[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of sorafenib monotherapy on advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) in a clinical setting.
In total, 143 consecutive patients with unresectable HCC were treated with sorafenib. Among these patients, 30 patients with advanced HCC and PVTT (Vp3 or 4) were treated with sorafenib monotherapy.
All patients had a performance status of 1 to 2 (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 1/2, 20/10) and Child-Pugh class A or B (A/B, 17/13). Eleven patients had modified Union for International Cancer Control stage IVA tumors, whereas 19 had stage IVB tumors. All patients had PVTT (Vp3, 6; Vp4, 24). Following sorafenib monotherapy, three patients (10.0%) had a partial response with PVTT revascularization, and nine (30.0%) had stable disease, with a disease control rate of 33.3%. The median overall survival was 3.1 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.70 to 3.50), and the median progression-free survival was 2.0 months (95% CI, 1.96 to 2.05). Fatigue and hand-foot skin reactions were the most troublesome side effects.
A limited proportion of patients with advanced HCC and PVTT exhibited a remarkable outcome after sorafenib monotherapy, although the treatment results in this type of patient is extremely poor. Further studies to predict good responders to personalized therapy are warranted.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relationship between portal hemodynamics and fundal varices has not been well documented. The purpose of this study was to understand the pathophysiology of fundal varices and to investigate bleeding risk factors related to the presence of spontaneous portosystemic shunts, and to examine the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) between fundal varices and other varices.
In total, 85 patients with cirrhosis who underwent HVPG and gastroscopic examination between July 2009 and March 2011 were included in this study. The interrelationship between HVPG and the types of varices or the presence of spontaneous portosystemic shunts was studied.
There was no significant difference in the HVPG between fundal varices (n=12) and esophageal varices and gastroesophageal varices type 1 (GOV1) groups (n=73) (17.1±7.7 mm Hg vs 19.7±5.3 mm Hg). Additionally, there was no significant difference in the HVPG between varices with spontaneous portosystemic shunts (n=28) and varices without these shunts (n=57) (18.3±5.8 mm Hg vs 17.0±8.1 mm Hg). Spontaneous portosystemic shunts increased in fundal varices compared with esophageal varices and GOV1 (8/12 patients [66.7%] vs 20/73 patients [27.4%]; p=0.016).
Fundal varices had a high prevalence of spontaneous portosystemic shunts compared with other varices. However, the portal pressure in fundal varices was not different from the pressure in esophageal varices and GOV1.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The most appropriate treatment for acute gastric variceal bleeding (GVB) is currently endoscopic gastric variceal obturation (GVO) using Histoacryl®. However, the secondary prophylactic efficacy of beta-blocker (BB) after GVO for the first acute episode of GVB has not yet been established. The secondary prophylactic efficacy of BB after GVO for the first acute episode of GVB was evaluated in this study.
Ninety-three patients at Soonchunhyang University Hospital with acute GVB who received GVO using Histoacryl® were enrolled between June 2001 and March 2010. Among these, 42 patients underwent GVO alone (GVO group) and 51 patients underwent GVO with adjuvant BB therapy (GVO+BB group). This study was intended for patients in whom a desired heart rate was reached. The rates of rebleeding-free survival and overall survival were calculated for the two study groups using Kaplan-Meyer analysis and Cox's proportional-hazards model.
The follow-up period after the initial eradication of gastric varices was 18.14±25.22 months (mean±SD). During the follow-up period, rebleeding occurred in 10 (23.8%) and 21 (41.2%) GVO and GVO+BB patients, respectively, and 39 patients died [23 (54.8%) in the GVO group and 16 (31.4%) in the GVO+BB group]. The mean rebleeding-free survival time did not differ significantly between the GVO and GVO+BB groups (65.40 and 37.40 months, respectively; P=0.774), whereas the mean overall survival time did differ (52.54 and 72.65 months, respectively; P=0.036).
