Paul N. Yakshe

University of Minnesota Medical Center, Fairview, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States

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Publications (11)56.5 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatitis is the most common major complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Recent studies have suggested that obesity may serve as a prognostic indicator of poor outcome in non-ERCP-induced acute pancreatitis. However, to our knowledge, no one has ever investigated the potential association of obesity and ERCP-induced pancreatitis. Thus, the purpose of our study was to determine whether obesity conferred an increased risk and/or more severe course of post-ERCP pancreatitis. A 160 variable database was prospectively collected by a defined protocol on patients undergoing diagnostic or therapeutic ERCP at 15 centers in the Midwest Pancreaticobiliary Group and participating in a randomized controlled study, evaluating whether prophylactic corticosteroids reduces the incidence of post-ERCP pancreatitis. Body mass indices (BMIs) were available on 964 of the 1115 patients from the original study. A BMI > or = 30 kg/m2 was defined as obese (World Health Organization) and used as a cutoff point in this study. BMIs were analyzed in a retrospective fashion to determine whether obesity confers an increased risk and/or more severe course of post-ERCP pancreatitis. Data were collected before the ERCP, at the time of procedure, and 24 to 72 hours after discharge. Standardized criteria were used to diagnose and grade the severity of postprocedure pancreatitis. Nine hundred sixty four patients were enrolled in the study. Pancreatitis occurred in 149 patients (15.5%) and was graded as mild in 101 (67.8%), moderate in 42 (28.2%), and severe in 6 (4.0%). The patients were categorized by BMI (kg/m2) using the following breakdowns: BMI < 20, 20 to < 25, 25 to < 30, and > or = 30, as well as BMI < 30 or > or = 30. The groups were similar with respect to the patient and procedure risk factors for post-ERCP pancreatitis except the group with BMI > or = 30 had a higher frequency of females, were younger, had less frequent chronic pancreatitis, a lower number of pancreatic duct injections, and fewer patients received more than 2 pancreatic duct injections. Of the patients with a BMI < 30, 119 (16.4%) developed post-ERCP pancreatitis compared with 30 (12.5%) of those with a BMI > or = 30 (P=0.14). There was no association between the presence of obesity and the severity of pancreatitis (P=0.74). Patients with a BMI < 20, 20 to < 25, 25 to < 30, and > or = 30 had a similar incidence of post-ERCP pancreatitis. Obesity did not seem to confer an increased risk for ERCP-induced pancreatitis. A statistically significant association between obesity and the severity of ERCP-induced pancreatitis was not apparent.
    Journal of clinical gastroenterology 10/2008; 42(10):1103-9. DOI:10.1097/MCG.0b013e318159cbd1 · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatitis is the most common and serious complication of diagnostic and therapeutic ERCP. The aim of this study is to examine the potential patient- and procedure-related risk factors for post-ERCP pancreatitis in a prospective multicenter study. A 160-variable database was prospectively collected by a defined protocol on patients undergoing diagnostic or therapeutic ERCP at 15 centers in the Midwest Pancreaticobiliary Group and participating in a randomized controlled study evaluating whether prophylactic corticosteroids will reduce the incidence of post-ERCP pancreatitis. Data were collected prior to the procedure, at the time of procedure, and 24-72 h after discharge. Post-ERCP pancreatitis was diagnosed and its severity graded according to consensus criteria. Of the 1,115 patients enrolled, diagnostic ERCP with or without sphincter of Oddi manometry (SOM) was performed in 536 (48.1%) and therapeutic ERCP in 579 (51.9%). Suspected sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) was the indication for the ERCP in 378 patients (33.9%). Pancreatitis developed in 168 patients (15.1%) and was graded mild in 112 (10%), moderate in 45 (4%), and severe in 11(1%). There was no difference in the incidence of pancreatitis or the frequency of investigated potential pancreatitis risk factors between the corticosteroid and placebo groups. By univariate analysis, the incidence of post-ERCP pancreatitis was significantly higher in 19 of 30 investigated variables. In the multivariate risk model, significant risk factors with adjusted odds ratios (OR) were: minor papilla sphincterotomy (OR: 3.8), suspected SOD (OR: 2.6), history of post-ERCP pancreatitis (OR: 2.0), age <60 yr (OR: 1.6), > or =2 contrast injections into the pancreatic duct (OR: 1.5), and trainee involvement (OR: 1.5). Female gender, history of recurrent idiopathic pancreatitis, pancreas divisum, SOM, difficult cannulation, and major papilla sphincterotomy (either biliary or pancreatic) were not multivariate risk factors for post-ERCP pancreatitis. This study emphasizes the role of patient factors (age, SOD, prior history of post-ERCP pancreatitis) and technical factors (number of PD injections, minor papilla sphincterotomy, and operator experience) as the determining high-risk predictors for post-ERCP pancreatitis.
