Braden J Manns

The University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

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Publications (246)1600.74 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The optimal time at which to initiate chronic dialysis remains unknown. Using a contemporary knowledge translation approach (the knowledge-to-action framework), a pan-Canadian collaboration (CANN-NET) set out to study the scope of the problem, then develop and disseminate evidence-based guidelines addressing the timing of dialysis initiation. The purpose of this review is to summarize the key findings and describe the planned Canadian knowledge translation strategy for improving knowledge and practices pertaining to the timing dialysis initiation. New research has provided considerable insights regarding the initiation of dialysis. A Canadian cohort study identified significant variation in the estimated glomerular filtration rate level at dialysis initiation, and a survey of providers identified related knowledge gaps that might be amenable to knowledge translation interventions. A recent knowledge synthesis/guideline concluded that early dialysis initiation is costly, and provides no measureable clinical benefits. A systematic knowledge translation intervention including a multifaceted approach may aid in reducing variation in practice and improving the quality of care. Utilizing the knowledge-to-action framework, we identified practice variation and key barriers to the optimal timing for dialysis initiation that may be amenable to knowledge translation strategies.
    Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension 05/2014; 23(3):321-7. · 3.96 Impact Factor
  • Journal of clinical epidemiology 04/2014; 67(4):482-3. · 2.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Management of chronic diseases requires patients to adhere to recommended health behavior change and complete tests for monitoring. While studies have shown an association between low income and lack of adherence, the reasons why people with low income may be less likely to adhere are unclear. We sought to determine the association between household income and receipt of health behavior change advice, adherence to advice, receipt of recommended monitoring tests, and self-reported reasons for non-adherence/non-receipt. We conducted a population-weighted survey, with 1849 respondents with cardiovascular-related chronic diseases (heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, stroke) from Western Canada (n = 1849). We used log-binomial regression to examine the association between household income and the outcome variables of interest: receipt of advice for and adherence to health behavior change (sodium reduction, dietary improvement, increased physical activity, smoking cessation, weight loss), reasons for non-adherence, receipt of recommended monitoring tests (cholesterol, blood glucose, blood pressure), and reasons for non-receipt of tests. Behavior change advice was received equally by both low and high income respondents. Low income respondents were more likely than those with high income to not adhere to recommendations regarding smoking cessation (adjusted prevalence rate ratio (PRR): 1.55, 95%CI: 1.09-2.20), and more likely to not receive measurements of blood cholesterol (PRR: 1.72, 95%CI 1.24-2.40) or glucose (PRR: 1.80, 95%CI: 1.26-2.58). Those with low income were less likely to state that non-adherence/non-receipt was due to personal choice, and more likely to state that it was due to an extrinsic factor, such as cost or lack of accessibility. There are important income-related differences in the patterns of health behavior change and disease monitoring, as well as reasons for non-adherence or non-receipt. Among those with low income, adherence to health behavior change and monitoring may be improved by addressing modifiable barriers such as cost and access.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(4):e94007. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of a restrictive formulary, with placement determined through a drug-reimbursement decision-making process, is one approach to managing drug expenditures. To describe the processes in drug reimbursement decision-making systems currently used in national publicly funded outpatient prescription drug insurance plans. By using the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) nations as the sampling frame, a search was done in the published literature, followed by the gray literature. Collected data were verified by a system expert within the prescription drug insurance plan in each country to ensure the accuracy of key data elements across countries. All but one country provided at least one publicly funded prescription drug formulary. Many systems have adopted similar processes of drug reimbursement decision making. All but three systems required additional consideration of clinical evidence within the decision-making process. Transparency of recommendations varied between systems, from having no information publicly available (three systems) to all information available and accessible to the public (16 systems). Only four countries did not consider cost within the drug reimbursement decision-making process. There were similarities in the decision-making process for drug reimbursement across the systems; however, only five countries met the highest standard of transparency, requirement of evidence, and ability to appeal. Future work should focus on examining how these processes may affect formulary listing decisions for drugs between countries.
