[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Point mutations in the intronic ZRS region of Lmbr1, a limb specific cis-regulatory element of Sonic hedgehog (Shh), are associated with polydactyly in humans, cats, and mice. We and others have recently mapped the dominant preaxial polydactyly (Po) locus in Silkie chickens to a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the ZRS region. Using polymorphisms in the chicken Shh sequence, we confirm that the ZRS region directly regulates Shh expression in the developing limb causing ectopic Shh expression in the anterior leg, prolonged Shh expression in the posterior limb, and allelic imbalance between wt and Slk Shh alleles in heterozygote limbs. Using Silkie legs, we have explored the consequences of increased Shh expression in the posterior leg on the patterning of the toes, and the induction of preaxial polydactyly.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chicken talpid(3) mutant, with polydactyly and defects in other embryonic regions that depend on hedgehog (Hh) signalling (e.g. the neural tube), has a mutation in KIAA0568. Similar phenotypes are seen in mice and in human syndromes with mutations in genes that encode centrosomal or intraflagella transport proteins. Such mutations lead to defects in primary cilia, sites where Hh signalling occurs. Here, we show that cells of talpid(3) mutant embryos lack primary cilia and that primary cilia can be rescued with constructs encoding Talpid3. talpid(3) mutant embryos also develop polycystic kidneys, consistent with widespread failure of ciliogenesis. Ultrastructural studies of talpid(3) mutant neural tube show that basal bodies mature but fail to dock with the apical cell membrane, are misorientated and almost completely lack ciliary axonemes. We also detected marked changes in actin organisation in talpid(3) mutant cells, which may explain misorientation of basal bodies. KIAA0586 was identified in the human centrosomal proteome and, using an antibody against chicken Talpid3, we detected Talpid3 in the centrosome of wild-type chicken cells but not in mutant cells. Cloning and bioinformatic analysis of the Talpid3 homolog from the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis identified a highly conserved region in the Talpid3 protein, including a predicted coiled-coil domain. We show that this region is required to rescue primary cilia formation and neural tube patterning in talpid(3) mutant embryos, and is sufficient for centrosomal localisation. Thus, Talpid3 is one of a growing number of centrosomal proteins that affect both ciliogenesis and Hh signalling.
Development 02/2009; 136(4):655-64. DOI:10.1242/dev.028464 · 6.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Talpid3 is a classical chicken mutant with abnormal limb patterning and malformations in other regions of the embryo known to depend on Hedgehog signaling. We combined the ease of manipulating chicken embryos with emerging knowledge of the chicken genome to reveal directly the basis of defective Hedgehog signal transduction in talpid3 embryos and to identify the talpid3 gene. We show in several regions of the embryo that the talpid3 phenotype is completely ligand independent and demonstrate for the first time that talpid3 is absolutely required for the function of both Gli repressor and activator in the intracellular Hedgehog pathway. We map the talpid3 locus to chromosome 5 and find a frameshift mutation in a KIAA0586 ortholog (ENSGALG00000012025), a gene not previously attributed with any known function. We show a direct causal link between KIAA0586 and the mutant phenotype by rescue experiments. KIAA0586 encodes a novel protein, apparently specific to vertebrates, that localizes to the cytoplasm. We show that Gli3 processing is abnormal in talpid3 mutant cells but that Gli3 can still translocate to the nucleus. These results suggest that the talpid3 protein operates in the cytoplasm to regulate the activity of both Gli repressor and activator proteins.
Genes & Development 06/2006; 20(10):1365-77. DOI:10.1101/gad.369106 · 12.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The talpid(3) chicken mutant has a pleiotropic phenotype including polydactyly and craniofacial abnormalities. Limb polydactyly in talpid(3) suggests a gain of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, whereas, paradoxically, absence of midline facial structures suggests a loss of Hh function. Here we analyze the status of Shh signaling in the talpid(3) mutant head. We show that Shh expression domains are lost from the talpid(3) head--in hindbrain, midbrain, zona limitans intrathalamica, and stomodeal ectoderm--and that direct targets of Hedgehog signaling, Ptc1, Ptc2, and Gli1, are also absent even in areas associated with primary Shh expression. These data suggest that the talpid(3) mutation leads to defective activation of the Shh pathway and, furthermore, that tissue-to-tissue transduction of Shh expression in the developing head depends on Hh pathway activation. Failure to activate the Shh pathway can also explain absence of floor plate and Hnf-3beta and Netrin-1 expression in midbrain and hindbrain and absence of Fgf-8 expression in commissural plate. Other aspects of gene expression in the talpid(3) head, however, suggest misspecification, such as maintenance of floor plate-like gene expression in telencephalon. In branchial arches and lower jaw, where Shh is expressed, changes in expression of genes involved in patterning and mesodermal specification suggest both gain and loss of Hedgehog function. Thus, analysis of gene expression in talpid(3) head shows that, as in talpid(3) limb, expression of some genes is lost, while others are ectopically expressed. Unlike the limb, many head regions depend on Hh induction of a secondary domain of Shh expression, and failure of this induction in talpid(3), together with the inability to activate the Shh pathway, explain the loss-of-function head phenotype. This gene expression analysis in the talpid(3) head also confirms and extends knowledge of the importance of Shh signaling and the balance between activation and repression of Shh targets in many aspects of craniofacial morphogenesis.