Adjuvant BB therapy after GVO using Histoacryl® for the first acute episode of GVB could decrease the mortality rate relative to GVO alone. However, adjuvant BB therapy afforded no benefit for the secondary prevention of rebleeding in GV.
Clinical and molecular hepatology. 09/2013; 19(3):280-7.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were (1) to identify the useful clinical parameters of noninvasive approach for distinguishing nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) from nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and (2) to determine whether the levels of the identified parameters are correlated with the severity of liver injury in patients with NASH.
One hundred and eight consecutive patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD (age, 39.8±13.5 years, mean±SD; males, 67.6%) were prospectively enrolled from 10 participating centers across Korea.
According to the original criteria for NAFLD subtypes, 67 patients (62.0%) had NASH (defined as steatosis with hepatocellular ballooning and/or Mallory-Denk bodies or fibrosis ≥2). Among those with NAFLD subtype 3 or 4, none had an NAFLD histologic activity score (NAS) below 3 points, 40.3% had a score of 3 or 4 points, and 59.7% had a score >4 points. Fragmented cytokeratin-18 (CK-18) levels were positively correlated with NAS (r=0.401), as well as NAS components such as lobular inflammation (r=0.387) and ballooning (r=0.231). Fragmented CK-18 was also correlated with aspartate aminotransferase (r=0.609), alanine aminotransferase (r=0.588), serum ferritin (r=0.432), and the fibrosis stage (r=0.314). A fragmented CK-18 cutoff level of 235.5 U/L yielded sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 69.0%, 64.9%, 75.5% (95% CI 62.4-85.1), and 57.1% (95% CI 42.2-70.9), respectively, for the diagnosis of NASH.
Serum fragmented CK-18 levels can be used to distinguish between NASH and NAFL. Further evaluation is required to determine whether the combined measurement of serum CK-18 and ferritin levels improves the diagnostic performance of this distinction.
Clinical and molecular hepatology. 06/2013; 19(2):120-30.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several noninvasive methods have recently been developed for the evaluation of liver fibrosis. The accuracy of transient elastography (TE), acoustic-radiation-force impulse (ARFI) elastography, and real-time elastography (RTE) in predicting liver fibrosis were evaluated.
Seventy-four patients who had undergone a liver biopsy within the previous 6 months were submitted to evaluation with TE, ARFI, and RTE on the same day.
THERE WERE SIGNIFICANT CORRELATIONS BETWEEN FIBROSIS STAGE AND LIVER STIFFNESS MEASUREMENT (LSM) USING THE THREE TESTED METHODS: TE, r(2)=0.272, P=0.0002; ARFI, r(2)=0.225, P=0.0017; and RTE, r(2)=0.228, P=0.0015. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis (≥F2, Metavir stage) by TE, ARFI, RTE, TE/platelet count (PLT), velocity of shear wave (Vs)/PLT, and elasticity score (Es)/PLT were 0.727, 0.715, 0.507, 0.876, 0.874, and 0.811, respectively. The AUROC for the diagnosis of cirrhosis by TE, ARFI, RTE, TE/PLT, Vs/PLT, and Es/PLT were 0.786, 0.807, 0.767, 0.836, 0.819, and 0.838, respectively. Comparisons of AUROC between all LSMs for predicting significant fibrosis (≥F2) produced the following results: TE vs. RTE, P=0.0069; ARFI vs. RTE, P=0.0277; and TE vs. ARFI, P=0.8836. Applying PLT, the ability of each LSM to predict fibrosis stage significantly increased: TE/PLT vs. TE, P=0.0004; Vs/PLT vs. ARFI, P=0.0022; and Es/PLT vs. RTE, P<0.0001. However, the ability to predict cirrhosis was not enhanced, combining LSM and PLT.
TE and ARFI may be better methods for predicting significant liver fibrosis than RTE. This predictive ability increased significantly when accounting for platelet count. However, all of the measures had comparable efficacies for predicting cirrhosis.