    Value in Health 01/2014; 17(1):98-108. · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Publicly-funded drug plans vary in strategies used and policies employed to reduce continually increasing pharmaceutical expenditures. We systematically reviewed the utilization of cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations in publicly-funded formularies within member nations of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Using the OECD nations as the sampling frame, a search for cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations was done using published and grey literature. Collected data was verified by a system expert within the prescription drug insurance plan in each country, to ensure the accuracy of key data elements across plans. Significant variation in the use of cost-sharing mechanisms was seen. Copayments were the most commonly used cost-containment measure, though their use and amount varied for those with certain conditions, most often chronic diseases (in 17 countries), and by socio-economic status (either income or employment status), or with age (in 15 countries). Caps and deductibles were only used by five systems. Drug cost-containment strategies targeting physicians were also identified in 24 countries, including guideline-based prescribing, prescription monitoring and incentive structures. There was variable use of cost-containment strategies to limit pharmaceutical expenditures in publicly funded formularies within OECD countries. Further research is needed to determine the best approach to constrain costs while maintaining access to pharmaceutical drugs.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e90434. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prescription drugs are used in people with hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease to manage their illness. Patient cost sharing strategies such as copayments and deductibles are often employed to lower expenditures for prescription drug insurance plans, but the impact on health outcomes in these patients is unclear. To determine the association between drug insurance and patient cost sharing strategies on medication adherence, clinical and economic outcomes in those with chronic diseases (defined herein as diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, coronary artery disease, and cerebrovascular disease). Studies were included if they examined various cost sharing strategies including copayments, coinsurance, fixed copayments, deductibles and maximum out-of-pocket expenditures. Value-based insurance design and reference based pricing studies were excluded. Two reviewers independently identified original intervention studies (randomized controlled trials, interrupted time series, and controlled before-after designs). MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and relevant reference lists were searched until March 2013. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion, quality, and extracted data. Eleven studies, assessing the impact of seven policy changes, were included: 2 separate reports of one randomized controlled trial, 4 interrupted time series, and 5 controlled before-after studies. Outcomes included medication adherence, clinical events (myocardial infarction, stroke, death), quality of life, healthcare utilization, or cost. The heterogeneity among the studies precluded meta-analysis. Few studies reported the impact of cost sharing strategies on mortality, clinical and economic outcomes. The association between patient copayments and medication adherence varied across studies, ranging from no difference to significantly lower adherence, depending on the amount of the copayment. Lowering cost sharing in patients with chronic diseases may improve adherence, but the impact on clinical and economic outcomes is uncertain.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e89168. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Despite a low prevalence of chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate [GFR] < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2)), First Nations people have high rates of kidney failure requiring chronic dialysis or kidney transplantation. We sought to examine whether the presence and severity of albuminuria contributes to the progression of chronic kidney disease to kidney failure among First Nations people. METHODS:We identified all adult residents of Alberta (age ≥ 18 yr) for whom an outpatient serum creatinine measurement was available from May 1, 2002, to Mar. 31, 2008. We determined albuminuria using urine dipsticks and categorized results as normal (i.e., no albuminuria), mild, heavy or unmeasured. Our primary outcome was progression to kidney failure (defined as the need for chronic dialysis or kidney transplantation, or a sustained doubling of serum creatinine levels). We calculated rates of progression to kidney failure by First Nations status, by estimated GFR and by albuminuria category. We determined the relative hazard of progression to kidney failure for First Nations compared with non-First Nations participants by level of albuminuria and estimated GFR. RESULTS:Of the 1 816 824 participants we identified, 48 669 (2.7%) were First Nations. First Nations people were less likely to have normal albuminuria compared with non-First Nations people (38.7% v. 56.4%). Rates of progression to kidney failure were consistently 2- to 3-fold higher among First Nations people than among non-First Nations people, across all levels of albuminuria and estimated GFRs. Compared with non-First Nations people, First Nations people with an estimated GFR of 15.0-29.9 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) had the highest risk of progression to kidney failure, with similar hazard ratios for those with normal and heavy albuminuria. INTERPRETATION:Albuminuria confers a similar risk of progression to kidney failure for First Nations and non-First Nations people.
