[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, the cytotoxicity of 30 diterpenoids with an abietane or a halimane skeleton was determined against five human tumor cell lines (HL-60, U937, Molt-3, SK-MEL-1, and MCF-7). Diterpenoids containing an abietane skeleton including taxodone (1) and taxodione (2), as well as the semisynthetic derivatives 12, 14, 15, 17, and 22, were the most cytotoxic compounds for human leukemia cells. Overexpression of the protective mitochondrial proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL did not confer resistance to abietane diterpene-induced cytotoxicity. Studies performed on HL-60 cells indicated that growth inhibition triggered by compounds 1, 12, 14, and 15 was caused by induction of apoptosis. This was prevented by the nonspecific caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK and, in the case of compounds 14 and 15, reduced by the selective caspase-8 inhibitor Z-IETD-FMK. Cell death induced by these abietane diterpenes was found to be associated with the release of mitochondrial proteins, including cytochrome c, Smac/DIABLO, and AIF (apoptosis-inducing factor), accompanied by dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ), and modulated by inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinases signaling and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.
Journal of Natural Products 07/2013; · 3.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hybridization of two different bioactive molecules with different mechanism of action is one of the methods that are being adopted to treat cancer. Molecules bearing a thiazolidine-2,4-dione scaffold have been recognized as antineoplastic agents with a broad spectrum of activity against many cancer cell lines. In this manuscript we have described the synthesis and biological evaluation of two series of N-3-substituted-5-arylidene thiazolidine-2,4-diones, bearing the α-bromoacryloylamido moiety at the para- or meta-position on the phenyl of the arylidene portion. We have observed that selected compounds 5a, 5c and 5g suppress proliferation of human myeloid leukaemia HL-60 and U937 cells by triggering morphological changes and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which are well-known features of apoptosis. Finally, our results indicated that the investigated compounds induced apoptotic cell death through a mechanism that involved activation of multiple caspases and was also associated with the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria.
European journal of medicinal chemistry 03/2013; 63C:544-557. · 3.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A variety of spirostan saponins and related glycosides were synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxicity against the human myeloid leukemia cell line (HL-60). A linear glycosylation strategy allowed for accessing a variety of functionalization patterns at both the spirostanic and the saccharide moieties, which provides new information regarding the structure-cytotoxicity relationship of this family of steroidal glycosides. Intriguing results were achieved with respect to hecogenyl and 5α-hydroxy-laxogenyl β-chacotriosides, turning out to be the former very cytotoxic and the latter no cytotoxic at all. Importantly, the partially pivaloylated β-d-glucosides of 5α-hydroxy-laxogenin were the most potent cytotoxic compounds among all tested glycosides. This comprises the first report on acylated spirostanyl glucosides displaying significant cytotoxicity, and therefore, it opens up new opportunities toward the development of saponin analogues as anticancer agents.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two new compounds, the sesquiterpene (1E,5E)-8β-acetoxy-4α-hydroxy-7βH-germacra-1(10),5-dien-14-oic acid (2), and a nor-sesquiterpene, (5E)-8β-acetoxy-4α-hydroxy-7βH-germacr-5-en-10-one (3), were isolated from Pulicaria canariensis ssp. lanata, along with ten known compounds, including the flavonoid 5,3'-dihydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (4). From Pulicaria burchardii, we isolated seven known compounds; the physical and spectroscopic data of the triterpenoid 3β-hydroxytaraxaster-20-en-30-al (1) are reported. The structures of compounds 1-3 were determined on the basis of HR-MS, and 1D- and 2D-NMR studies. The structure of 2 was corroborated by X-ray crystal diffraction. Cell viability experiments revealed that the semisynthetic flavonoid 4b was the most cytotoxic compound against human leukemia cells, and the cytotoxicity was caused by induction of apoptosis, as determined by microscopy of nuclear changes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new flavone glucoside, apigenin 4'-(6″-methylglucuronide) (1), together with six known compounds, cirsilineol, jaceosidin, melitensin, apigenin, apigenin 7-(6″-methylglucuronide) and prunasin, were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Centaurea nicaeensis All. var. walliana M. (Asteraceae) collected from Souk-Ahras, eastern Algeria. The structures were established by spectral analysis, mainly HRESI-MS, UV and 2D-NMR experiments (COSY, HSQC and HMBC).
