[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical experience suggests fluctuation in the occurrence of osteoarticular infections. We performed a single-centre study during 2004-2012, dividing each year into the four seasons according to the Gregorian calendar. A total of 455 episodes of osteoarticular infections were retrieved. There were 91 prosthetic joint infections (45 of haematogenous origin) and 159 cases of septic arthritis. The median period between early symptoms and diagnosis of infection was 27 days. The overall number of infections per season, cumulated over the 8-year study period, was 119 in spring, 129 in summer, 95 in fall, and 112 in winter, which did not reflect any significant seasonal fluctuation. None of the different subgroups of infections, namely arthroplasties (p for trend = 0.755), haematogenous arthroplasty infections (p = 0.493), gram-negative episodes or arthritis (p = 0.290), showed any season-related fluctuation. We conclude that osteoarticular infections, including haematogenous prosthetic joint infections, do not show any significant seasonality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is controversy as to whether or not diabetic foot infections (DFIs) caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are associated with worse outcomes than DFIs caused by other pathogens. To address this issue we performed a nonsystematic literature search of published articles in English language journals seeking studies reporting on the outcomes of DFIs related to their microbiology. We retrieved 48 articles published from 1999 to 2013 that described a total of 7771 cases of DFI. The overall proportion of DFIs with an isolate of S aureus was about 30%; just over one third of these (11% of all cases) were MRSA strains. Among the DFI cases caused by MRSA 1543 were episodes of soft tissue infections and 113 of osteomyelitis, while non-MRSA organisms caused 5761 soft tissue infections and 354 cases of osteomyelitis. Only 5 of the included articles attempted a comparison between DFI caused by MRSA and those caused by other pathogens, with no clear differences noted. The median total duration of antibiotic therapy for DFI caused by MRSA was 26 days, of which a median of 10 days was given intravenously. Only a few articles reported the proportion of patients with a recurrence, but they often did not differentiate between MRSA and non-MRSA cases. Four publications reported a worse functional or microbiological outcome in MRSA, compared to non-MRSA, cases, but the findings were variable and differences did not seem to be significant. Many trials failed to adjust for case-mix or to definitively demonstrate a relationship between microbiology and outcomes. Few of the articles specifically commented on whether the MRSA isolates were health care- or community-acquired strains. Notwithstanding the substantial limitations of the available literature, there does not appear to be a need for any special treatment for DFI caused by MRSA. The current guidelines for treating according to established international recommendations seem appropriate.
The International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds 10/2014; · 1.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The therapeutic arsenal for MRSA infections is limited. The aim of this study was to assess the non-inferiority of a combination of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole plus rifampicin versus linezolid alone for the treatment of MRSA infection.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 09/2014; · 5.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The debridement, antibiotic and implant retention (DAIR) procedure is an option for patients with prosthetic hip joint infections for whom arthroplasty removal is problematic. Unfortunately, some of the guidelines proposed for deciding on DAIR management of arthroplasty infections fail to take into consideration the role of the infecting pathogen. While Staphylococcus aureus and streptococci are major contributors to infected hip arthroplasties, their respective contributions to treatment success or failure rates with the DAIR procedure have not been thoroughly analysed from a microbiological perspective.
International Orthopaedics 09/2014; · 2.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Gustilo grade III open fractures, it remains unknown which demographic or clinical features may be associated with an infection resistant to the administered prophylactic agent, compared to one that is susceptible.