    Canadian Medical Association Journal 12/2013; · 6.47 Impact Factor
  • Canadian Medical Association Journal 12/2013; · 6.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Provider and patient enthusiasm for frequent home nocturnal hemodialysis (FHNHD) has been renewed; however, the cost-effectiveness of this technique is unknown. We performed a cost-utility analysis of FHNHD compared with conventional hemodialysis (CvHD; 4 hours three times per week) from a health payer perspective over a lifetime horizon using patient information from the Alberta NHD randomized controlled trial. Costs, including training costs, were obtained using microcosting and administrative data (CAN$2012). We determined the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Robustness was assessed using scenario, sensitivity, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Compared with CvHD (61% in-center, 14% satellite, and 25% home dialysis), FHNHD led to incremental cost savings (-$6700) and an additional 0.38 QALYs. In sensitivity analyses, when the annual probability of technique failure with FHNHD increased from 7.6% (reference case) to ≥19%, FHNHD became unattractive (>$75,000/QALY). The cost/QALY gained became $13,000 if average training time for FHNHD increased from 3.7 to 6 weeks. In scenarios with alternate comparator modalities, FHNHD remained dominant compared with in-center CvHD; cost/QALYs gained were $18,500, $198,000, and $423,000 compared with satellite CvHD, home CvHD, and peritoneal dialysis, respectively. In summary, FHNHD is attractive compared with in-center CvHD in this cohort. However, the attractiveness of FHNHD varies by technique failure rate, training time, and dialysis modalities from which patients are drawn, and these variables should be considered when establishing FHNHD programs.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 11/2013; · 8.99 Impact Factor
  • Renal Week 2013 (Nov 5-10): Annual Meeting and Scientific Exposition of the American Society of Nephrology; 11/2013
  • Annual Meeting and Scientific Exposition of the American Society of Nephrology; 11/2013
  • Kidney International 11/2013; 84(5):1052. · 7.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For eligible candidates, transplantation is considered the optimal treatment compared with dialysis for patients with ESRD. The growing number of patients with ESRD requires new strategies to increase the pool of potential donors. Using decision analysis modeling, this study compared a strategy of paying living kidney donors to waitlisted recipients on dialysis with the current organ donation system. In the base case estimate, this study assumed that the number of donors would increase by 5% with a payment of $10,000. Quality of life estimates, resource use, and costs (2010 Canadian dollars) were based on the best available published data. Compared with the current organ donation system, a strategy of increasing the number of kidneys for transplantation by 5% by paying living donors $10,000 has an incremental cost-savings of $340 and a gain of 0.11 quality-adjusted life years. Increasing the number of kidneys for transplantation by 10% and 20% would translate into incremental cost-savings of $1640 and $4030 and incremental quality-adjusted life years gain of 0.21 and 0.39, respectively. Although the impact is uncertain, this model suggests that a strategy of paying living donors to increase the number of kidneys available for transplantation could be cost-effective, even with a transplant rate increase of only 5%. Future work needs to examine the feasibility, legal policy, ethics, and public perception of a strategy to pay living donors.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 10/2013; · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Re-hospitalization is common among patients with diabetes, and may be related to aspects of health care use. We sought to determine the association between patterns of health care engagement and risk of subsequent hospitalization within one year of discharge for patients with diabetes. We identified adults with incident diabetes in Alberta, Canada, who had at least one hospitalization following their diabetes diagnosis between January 1, 2004 and March 31, 2011. We used Cox regression to estimate the association between factors related to health care engagement (prior emergency department use, primary care visits, and discharge disposition (i.e. whether the patient left against medical advice)) and the risk of subsequent all-cause hospitalization within one year. Of the 33811 adults with diabetes and at least one hospitalization, 11095 (32.8%) experienced a subsequent all-cause hospitalization within a mean (standard deviation) follow-up time of 0.68 (0.3) years. Compared to patients with no emergency department visits, there was a 4 percent increased risk of a subsequent hospitalization for every emergency department visit occurring prior to the index hospitalization (adjusted Hazard Ratio [HR]: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.03--1.05). Limited and increased use of primary care was also associated with increased risk of a subsequent hospitalization. Compared to patients with 1--4 visits, patients with no visits to a primary care physician (adjusted HR: 1.11; 95% CI: 0.99--1.25) and those with 5--9 visits (adjusted HR: 1.06; 95% CI: 1.00--1.12) were more likely to experience a subsequent hospitalization. Finally, compared to patients discharged home, those leaving against medical advice were more likely to have a subsequent hospitalization (adjusted HR: 1.74; 95% CI: 1.50--2.02) and almost 3 times more likely to have a diabetes-specific subsequent event (adjusted HR: 2.86; 95% CI: 1.82--4.49). Patterns of health care use and the circumstances surrounding hospital discharge are associated with an increased risk of subsequent hospitalization among patients with diabetes. Whether these patterns are related to the health care systems ability to manage complex patients within a primary care setting, or to access to primary care services, remains to be determined.