Natural product research 08/2011; 26(3):203-8. · 1.01 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Induction of apoptosis is a promising strategy that could lead to the discovery of new molecules active in cancer chemotherapy. This property is generally observed when cells are treated with agents that target microtubules, dynamic structures that play a crucial role in cell division. Small molecules such as benzo[b]furans are attractive as inhibitors of tubulin polymerization. A new class of inhibitors of tubulin polymerization based on the 2-(3',4',5'-trimethoxybenzoyl)benzo[b]furan molecular skeleton, with the amino group placed at different positions on the benzene ring, were synthesized and evaluated for antiproliferative activity, inhibition of tubulin polymerization, and cell-cycle effects. The methoxy substitution pattern on the benzene portion of the benzo[b]furan moiety played an important role in affecting antiproliferative activity. In the series of 5-amino derivatives, the greatest inhibition of cell growth occurred if the methoxy substituent is placed at the C6 position, whereas C7 substitution decreases potency. The most promising compound in this series is 2-(3',4',5'-trimethoxybenzoyl)-3-methyl-5-amino-6-methoxybenzo[b]furan (3 h), which inhibits cancer cell growth at nanomolar concentrations (IC(50) =16-24 nM), and interacts strongly with tubulin by binding to the colchicine site. Sub-G(1) apoptotic cells in cultures of HL-60 and U937 cells were observed by flow cytometric analysis after treatment with 3 h in a concentration-dependent manner. We also show that compound 3 h induces apoptosis by activation of caspase-3, -8, and -9, and this is associated with cytochrome c release from mitochondria. The introduction of an α-bromoacryloyl group increased antiproliferative activity with respect to the parent amino derivatives.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Novel analogs of spirostan saponins in which the glycosidic bond has been replaced by a triazole linkage are described. For this, a direct oligosaccharide–steroid conjugation approach based on the CuI-catalyzed azide–alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition was implemented, leading to diverse combinations of saponin analogs with variations in the trisaccharide moiety, the artificial linkage, and the steroid-skeleton functionalization. This ‘click’ process proved great efficiency for the ligation of two bulky building blocks (e.g., chacotriose derivatives and spirostanes bearing axial azides), which enabled the rapid creation of a small library of triazole-based analogs for cytotoxicity evaluation. A molecular modeling study was performed to understand the conformational and electronic differences between a natural saponin and its triazole-based analogs.Graphical abstract
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four new steroidal glycosides such as 3-O-6-deoxy-3-O-methyl-β-D-allopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-oleandropyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-cymaropyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-cymaropyranoside-12-β-tigloyl-14-β-hydroxy-17-β-pregnane (1), 3-O-6-deoxy-3-O-methyl-β-D-allopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-oleandropyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-cymaropyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-cymaropyranoside-12-β-(2'-amino)-benzoyl-14-β-hydroxy-17-β-pregnane (2), 3-O-6-deoxy-3-O-methyl-β-D-allopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-oleandropyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-cymaropyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-cymaropyranoside-12-β-14-β-dihydroxy-17-α-pregnane (3) and 3-O-6-deoxy-3-O-methyl-β-D-allopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-oleandropyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-cymaropyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-cymaropyranoside-12-β-14-β-dihydroxy-17-β-pregnane (4) were isolated from the aerial parts of Ceropegia fusca Bolle (Asclepiadaceae), a crassulacean acid metabolism plant, an endemic species to the Canary Islands that has been used in traditional medicine as a cicatrizant, vulnerary and disinfectant. The dichloromethane extract exhibited significant cytostatic activity against HL-60, A-431 and SK-MEL-1 cells, human leukemic, epidermoid carcinoma and melanoma cells, respectively. As shown in Table I, compounds 1 and 2 showed very similar IC(50) values. The acetylation of 1 to give the diacetate 5 increases 5-fold the cytotoxicity against HL-60 cells. Compounds 3 and 4 did not show cytotoxicity at the assayed concentrations. With respect to the compounds containing only the steroid ring (6-8), the presence of a charged O-amino-benzoyl but not a tigloyl group improved the cytotoxicity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aerial parts of Gonospermum fruticosum collected at several locations in the Canary Islands afforded, in addition to known compounds, four sesquiterpene alcohols related to costol and a sesquiterpene lactone, whose structures were established on the basis of their spectroscopic data and chemical transformations. Except for Gonospermum species collected on the island of Tenerife, those collected on the island of El Hierro and, in a previous study those from La Gomera, contain sesquiterpene lactones that can be used as chemotaxonomic markers confirming the inclusion of Gonospermum, Lugoa, and species of Tanacetum endemic to the Canary Islands in a genus that does not support the monophyly of Gonosperminae.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel series of alpha-bromoacryloyl N-substituted isatin analogues were found to inhibit the growth and viability of human myeloid leukemia HL-60 and U-937 cells as well as human lymphoid leukemia MOLT-3 cells. Cell death induced by these molecules was preceded by a rapid release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol and subsequent caspase activation involving caspase-3, to cleave poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). These findings suggest that these compounds present antiproliferative activity which may be mediated by apoptosis caused by cytochrome c release and caspase activation in human leukemia cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phytochemical research of two Tolpis species, T. webbii and T. sp., led to the isolation of three new compounds: 2,4'-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (1) and the triterpenes 21 alpha, 22 alpha-epoxy-20 alpha-hydroxy-20(30)-dihydrotaraxasterol (2) and 3beta-hydroxytaraxaster-20-en-30-oic acid (3) together with 16 known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by means of extensive IR, NMR, MS and X-ray analysis and by comparison of data reported in the literature.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new acylated flavonoid glucoside named algerianin 1 and a new as natural product, 4′-methyl gossypetin 2, together with 10 known compounds, isovanillic acid ethyl ester, β-sitosterol, β-sitosterol 3-O-glucoside, a mixture of α and β-amyrin, 3′-hydroxyflindulatin, chrysoeriol, jaceidin, corniculatusin and centaurein were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the flowering and aerial parts of Centaurea africana Lamk var. africana (Bonnet) M., an endemic species to Algeria and Tunisia collected from El-Kala in the eastern Algeria. The structures were established by chemical and spectral analysis, mainly HREIMS, ESIMS, UV and NMR experiments (GOESY, COSY, ROESY, HSQC and HMBC). Algerianin showed cytotoxicity against the human myeloid leukaemia cell line HL-60.