Clinical and molecular hepatology. 06/2013; 19(2):156-64.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUNDAIMS: Genotype C is the principal type of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Koreans and is associated with poor prognosis for peginterferon α-2a therapy. The efficacy of and compliance to peginterferon α-2a therapy were investigated in Koreans with hepatitis B in a real clinical setting.
Hepatitis B patients treated with peginterferon α-2a from 2008 to 2011 at four university hospitals were consecutively enrolled.
Eighty-eight patients were enrolled; 67 were hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive. The mean treatment period was 36.1±15.2 weeks. In 26.1% of patients, treatment was discontinued due to insufficient antiviral effects and adverse events. At 24 weeks after treatment, 10/42 (23.8%) HBeAg-positive patients achieved both HBV DNA suppression to <2,000 IU/mL and HBeAg loss/seroconversion. For HBeAg-negative patients, 10/13 (76.9%) achieved HBV DNA suppression to <2,000 IU/mL at 24 weeks after treatment. During the follow-up period, 15 (30.6%) of the 49 patients who achieved HBV DNA suppression to 2,000 IU/mL developed a breakthrough HBV DNA level of >2×10(6) IU/mL.
Peginterferon α-2a therapy in Koreans with hepatitis B in a real clinical setting resulted in a lower virologic response, as compared to Western individuals, but a favorable durability. There is a need to reduce the high rate of premature discontinuation compared to the controlled studies.
Gut and liver 03/2013; 7(2):197-205. · 1.31 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While gastric variceal bleeding (GVB) is not as prevalent as esophageal variceal bleeding, it is reportedly more serious, with high failure rates of the initial hemostasis (>30%), and has a worse prognosis than esophageal variceal bleeding. However, there is limited information regarding hemostasis and the prognosis for GVB. The aim of this study was to determine retrospectively the clinical outcomes of GVB in a multicenter study in Korea.
The data of 1,308 episodes of GVB (males:females=1062:246, age=55.0±11.0 years, mean±SD) were collected from 24 referral hospital centers in South Korea between March 2003 and December 2008. The rates of initial hemostasis failure, rebleeding, and mortality within 5 days and 6 weeks of the index bleed were evaluated.
The initial hemostasis failed in 6.1% of the patients, and this was associated with the Child-Pugh score [odds ratio (OR)=1.619; P<0.001] and the treatment modality: endoscopic variceal ligation, endoscopic variceal obturation, and balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration vs. endoscopic sclerotherapy, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, and balloon tamponade (OR=0.221, P<0.001). Rebleeding developed in 11.5% of the patients, and was significantly associated with Child-Pugh score (OR=1.159, P<0.001) and treatment modality (OR=0.619, P=0.026). The GVB-associated mortality was 10.3%; mortality in these cases was associated with Child-Pugh score (OR=1.795, P<0.001) and the treatment modality for the initial hemostasis (OR=0.467, P=0.001).
The clinical outcome for GVB was better for the present cohort than in previous reports. Initial hemostasis failure, rebleeding, and mortality due to GVB were universally associated with the severity of liver cirrhosis.
Clinical and molecular hepatology. 03/2013; 19(1):36-44.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The application of ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) is considered essential when evaluating focal liver lesions (FLLs) using ultrasonography (US). Microbubble UCAs are easy to use and robust; their use poses no risk of nephrotoxicity and requires no ionizing radiation. The unique features of contrast enhanced US (CEUS) are not only noninvasiveness but also real-time assessing of liver perfusion throughout the vascular phases. The later feature has led to dramatic improvement in the diagnostic accuracy of US for detection and characterization of FLLs as well as the guidance to therapeutic procedures and evaluation of response to treatment. This article describes the current consensus and guidelines for the use of UCAs for the FLLs that are commonly encountered in US. After a brief description of the bases of different CEUS techniques, contrast-enhancement patterns of different types of benign and malignant FLLs and other clinical applications are described and discussed on the basis of our experience and the literature data.
Clinical and molecular hepatology. 03/2013; 19(1):1-16.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the clinical outcomes of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) for the treatment of hemorrhage from gastric varices (GV) in Korean patients with liver cirrhosis (LC).