    BMC Health Services Research 10/2013; 13(1):399. · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES Little is known about the prognostic impact of hypoglycemia associated with hospitalization. We hypothesized that hospitalized hypoglycemia would be associated with increased long-term morbidity and mortality, irrespective of diabetes status.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We undertook a cohort study using linked administrative healthcare and laboratory databases in Alberta, Canada. From 1 January 2004 to 31 March 2009, we included all outpatients 66 years of age and older who had at least one serum creatinine and one A1C measured. To examine the independent association between hospitalized hypoglycemia and all-cause mortality, we used time-varying Cox proportional hazards (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]), and for all-cause hospitalizations, we used Poisson regression (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR]).RESULTSThe cohort included 85,810 patients: mean age 75 years, 51% female, and 50% had diabetes defined by administrative data. Overall, 440 patients (0.5%) had severe hypoglycemia associated with hospitalization and most (93%) had diabetes. During 4 years of follow-up, 16,320 (19%) patients died. Hospitalized hypoglycemia was independently associated with increased mortality (60 vs. 19% mortality for no hypoglycemia; aHR 2.55 [95% CI 2.25-2.88]), and this increased in a dose-dependent manner (aHR no hypoglycemia = 1.0 vs. one episode = 2.49 vs. one or more = 3.78, P trend <0.001). Hospitalized hypoglycemia was also independently associated with subsequent hospitalizations (aIRR no hypoglycemia = 1.0 vs. one episode = 1.90 vs. one or more = 2.61, P trend <0.001) and recurrent hypoglycemia (aHR no hypoglycemia = 1.0 vs. one episode = 2.45 vs. one or more = 9.66, P trend <0.001).CONCLUSIONS Older people who have an episode of hospitalized hypoglycemia are easily identified and at substantially increased risk of morbidity and mortality.
    Diabetes care 10/2013; · 7.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Both obesity and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are associated with adverse periprocedural outcomes, but it is unknown how these two common conditions interact to influence risk. We examined the feasibility of combining a new procedure-related, obesity-specific flag with administrative and laboratory data and assessed the joint association between obesity and CKD with mortality. Since 2007, Alberta physicians may claim a fee supplement for performing eligible surgical and non-surgical procedures on patients with documented BMI ≥ 35 kg/m(2). We linked this information to the Alberta Kidney Disease Network registry. Participants were classified into four mutually exclusive groups based on the presence/absence of both obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m(2)) and CKD (eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). Mortality was assessed at 30 days following the index procedure. Of 393 659 participants, 9% were obese. Overall, 8% had obesity only, 78% neither obesity nor CKD, 13% CKD only and 1% both obesity and CKD. Unadjusted risks of mortality at 30 days were 0.3, 0.4, 2.0 and 2.1%, respectively-but decreased to 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.3%, respectively, after adjustment for age, sex, socioeconomic status, procedure type and other comorbidities. Administrative data can be feasibly combined with disease registries to study obesity-related outcomes. Results from the linked dataset demonstrated face validity-subjects with both obesity and CKD were at increased risk of periprocedural mortality, and this was driven in part by differences in age and comorbidity.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 09/2013; · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) 2012 clinical practice guideline for anemia management in patients with chronic kidney disease provides the structural and evidence base for the Canadian Society of Nephrology commentary on this guideline's relevancy and application to the Canadian health care system. While in general agreement, we provide commentary on 11 of the 61 KDIGO guideline statements. Specifically, we agreed that a therapeutic trial of iron is appropriate in cases in which a reduction in erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) dosage or avoidance of ESA and transfusion is desired, transferrin saturations are >30%, and ferritin concentrations are >500 μg/L. However, we concluded that there is insufficient evidence to support an upper target or threshold for ferritin and transferrin saturation levels. We agree with the initiation of ESA treatment when hemoglobin (Hb) level is 90-100 g/L; however, we specifically state that an acceptable range for Hb level is 95-115 g/L, with a target of 100-110 g/L, and add caution to individualization above this range due to concerns regarding the safety of ESAs. We agree that ESAs should be used with considerable caution in patients with active malignancy, history of stroke, or history of malignancy, and we suggest initiating ESA therapy at Hb level of 90 g/L and to aim for a Hb level in the range of 90-105 g/L. The reader is encouraged to note the level of evidence and review the entire KDIGO anemia guideline to interpret the guideline statements and commentary appropriately.