Phytochemistry Letters - PHYTOCHEM LETT. 01/2009; 2(3):114-118.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four new sesquiterpene lactones (1-4) and a new sesquiterpene (5) together with 20 known compounds were isolated from two Gonospermum species (G. gomerae Bolle and G. fruticosum Less). Their structures were determined by analysis of spectroscopic data, including 1D and 2D NMR. The cytotoxicity of several new and known natural and semisynthetic sesquiterpene lactones was also assessed against human myeloid leukemia cell lines (HL-60 and U937), human melanoma cells (SK-MEL-1), and human adenocarcinoma (A549).
Journal of Natural Products 12/2008; 71(12):2015-20. · 3.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the effect of three synthetic alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactones (MBL) on viability of 10 human tumor cell lines and found that these lactones were highly cytotoxic against leukemia cells. Studies performed on HL-60 cells indicate that MBL induce G(2)-M arrest and apoptosis through a caspase-dependent mechanism. Apoptosis was associated to cytochrome c release, cleavage of procaspases-9 and -3, and hydrolysis of PARP. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) seem to play a key role since high levels of ROS were produced early (<15 min) and apoptosis was completely abrogated by the free radical scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC).
Cancer letters 06/2008; 269(1):139-47. · 4.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to assess the cytotoxicity of several new synthetic steroidal saponins against the human myeloid leukemia cell lines (HL-60 and U937) and against human melanoma cells (SK-MEL-1). Several diosgenyl glycosides analyzed showed strong cell growth inhibition which was associated with alterations in cell cycle progression and induction of apoptosis. Studies of cytochrome c release and caspase-9 activation suggest a main role of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis in the mechanism of cytotoxicity caused by this kind of compounds.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new phytosphingosine-type ceramide, suillumide (1), was isolated from the EtOH extract of the basidiomycete Suillus luteus (L.) S. F. Gray, along with ten known compounds: ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one, ergosterol, ergosterol peroxide, suillin, (E)-3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamic alcohol, 5 alpha,6 alpha-epoxyergosta-8,22-diene-3beta,7 beta-diol, (R)-1-palmitoylglycerol, ergosta-7,9(11),22-triene-3beta,5 alpha,6 beta-triol, cerevisterol, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. The structure of 1 was determined on the basis of spectroscopic and mass-spectrometric analyses, as well as by chemical methods. Compound 1 and its synthetic diacetyl derivative 2 were tested for their cytotoxic activities against the human melanoma cell line SK-MEL-1. Both drugs showed IC(50) values of ca. 10 microM after 72 h of exposure.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new lupene triterpenetriol was isolated from the acetone extract of the aerial parts of Salvia sclareoides and characterised as (1beta,3beta)-lup-20(29)-ene-1,3,30-triol (1). In addition, nepetidin (2), nepeticin (3), lupendiol (4), (1beta,11alpha)-dihydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-3-one (5), ursolic acid (6), sumaresinolic acid (7) and hederagenin (8), were identified in this Salvia sp. To the best of our knowledge, the compounds 2 and 7 are new constituents in Salvia spp. The acetone, ethanol, butanol and water extracts of the plant were screened for the in vitro inhibitory activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrilcholinesterase (BChE), enzymes which play a role in the Alzheimer disease. All extracts inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity at 10 microg/ml, a remarkable activity since the standard drug rivastigmine does not inhibit acetylcholinesterase at the same concentration. Regarding the butyrilcholinesterase, the acetone extract at 1000 microg/ml was able to inhibit completely the enzyme activity and the butanol and ethanol extracts, at this concentration, produced a potent inhibition of BchE.