, initially, mimicry superficial skin infections such as erysipelas. However, a rapidly deteriorating health status, the spreading of the lesions and the lack of clear visual limitation of the infection on the skin are hallmarks of a more severe underlying infection, which may endanger patients' life. An immediate adequate multidisciplinary approach to therapy within a few hours is mandatory. The first step is surgical exploration with debridement of all infected tissues, accompanied by antibiotic therapy and additional supportive measures. Despite progress in the understanding of the physiopathology, the delay between suspicion of diagnosis and surgical exploration remains critical. Because of the low incidence of such severe infections, only multicenter studies might reveal deeper insights of optimal therapeutic strategies in the future and for possible improved patients' survival.
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    ABSTRACT: Whether patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria should be investigated and treated before elective hip and knee replacement is controversial, although it is a widespread practice. We conducted a prospective observational cohort study with urine analyses before surgery and three days post-operatively. Patients with symptomatic urinary infections or an indwelling catheter were excluded. Post-discharge surveillance included questionnaires to patients and general practitioners at three months. Among 510 patients (309 women and 201 men), with a median age of 69 years (16 to 97) undergoing lower limb joint replacements (290 hips and 220 knees), 182 (36%) had pre-operative asymptomatic bacteriuria, mostly due to Escherichia coli, and 181 (35%) had white cells in the urine. Most patients (95%) received a single intravenous peri-operative dose (1.5 g) of cefuroxime as prophylaxis. On the third post-operative day urinary analysis identified white cells in 99 samples (19%) and bacteriuria in 208 (41%). Pathogens in the cultures on the third post-operative day were different from those in the pre-operative samples in 260 patients (51%). Only 25 patients (5%) developed a symptomatic urinary infection during their stay or in a subsequent three-month follow-up period, and two thirds of organisms identified were unrelated to those found during the admission. All symptomatic infections were successfully treated with oral antibiotics with no perceived effect on the joint replacement. We conclude that testing and treating asymptomatic urinary tract colonisation before joint replacement is unnecessary. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:390-4.
    03/2014; 96-B(3):390-4. DOI:10.1302/0301-620X.96B3.32620
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    ABSTRACT: The sensitivity of Gram staining is known to be suboptimal for the diagnosis of native joint septic arthritis. We lack information about the accuracy of Gram compared to other microscopic staining techniques for predicting infection in different patient populations. This was a cohort study with cost evaluations at the Orthopaedic Service of Geneva University Hospitals (January 1996-October 2012). Among 500 episodes of arthritis (196 with immunosuppression, 227 with underlying arthroplasties and 69 with gout or other crystals in synovial fluid), Gram staining revealed pathogens in 146 episodes (146/500, 29 %) or in 146 of the 400 culture-positive episodes (37 %). Correlation between the Gram and acridine staining of the same sample was good (Spearman 0.85). Overall, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Gram stain for rapid diagnosis of septic arthritis was 0.37, 0.99, 0.99 and 0.28, respectively, compared to microbiological cultures. Quite similar values were recorded across the different patient subpopulations, in particular for sensitivity values that were 0.33 for patients with prosthetic joint infections, 0.40 for immunosuppressed patients, 0.36 for patients under antibiotic administration and 0.52 for patients with concomitant crystalline disease. The sensitivity of Gram or acridine orange staining for a rapid diagnosis of episodes of septic arthritis is suboptimal compared to microbiological culture, regardless of underlying conditions, immunosuppression or antibiotic therapy. The sensitivity in the presence of synovial fluid crystals is moderate. Acridine orange and Gram stains are equivalent.
    International Orthopaedics 02/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00264-014-2284-3 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    K Gariani, I Uçkay, B A Lipsky
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    ABSTRACT: Foot infections are amongst the most frequent and severe complications linked to diabetes mellitus and are the most common non-traumatic cause of lower limb amputation. Appropriate management of these infections, however, can improve their outcome. The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) constituted a panel of multidisciplinary experts in 2004 to develop guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic foot infections, which have been widely used and validated. Because there have been many new publications in the field, and the IDSA updated the format for all guidelines, they asked the diabetic foot infection committee to revise the 2004 publication. The revised guidelines, based on a thorough and systematic review of the literature, were published in 2012. They are built around 10 key questions concerning diagnosis and treatment; these are answered, with a summary of the evidence provided, and given a GRADE rating for the strength of the recommendation and quality of the evidence. The updated guidelines also include advice on implementing these recommendations, suggestions for regulatory changes to enhance care for diabetic foot infections, recommendations on performance measures and suggested areas for future research. They also include 14 tables, 1 figure, and 345 references, most of which were published after the first guidelines in 2004. Implementing these guidelines should improve outcomes in patients with a DFI.
    Acta chirurgica Belgica 01/2014; 114(1):7-16. · 0.44 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
323.56 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2015
    • University of Geneva
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      • • Division of Infectious Diseases
      Genève, Geneva, Switzerland
  • 2005–2012
    • Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève
      • • Service de médecine interne générale (SMIG)
      • • Service de transplantation
      Genève, Geneva, Switzerland