We retrospectively analyzed data from 183 LC patients who underwent BRTO for GV bleeding in 6 university-based hospitals between January 2001 and December 2010.
Of the 183 enrolled patients, 49 patients had Child-Pugh (CP) class A LC, 105 had CP class B, and 30 had CP class C at the time of BRTO. BRTO was successfully performed in 177 patients (96.7%). Procedure-related complications (e.g., pulmonary thromboembolism and renal infarction) occurred in eight patients (4.4%). Among 151 patients who underwent follow-up examinations of GV, 79 patients (52.3%) achieved eradication of GV, and 110 patients (72.8%) exhibited marked shrinkage of the treated GV to grade 0 or I. Meanwhile, new-appearance or aggravation of esophageal varices (EV) occurred in 54 out of 136 patients who underwent follow-up endoscopy (41.2%). During the 36.0±29.2 months (mean±SD) of follow-up, 39 patients rebled (hemorrhage from GV in 7, EV in 18, nonvariceal origin in 4, and unknown in 10 patients). The estimated 3-year rebleeding-free rate was 74.8%, and multivariate analysis showed that CP class C was associated with rebleeding (odds ratio, 2.404; 95% confidence-interval, 1.013-5.704; P=0.047).
BRTO can be performed safely and effectively for the treatment of GV bleeding. However, aggravation of EV or bleeding from EV is not uncommon after BRTO; thus, periodic endoscopy to follow-up of EV with or without prophylactic treatment might be necessary in LC patients undergoing BRTO.
Clinical and molecular hepatology. 12/2012; 18(4):368-74.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a slowly progressing autoimmune disease of the liver that is characterized by portal inflammation and immune-mediated destruction of the intrahepatic bile ducts. Serum total bilirubin is one of the various prognostic factors that have been proposed. A recent study found that PBC with accompanying autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) carries a negative prognosis. This study examined the clinical characteristics of PBC and analyzed the factors that affect its prognosis.
Patients diagnosed with PBC between January 1998 and December 2010 based on clinical and histopathological findings were compiled and analyzed retrospectively.
Among 27 patients, 24 (1 male and 23 females, ages 50.0±9.3 years) were followed up. The follow-up period was 8.6±0.9 years. Of the 24 patients, 9 patients progressed to liver cirrhosis (LC). Comparison between patients who did and did not progress to LC revealed statistically significant differences in the patients' serum total bilirubin (2.7±1.8 vs. 0.8±0.4, P=0.012), the Mayo risk score (5.1±0.7 vs. 3.9±0.6, P=0.001), the revised IAHG (International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group) score (9.2±2.3 vs. 5.4±3.0, P=0.004) and frequency of AIH overlap (5/9 [55.6%] vs. 0/15 [0%], P=0.001) at the time of diagnosis.
We propose that serum total bilirubin, the Mayo risk score, and the revised IAHG score at the time of diagnosis are helpful for predicting PBC prognosis. In particular, since all of the patients with accompanying AIH progressed to LC, the presence of overlap syndrome at the time of diagnosis is helpful for predicting PBC prognosis and providing an adequate treatment.
Clinical and molecular hepatology. 12/2012; 18(4):375-82.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Variceal hemorrhage is one of the major complications of cirrhosis and is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. The development of gastroesophageal varices and variceal hemorrhage is the most direct consequence of portal hypertension. Correlations between the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) and first variceal hemorrhage were examined.
Patients with cirrhosis who underwent HVPG measurement between July 2009 and September 2010 were enrolled (n=535). All patients underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy to enable the evaluation of gastroesophageal varices.
The HVPG for all patients was 16.46±7.05 mmHg (mean±SD), and was significantly higher among those with first variceal hemorrhage than in those without it. The HVPG was significantly correlated with both Child-Turcotte-Pugh (r=0.488, P<0.001) and Model for End-stage Liver Disease (r=0.478, P<0.001) scores. An HVPG value of 11 mmHg was predictive of first variceal hemorrhage with a sensitivity of 92.4% and a specificity of 27.7%.