    American Journal of Kidney Diseases 09/2013; · 5.29 Impact Factor
  • Karen L Tang, William A Ghali, Braden J Manns
    Canadian Medical Association Journal 09/2013; · 6.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Practice variation is common for nephrotic syndrome (NS) treatment. A cross-sectional, web-based survey on NS treatment was administered to 58 Canadian pediatric nephrologists with the aim to document existing practice variation and compare practice with the recommendations of the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes Clinical Practice Guideline for NS. Of the 58 nephrologists asked to participate in the survey, 40 (69 %) responded. Among these, 62 % prescribed initial daily glucocorticoid (GC) therapy for 6 weeks, 26 % for 4 weeks by 26 %, and 10 % prescribed 'other'. Alternate-day GC was continued for 6 weeks by 63 % of respondents and for >6 and <6 weeks by 32 and 6 %, respectively. For biopsy-confirmed minimal change disease, 65 and 46 % of respondents chose oral cyclophosphamide for frequently relapsing and steroid-dependent phenotypes, respectively; calcineurin inhibitors or mycophenolate were the second most popular choices. Kidney biopsy was 'always' performed by 16, 39, and 97 % of respondents for frequently relapsing, steroid-dependent, and steroid-resistant patients, respectively. Rituximab had been administered by 60 % of respondents; 22, 56, and 72 % reported that they would consider rituximab for frequently relapsing, steroid-dependent, and steroid-resistant patients, respectively. Most notable differences between practice and Guideline recommendations were first presentation GC duration, GC-sparing agent choices in frequently relapsing and steroid-dependent patients, and biopsy practices. There is substantial Canadian practice variation in NS treatment. Assessment of factors driving variation and strategies to implement Guideline recommendations are needed.
    Pediatric Nephrology 08/2013; · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metformin is considered the first-line antihyperglycemic therapy for type 2 diabetes, but should be used with caution in people with renal insufficiency. Our study objective was to describe the proportion of patients who have an assessment of kidney function (serum creatinine [SCr] and estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR]) around the time of initiation of metformin in new users. We used data from the Alberta Kidney Disease Network to identify patients with diabetes (age, ≥66 y) with a new prescription for metformin from November 1, 2002, to March 31, 2008. We assessed whether SCr measurement was completed before and after metformin initiation. The eGFR was calculated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation and categorized into CKD stages. Frequency of metformin use based on SCr measurement and CKD stage was reported using descriptive statistics. A total of 22 051 subjects were identified as new metformin users. Overall, 25.4% (n=5608) had no measurement of SCr or assessment of eGFR before metformin prescription. In addition, of patients with an eGFR measurement, 38.7% (n=8544) of individuals had an eGFR of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). One quarter of patients started on metformin did not have a SCr measurement completed beforehand. Also, metformin was used commonly among patients with diabetes and CKD, potentially putting these individuals at risk for adverse events.
    Canadian Journal of Diabetes 08/2013; 37(4):226-30. · 0.46 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
1,600.74 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1998–2014
    • The University of Calgary
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      • • Department of Critical Care Medicine
      • • Department of Community Health Sciences
      Calgary, Alberta, Canada
  • 2013
    • London Health Sciences Centre
      London, Ontario, Canada
  • 2003–2013
    • University of Alberta
      • • Division of Nephrology
      • • Department of Medicine
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  • 2012
    • Alberta Health Services
      Calgary, Alberta, Canada
  • 2007–2011
    • Humber River Regional Hospital
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • University of Toronto
      • Department of Medicine
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • University of Sydney
      • Northern Clinical School
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2010
    • Stollery Children's Hospital
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  • 2008–2010
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      • Department of Medicine
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    • Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    • The University of Western Ontario
      • Department of Medicine
      London, Ontario, Canada
  • 2006–2009
    • Institute of Health Economics
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  • 2001–2005
    • McMaster University
      • • Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics
      • • Department of Medicine
      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    • Dalhousie University
      • Department of Medicine
      Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
  • 2002
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      • Department of Medicine
      Scottsdale, AZ, United States