International Orthopaedics 06/2014; · 2.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective. To test the hypothesis that methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) carriage may protect against nosocomial methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) acquisition by competing for colonization of the anterior nares. Design. Prospective cohort and nested case-control study. Setting. Swiss university hospital. Patients. All adult patients admitted to 14 wards of the general medicine division between April 1 and October 31, 2007. Methods. Patients were screened for MRSA and MSSA carriage at admission to and discharge from the division. Associations between nosocomial MRSA acquisition and MSSA colonization at admission and other confounders were analyzed by univariable and multivariable analysis. Results. Of 898 patients included, 183 (20%) were treated with antibiotics. Nosocomial MRSA acquisition occurred in 70 (8%) of the patients (case patients); 828 (92%) of the patients (control subjects) were free of MRSA colonization at discharge. MSSA carriage at admission was 20% and 21% for case patients and control subjects, respectively. After adjustment by multivariate logistic regression, no association was observed between MSSA colonization at admission and nosocomial MRSA acquisition (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.2 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.6-2.3]). By contrast, 4 independent predictors of nosocomial MRSA acquisition were identified: older age (aOR per 1-year increment, 1.05 [95% CI, 1.02-1.08]); increased length of stay (aOR per 1-day increment, 1.05 [95% CI, 1.02-1.09]); increased nursing workload index (aOR per 1-point increment, 1.02 [95% CI, 1.01-1.04]); and previous treatment with macrolides (aOR, 5.6 [95% CI, 1.8-17.7]). Conclusions. Endogenous MSSA colonization does not appear to protect against nosocomial MRSA acquisition in a population of medical patients without frequent antibiotic exposure.
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 05/2014; 35(5):527-33. · 4.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical presentations of deep soft tissue infections can, initially, mimicry superficial skin infections such as erysipelas. However, a rapidly deteriorating health status, the spreading of the lesions and the lack of clear visual limitation of the infection on the skin are hallmarks of a more severe underlying infection, which may endanger patients' life. An immediate adequate multidisciplinary approach to therapy within a few hours is mandatory. The first step is surgical exploration with debridement of all infected tissues, accompanied by antibiotic therapy and additional supportive measures. Despite progress in the understanding of the physiopathology, the delay between suspicion of diagnosis and surgical exploration remains critical. Because of the low incidence of such severe infections, only multicenter studies might reveal deeper insights of optimal therapeutic strategies in the future and for possible improved patients' survival.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whether patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria should be investigated and treated before elective hip and knee replacement is controversial, although it is a widespread practice. We conducted a prospective observational cohort study with urine analyses before surgery and three days post-operatively. Patients with symptomatic urinary infections or an indwelling catheter were excluded. Post-discharge surveillance included questionnaires to patients and general practitioners at three months. Among 510 patients (309 women and 201 men), with a median age of 69 years (16 to 97) undergoing lower limb joint replacements (290 hips and 220 knees), 182 (36%) had pre-operative asymptomatic bacteriuria, mostly due to Escherichia coli, and 181 (35%) had white cells in the urine. Most patients (95%) received a single intravenous peri-operative dose (1.5 g) of cefuroxime as prophylaxis. On the third post-operative day urinary analysis identified white cells in 99 samples (19%) and bacteriuria in 208 (41%). Pathogens in the cultures on the third post-operative day were different from those in the pre-operative samples in 260 patients (51%). Only 25 patients (5%) developed a symptomatic urinary infection during their stay or in a subsequent three-month follow-up period, and two thirds of organisms identified were unrelated to those found during the admission. All symptomatic infections were successfully treated with oral antibiotics with no perceived effect on the joint replacement. We conclude that testing and treating asymptomatic urinary tract colonisation before joint replacement is unnecessary. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:390-4.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The sensitivity of Gram staining is known to be suboptimal for the diagnosis of native joint septic arthritis. We lack information about the accuracy of Gram compared to other microscopic staining techniques for predicting infection in different patient populations.
This was a cohort study with cost evaluations at the Orthopaedic Service of Geneva University Hospitals (January 1996-October 2012).
Among 500 episodes of arthritis (196 with immunosuppression, 227 with underlying arthroplasties and 69 with gout or other crystals in synovial fluid), Gram staining revealed pathogens in 146 episodes (146/500, 29 %) or in 146 of the 400 culture-positive episodes (37 %). Correlation between the Gram and acridine staining of the same sample was good (Spearman 0.85). Overall, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Gram stain for rapid diagnosis of septic arthritis was 0.37, 0.99, 0.99 and 0.28, respectively, compared to microbiological cultures. Quite similar values were recorded across the different patient subpopulations, in particular for sensitivity values that were 0.33 for patients with prosthetic joint infections, 0.40 for immunosuppressed patients, 0.36 for patients under antibiotic administration and 0.52 for patients with concomitant crystalline disease.