The HVPG was higher in patients with first variceal hemorrhage than in those without it.
Clinical and molecular hepatology. 12/2012; 18(4):391-6.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: When combined with pegylated interferon alpha-2b (Peg-IFN α-2b) for the treatment of genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in Korea, the current guideline for the initial ribavirin (RBV) dose is based on body weight. However, since the mean body weight is lower for Korean patients than for patients in Western countries, current guidelines might result in Korean patients being overdosed with RBV.
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with genotype 1 CHC who were treated with Peg-IFN α-2b and RBV combination therapy. We divided the patients into groups A (≥15 mg/kg/day, n=23) and B (<15 mg/kg/day, n=26), given that the standard dose is 15 mg/kg/day. The clinical course in terms of the virologic response, adverse events, and dose modification rate was compared between the two groups after therapy completion.
The early response rates (92.0% vs. 83.3%, P=0.634) and sustained virologic response rates (82.6% vs. 73.1%, P=0.506) did not differ significantly between the two groups. During the treatment period, the RBV dose reduction rate was significantly higher in group A than in group B (60.9% vs. 23.1%, P=0.01).
RBV dose reduction is performed frequently when patients are treated according to the current Korean guidelines. Given that lowering the RBV dose did not appear to decrease the virologic response during therapy, reducing RBV doses below the current Korean guideline may be effective for treatment, especially in low-weight patients.
Clinical and molecular hepatology. 09/2012; 18(3):272-8.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To investigate the levels of COX-2 and VEGF expression in chronic hepatitis (CH), cirrhosis, and HCC.
The immunohistochemical expressions of COX-2 and VEGF were evaluated in tissues from patients with CH (n=95), cirrhosis (n=38), low-grade HCC (LG-HCC; n=6), and high-grade HCC (HG-HCC; n=29).
The COX-2 expression scores in CH, cirrhosis, LG-HCC, and HG-HCC were 3.3±1.9 (mean±SD), 4.2±1.7, 5.5±1.0, and 3.4±2.4, respectively (CH vs. cirrhosis, P=0.016; CH vs. LG-HCC, P=0.008; LG-HCC vs. HG-HCC, P=0.004), and the corresponding VEGF expression scores were 0.9±0.8, 1.5±0.7, 1.8±0.9, and 1.6±1.1 (CH vs. cirrhosis, P<0.001; CH vs. LG-HCC, P=0.011; LG-HCC vs. HG-HCC, P=0.075). Both factors were correlated with the fibrosis stage in CH and cirrhosis (COX-2: r=0.427, P<0.001; VEGF: r=0.491, P<0.001). There was a significant correlation between COX-2 and VEGF in all of the tissue samples (r=0.648, P<0.001), and between high COX-2 and VEGF expression scores and survival (COX-2: P=0.001; VEGF: P<0.001).
The expressions of both COX-2 and VEGF are significantly higher in cirrhosis and LG-HCC than in CH. High COX-2 and high VEGF expressions are associated with a high survival rate.
Clinical and molecular hepatology. 09/2012; 18(3):287-94.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluated the value of ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scan in diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and extrahepatic metastases.
A total of 138 patients with HCC who had both conventional imaging modalities and ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT scan done between November 2006 and March 2011 were enrolled. Diagnostic value of each imaging modality for detection of extrahepatic metastases was evaluated. Clinical factors and tumor characteristics including PET imaging were analyzed as indicative factors for metastases by univariate and multivariate methods.
The accuracy of chest CT was significantly superior compared with the accuracy of PET imaging for detecting lung metastases. The detection rate of metastatic pulmonary nodule ≥ 1 cm was 12/13 (92.3%), when < 1 cm was 2/10 (20%) in PET imaging. The accuracy of PET imaging was significantly superior compared with the accuracy of bone scan for detecting bone metastases. In multivariate analysis, increased tumor size (≥ 5 cm) (P = 0.042) and increased average standardized uptake value (SUV) uptake (P = 0.028) were predictive factors for extrahepatic metastases. Isometabolic HCC in PET imaging was inversely correlated in multivariate analysis (P = 0.035). According to the receiver operating characteristic curve, the optimal cutoff of average SUV to predict extrahepatic metastases was 3.4.
¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT scan is invaluable for detection of lung metastases larger than 1 cm and bone metastases. Primary HCC having larger than 5 cm and increased average SUV uptake more than 3.4 should be considered for extrahepatic metastases.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 06/2012; 18(23):2979-87. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sorafenib is the only systemic treatment shown to be effective against advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) has been selected as an alternative therapeutic option for advanced HCC. We investigated the efficacy and safety of HAIC as an alternative treatment for sorafenib in advanced HCC.
Between May 2008 and March 2011, 20 consecutive patients were treated with sorafenib monotherapy as a first-line treatment and 21 consecutive patients who could not take sorafenib because of cost were treated with HAIC monotherapy as an alternative. Sorafenib was administered in 400 mg b.i.d. doses. For HAIC, daily cisplatin (7 mg/m(2) on days 1-5) and 5-FU (170 mg/m(2) on days 1-5) were infused every 4 weeks. We assessed overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR) and toxicity.
Median OS was 4.9 months (95% CI, 3.4-6.4) for sorafenib and 7.3 months (95% CI, 4.5-10.2) for HAIC (P = 0.599). Median PFS was 2.0 months (95% CI, 1.96-2.05) versus 3.0 months (95% CI, 1.98-4.02) for sorafenib and HAIC, respectively (P = 0.303). ORR and disease control rate (DCR) for sorafenib were 10.0 and 35.0% versus 19.0 and 38.1% for HAIC (ORR, P = 0.413; DCR, P = 0.837). Patients treated with HAIC more frequently exhibited grade 3/4 neutropenia (23.8 vs 0% for sorafenib), whereas sorafenib therapy showed grade 3/4 hand-foot skin reaction in 10% of patients.
HAIC is a useful alternative treatment for advanced HCC and further prospective investigations are required.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accurate diagnosis of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is difficult without considering the possibility of underlying diseases, especially autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). We investigated the clinical patterns in patients with a history of medication, liver-function abnormalities, and in whom liver biopsy was conducted, focusing on accompaniment by AIH.
The clinical, serologic, and histologic findings of 29 patients were compared and analyzed. The patients were aged 46.2±12.8 years (mean±SD), and 72.4% of patient were female. The most common symptom and causal drug were jaundice (58.6%) and herbal medications (55.2%), respectively.
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase levels were 662.2±574.8 U/L, 905.4±794.9 U/L, 12.9±10.8 mg/dL, 195.8±123.3 U/L, and 255.3±280.8 U/L, respectively. According to serologic and histologic findings, 21 cases were diagnosed with DILI and 8 with AIH. The AIH group exhibited significantly higher AST levels (537.1±519.1 vs. 1043.3±600.5 U/L), globulin levels (2.7±0.4 vs. 3.3±0.5 g/dL), and prothrombin time (12.9±2.4 vs. 15.2±3.9 s; P<0.05). Antinuclear antibody was positive in 7 of 21 cases of DILI and all 8 cases of AIH (P=0.002). The simplified AIH score was 3.7±0.9 in the DILI group and 6.5±0.9 in the AIH group (P<0.001).
Accurate diagnosis is necessary for patients with a history of medication and visits for liver-function abnormalities; in particular, the possibility of AIH should be considered.
Clinical and molecular hepatology. 06/2012; 18(2):213-8.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There was a spiking incidence of acute hepatitis A (AHA) in 2009 summer, but it went down drastically after an outbreak of influenza A (H1N1). We assessed the relationship between 2009 H1N1 pandemic and AHA prevalence from August to December 2009.