    The American Journal of Gastroenterology 01/2006; 101(1):139-47. DOI:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2006.00380.x · 9.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatitis is the most common major complication of diagnostic and therapeutic ERCP. There have been continuing efforts to identify a pharmacologic agent capable of reducing the frequency and severity of this complication. On the basis of several case reports, experimental data, and knowledge of their mechanism of action, corticosteroids might be effective in this regard. The aim of this randomized, double-blind, controlled trial was to determine whether prophylactic, orally administered corticosteroid reduces the frequency and/or severity of post-ERCP pancreatitis. A total of 1115 patients were randomized to receive either prednisone (40 mg) or a placebo orally 15 hours and 3 hours before ERCP. A 160 variable database was prospectively collected according to a defined protocol on patients undergoing diagnostic or therapeutic ERCP at 15 centers in the Midwest Pancreaticobiliary Group. Standardized criteria were used to diagnose and grade the severity of postprocedure pancreatitis. The overall frequency of pancreatitis was 15.07%. It occurred in 92 of 555 patients in the corticosteroid group (16.6%), and in 76 of 560 patients in the control group (13.6%; p = 0.19). The pancreatitis was mild in 10.04%, moderate in 4.04%, and severe in 0.99%. There was no difference between the groups with regard to the severity of pancreatitis. Moreover, the groups were similar with regard to age, gender, body mass index, frequency of prior pancreatitis, type of procedure performed (diagnostic or therapeutic), difficulty of cannulation, frequency of pre-cut sphincterotomy, pancreatic sphincterotomy, sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, sphincter of Oddi manometry, pancreatic acinarization, chronic pancreatitis, number of pancreatic duct injections, and bile duct diameter. Prophylactic orally administered corticosteroid did not reduce the frequency or severity of post-ERCP pancreatitis.
    Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 08/2003; 58(1):23-9. DOI:10.1067/mge.2003.307 · 4.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pulse oximetry, used to monitor oxygen saturation during endoscopy, does not directly measure hypoventilation. Study goals were to determine whether transcutaneous carbon dioxide (PtcCO(2)) monitoring during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) prevents severe hypoventilation and to assess the accuracy of clinical observation and pulse oximetry in detecting hypoventilation. All patients received intensive clinical and electronic monitoring including pulse oximetry. Supplemental oxygen was administered for pulse oximetry < 90%. Patients were randomized to a treatment arm (group 1) where PtcCO(2) monitoring guided sedation or a control arm (group 2) where PtcCO(2) was recorded but unavailable for guiding sedation. Group 1 had significantly fewer episodes of severe carbon dioxide retention (rise in PtcCO(2) >/=40 mm Hg above baseline) than group 2 (0 of 199 versus 5 of 196, respectively, p = 0.03), as well a shorter mean duration of procedure discomfort (8.3% of procedure duration rated as "uncomfortable" versus 11.5%, p = 0.04). Correlations between clinical observation and objective measures of ventilation were poor: level of sedation versus PtcCO(2) (R = 0.3) or pulse oximetry (R = 0.06); slowest respiratory rate versus PtcCO(2) (R = 0.4) or pulse oximetry (R = -0.4). PtcCO(2) rises of greater than 20 mm Hg occurred without oxygen desaturation in 10.7% of patients receiving supplemental oxygen. Carbon dioxide retention during ERCP is not reliably detected by clinical observation or by pulse oximetry in patients receiving supplemental oxygen. The addition of PtcCO(2) monitoring prevents severe carbon dioxide retention more effectively than intensive clinical monitoring and pulse oximetry alone. The clinical relevancy of this observation needs to be determined in an appropriately designed outcome study.
    Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 03/2000; 51(3):288-95. DOI:10.1016/S0016-5107(97)80123-X · 4.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Same-day discharge after endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy (ES) is a common clinical practice, but there have been few data to guide appropriate selection of patients. Using a prospective, multicenter database of complications, we examined outcomes after same-day discharge as it was practiced by a variety of endoscopists and evaluated the ability of a multivariate risk factor analysis to predict which patients would require readmission for complications. A 150-variable database was prospectively collected at time of ES, before discharge and again at 30 days in consecutive patients undergoing ES at 17 centers. Complications were defined by consensus criteria and included all specific adverse events directly or indirectly related to ES requiring more than 1 night of hospitalization. Six hundred fourteen (26%) of 2347 patients undergoing ES were discharged on the same day as the procedure, ranging from none at 6 centers to about 50% at 2 centers. After initial observation and release, readmission to the hospital for complications occurred in 35 (5.7%) of 614 same-day discharge patients (20 pancreatitis and 15 other complications, 3 severe). Of the same-day discharge patients, readmission was required for 14 (12.2%) of 115 who had at least one independently significant multivariate risk factor for overall complications (suspected sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, cirrhosis, difficult bile duct cannulation, precut sphincterotomy, or combined percutaneous-endoscopic procedure) versus 21 (4.2%) of 499 without a risk factor (odds ratio 3.1: 95% confidence interval [1.6, 6.3], p < 0.001). Of complications presenting within 24 hours after ES, only 44% presented within the first 2 hours, but 79% presented within 6 hours. Same-day discharge is widely utilized and relatively safe but results in a significant number of readmissions for complications. For patients at higher risk of complications, as indicated by the presence of at least one of five independent predictors, observation for 6 hours or overnight may reduce the need for readmission.
    Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 05/1999; 49(5):580-6. DOI:10.1016/S0016-5107(99)70385-8 · 4.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endoscopic therapy of biliary tract leaks was uncommon before laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Studies have demonstrated the efficacy of endoscopic drainage by endoscopic sphincterotomy or stent placement. Various endoscopic therapeutic modalities and long-term follow-up of this problem were studied. Members of the Midwest Pancreaticobiliary Group reviewed all patients referred for endoscopic therapy of biliary leaks after laparoscopic cholecystectomy from 1990 to 1994. Long-term follow-up was by direct patient contact. Fifty patients were referred for endoscopic therapy of biliary leaks. Abdominal pain was present in 94%. The mean time from laparoscopic cholecystectomy to referral was 6.9 days. Therapy consisted of sphincterotomy only in 6 patients, stent only in 13, and sphincterotomy with stent in 31. Biliary leaks were healed in 44 patients at a mean of 5.4 weeks. A second or third endoscopic procedure was necessary to achieve healing in five patients. Two stent-related complications were noted. Percutaneous or surgical drainage of biliary fluid collections was required in 16 patients. The mean hospital stay for treatment of the leak was 11.1 days after endoscopic therapy. On follow-up (mean 17.5 months), all patients were well except two with mild abdominal discomfort. Endoscopic sphincterotomy, stent placement, or sphincterotomy with stent are effective in healing biliary leaks after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Despite prolonged treatment for the leak, patients did well on long-term follow-up.
    Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 04/1998; 47(3):261-6. DOI:10.1016/S0016-5107(98)70324-4 · 4.90 Impact Factor
  • Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 04/1997; 45(4). DOI:10.1016/S0016-5107(97)80547-0 · 4.90 Impact Factor
  • Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 04/1997; 45(4):AB164. DOI:10.1016/S0016-5107(97)80560-3 · 4.90 Impact Factor
  • Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 04/1996; 43(4):320-320. DOI:10.1016/S0016-5107(96)80121-0 · 4.90 Impact Factor
  • Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 04/1995; 41(4):413-413. DOI:10.1016/S0016-5107(05)80505-X · 4.90 Impact Factor
  • Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 04/1995; 41(4):413-413. DOI:10.1016/S0016-5107(05)80506-1 · 4.90 Impact Factor