The sensitivity of Gram or acridine orange staining for a rapid diagnosis of episodes of septic arthritis is suboptimal compared to microbiological culture, regardless of underlying conditions, immunosuppression or antibiotic therapy. The sensitivity in the presence of synovial fluid crystals is moderate. Acridine orange and Gram stains are equivalent.
International Orthopaedics 02/2014; · 2.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Foot infections are amongst the most frequent and severe complications linked to diabetes mellitus and are the most common non-traumatic cause of lower limb amputation. Appropriate management of these infections, however, can improve their outcome. The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) constituted a panel of multidisciplinary experts in 2004 to develop guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic foot infections, which have been widely used and validated. Because there have been many new publications in the field, and the IDSA updated the format for all guidelines, they asked the diabetic foot infection committee to revise the 2004 publication. The revised guidelines, based on a thorough and systematic review of the literature, were published in 2012. They are built around 10 key questions concerning diagnosis and treatment; these are answered, with a summary of the evidence provided, and given a GRADE rating for the strength of the recommendation and quality of the evidence. The updated guidelines also include advice on implementing these recommendations, suggestions for regulatory changes to enhance care for diabetic foot infections, recommendations on performance measures and suggested areas for future research. They also include 14 tables, 1 figure, and 345 references, most of which were published after the first guidelines in 2004. Implementing these guidelines should improve outcomes in patients with a DFI.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wards cohorting infected orthopaedic patients may be particularly prone to transmitting extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E). We analyze their epidemic pattern by performing molecular typing of ESBL-E isolated from patients and healthcare workers (HCW) from our septic ward. Between March 2010 and November 2011, 186 patients were admitted. Among 565 anal swabs, ESBL-E were detected in 204 samples from 45 patients, suggesting prolonged carriage in affected patients. Among 25 cases with identical ESBL-E species and positive epidemiological links, only 9 were really attributable to our service. We also screened 41 healthcare workers (HCW) on 49 occasions during the study period. Six samples (13%) were positive. None of the ESBL-E detected in HCW were related to any of the patient isolates. Among 60 environmental samples taken at the peak of the epidemic none revealed ESBL-E. We conclude that HCW also were anal carriers of ESBL-E, however the ESBL- strains from the HCW were not the same strains isolated from patients in the septic ward. Moreover, the epidemiological attribution of ESBL by simple vicinity, timing, and species identification might grossly overestimate transmission within a given unit.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this literature review, we concentrate on epidemiology and therapy of osseous echinococcosis, with an emphasis on the recurrence risk.
Literature review 1930-2012.
We retrieved 200 publications based upon single case reports or case series, mostly from resource-poor settings. Among the 721 rural patients (22% females; median age 37 years), 60% of all reported cases were from the Mediterranean region and almost all patients were immune competent. Echinococcus granulosus was identified as the most frequent species. Most infections involved a single bone (602/721; 83%) and often the spine (321 cases; 45%). In eight cases (8/702; 1%), a secondary bacterial surgical site infection was reported. Surgical intervention was performed in 702 cases (97%), with single intervention in 687 episodes (95%). Complete excision of the lesion was possible in only 117 episodes (16%). Albendazole was by far the most frequently used agent in monotherapy with various dosages, while mebendazole in monotherapy was less frequent (32 cases). The median duration of antihelminthic therapy was 6 months (range 0.7-144 months). There were 124 recurrences (17%) after a median delay of 2 years (range 0.4-17 years). In multivariate analysis, the presence of visceral organ involvement increased the odds of recurrence by 5.4 (95% CI 3.1-9.4), whereas the number of surgical interventions, the duration of antihelminthic therapy or the use of hypertonic saline did not influence recurrence.
Bone echinococcosis is a rare parasitic disease. While treatment modalities vary considerably, combined surgical and medical approaches are the standard of care with a 17% risk of recurrence.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 11/2013; · 5.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In contrast to a large amount of epidemiological data regarding the incidence of implant infections after fracture management, surprisingly few have been published concerning the success of their treatment.
This was a single-centre cohort study at Geneva University Hospitals from 2000 to 2012 investigating the remission rates of orthopaedic implant infections after fracture repair and associated variables.
A total of 139 episodes were included: There were 51 women (37 %) and 28 immunosuppressed (20 %) patients with a median age and American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) score of 51 years and 2 points, respectively. The infected implants were plates (n = 75, 54 %), nails (24, 17 %), wires (20), screws (10), cerclage cables or wires (3), hip screws (4) or material for spondylodesis (3). A pathogen was identified in 135 (97 %) cases, including Staphylococcus aureus (73, 52 %), coagulase-negative staphylococci (20), streptococci (7) and 19 Gram-negative rods. All patients underwent antibiotic treatment, and 128 (92 %) remained in remission at a median follow-up time of 2.6 years (range one to 13 years). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the plate infections were significantly associated with lower remission rates [65/75, 87 %, odds ratio (OR) 0.1, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.01-0.90]. No associations were found for gender, age, immune status, ASA score, additional surgical interventions (OR 0.4, 95 % CI 0.1-4.1) or duration of antibiotic treatment (OR 1.0, 95 % CI 0.98-1.01).
Among all infected and removed orthopaedic implants, plates were associated with slightly lower remission rates, while the overall treatment success exceeded 90 %. The duration of antibiotic therapy did not alter the outcome.
International Orthopaedics 09/2013; · 2.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Foot infections are frequent and potentially devastating complications of diabetes. Unchecked, infection can progress contiguously to involve the deeper soft tissues and ultimately the bone. Foot ulcers in persons with diabetes are most often the consequence of one or more of the following: peripheral sensory neuropathy, motor neuropathy and gait disorders, peripheral arterial insufficiency, or immunological impairments. Infection develops in over half of foot ulcers and is the factor that most often leads to lower extremity amputation. These amputations are associated with substantial morbidity, reduced quality of life and major financial costs. Most infections can be successfully treated with optimal wound care, antibiotic therapy and surgical procedures. Employing evidence-based guidelines, multidisciplinary teams, and institution-specific clinical pathways provides the best approach to guide clinicians through this multifaceted problem. All clinicians regularly seeing persons with diabetes should have an understanding of how to prevent, diagnose and treat foot infections, which requires familiarity with the pathophysiology of the problem and the literature supporting currently recommended care.
Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism 08/2013; · 5.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoarticular infections require several weeks of antibiotic therapy, but little is known about the epidemiology of adverse events (AE) including symptomatic Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea during treatment in these patients.
Cohort study (1996-2011) at a tertiary hospital non-endemic for clostridial ribotype O27. Patients with previous C. difficile episodes and metronidazole treatment were excluded.
A total of 393 episodes were identified. Median age of patients was 69 years; 122 were immune-suppressed. All patients received antibiotic treatment for a median of 8 weeks, including 2 weeks intravenously (range, 0-9 weeks). Oral rifampin (600 mg/d) was used in combination in 167 (42%) episodes. A relatively small number of episodes (115/393; 29%) were complicated by AE (diarrhea, nausea, cholestasis, gastric intolerance to rifampin, rash, and mycosis), of which 41 (36%) led to treatment modification. AE occurred mainly after a median of 21 days. Fourteen patients (14/393; 3.6%) developed symptomatic C. difficile diarrhea. By multivariate Cox regression analysis, total duration of antibiotic therapy, and intravenous administration were significantly associated with AE (all p<0.01). Regarding symptomatic C. difficile infection, rifampin (hazard ratio 0.21; 95%CI, 0.05-0.97) protected from diarrhea, but not gender or age. Hospital stay was significantly longer among patients with AE than patients without (median 78 vs. 42 d; p<0.01).
AE were frequent and were observed in 29% of patients treated for osteoarticular infections and prolonged the hospital stay. In contrast, diarrhea due to C. difficile was rare, while oral rifampin might act protectively against it.
The Journal of infection 07/2013; · 4.13 Impact Factor