We compared AHA cases nationwide and in our hospital for the period from the latter half of 2008 to the end of 2010. H1N1 cases in our hospital from August 2009 to December 2009 were included in the study and the correlation between 2009 H1N1 pandemic and AHA prevalence was assessed.
The national surveillance system reported 2,233, 7,895, 15,231 and 7,660 AHA cases from 2007 to 2010, respectively. A similar trend was noted in our hospital in the same periods. Although the national total incidence was increased in 2009, it showed steep decreasing trend line in the final 21 weeks of 2009 (weeks 32-52), as compared with 2008 and 2010. The mean weekly incidence percentage (AHA cases in a week/total in a year) in weeks 32-52 of 2009 was 1.17±0.55%, significantly lower than that in 2008 and 2010 (1.61±0.43% and 1.56±0.51%; p<0.001). Furthermore, we found a significant negative correlation between 2009 H1N1 pandemic and AHA in our hospital for weeks 32-52 of 2009 (r=-0.597; p<0.001).
The widespread occurrence of 2009 H1N1 pandemic highlighted the benefits of health care and good hygiene, such as effective hand washing and wearing of masks, which may have also interrupted hepatitis A virus transmission.
The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi 05/2012; 59(5):360-5.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND/AIM: The interruption of a mucosal barrier by colon cancer or a polyp can lead to the development of a liver abscess. This study aimed to evaluate the possible contribution of colon cancer to the development of liver abscess and the necessity of colonoscopy in patients presenting with cryptogenic liver abscess. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 268 patients diagnosed with liver abscess between January 2001 and April 2010. Among cases with no definite cause of liver abscess, differences between patients with and without colon cancer were evaluated in terms of clinical, laboratory, imaging, and microbiological findings. RESULTS: Pyogenic liver abscess with no apparent etiology was encountered 163 patients; colonoscopy was performed in 121 of these 163 patients. The tumor diagnosis was confirmed by total colonoscopy in 12/163 (7.4%) patients with adenocarcinoma and 8/163 (4.9%) patients with high-grade dysplasia. Nine patients were diagnosed with stage I, two patients with stage II, and one with stage III disease according to the tumor, nodes, and metastases (TNM) staging system for colorectal cancer. The prevalence of incidental colon cancer in patients with pyogenic liver abscess was significantly higher than that of normal individuals who underwent colonoscopy (0.8%, 90/11,272) at our health care center. CONCLUSIONS: Colon cancer may be one etiology of liver abscess. Colonoscopy should be considered in patients with pyogenic liver abscess with not an apparent primary source of infection.
Gastroentérologie Clinique et Biologique 05/2012; · 0.80 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is occasionally developed in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. Old age, male gender, lifetime quantity of alcohol, and presence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are risk factors for HCC in alcoholic cirrhosis. In this study, we investigated whether anti-hepatitis B core (HBc) positivity or occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a risk factor for HCC in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. Between January 2006 and August 2008, a total of 72 cirrhotic male patients with an initial diagnosis of HCC, hospitalized in three major hospitals in the Incheon area, were enrolled as cases. Another 72 cirrhotic male patients without HCC, who matched the cases by age (±3 years), were enrolled as controls. All cases and controls were negative for hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-HCV, but had history of chronic alcohol intake over 80 g per day. The clinical characteristics including presence of anti-HBc or serum HBV DNA (identified by nested polymerase chain reaction) were investigated. The mean age of both the cases and controls was 62 ± 10 years. The basal laboratory data, Child-Pugh scores, total lifetime alcohol intake (1459 ± 1364 versus 1641 ± 1045 kg), and detection rates of serum HBV DNA [31.7% (20/63) versus 29.9% (20/67)] of the cases and controls were not significantly different. However, the anti-HBc positivity rate was higher among the cases [86.1% (62/72)] than in the controls [66.7% (48/72); p=0.005] and was the only significant risk factor for HCC (odds ratio; 3.1, 95% confidence interval; 1.354-7.098, p=0.007). Anti-HBc positivity was identified as a risk factor for the development of HCC in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis.