Xie Quan

Dalian University of Technology, Lü-ta-shih, Liaoning, China

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Publications (331)1111.02 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A sensitive, rapid and label-free assay for colorimetric detection of human 8-hydroxyguanine glycosylase (hOGG1) was proposed based on the tunable catalytic ability of graphene/gold nanoparticles (graphene/Au-NPs) hybrids and the terminal protection of hOGG1. In presence of H2O2, the hybrids were capable of catalyzing the oxidation of color developing reagent, causing a concomitant change in color. Due to the excellent controllability, the capacity could be inhibited by adsorption of ssDNA onto the hybrids sheets and recovered when the adsorbed ssDNA was digested by exonuclease. The terminal protection of hOGG1 could irreversibly interrupt the digestion of the captured ssDNA (containing the oxidative damage site) by the exonuclease, thus preventing the catalytic ability of graphene/Au-NPs from being recovered. The original color change which related to the concentration of the protected ssDNA facilitated quantitative detection of hOGGl activity. Compared with conventional methods for hOGG1 detection, the presented assay without any labeling process greatly simplified the operation steps and reduced the analysis time. This approach performed a linear response for hOGG1 activity from 0.02 to 0.11 U/μL with a detection limit of 0.0016 U/μL, and realized the quantification of hOGG1 activity in real cell lines.
    Biosensors & Bioelectronics 06/2015; 68. DOI:10.1016/j.bios.2014.12.048 · 6.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of lattice oxygen on the activity and selectivity of the OMS-2 catalyst synthesized by the hydrothermal method was investigated for the catalytic oxidation of toluene. The OMS-2 catalyst exhibited excellent activity for the catalytic oxidation of toluene, but the by-product benzaldehyde was detected at low temperatures. A DRIFT study showed that the lattice oxygen was both the adsorption site and active catalytic site. The nature of the replenished surface lattice oxygen was found to influence the selectivity, and toluene that was adsorbed on the lattice oxygen replenished by gaseous oxygen could be oxidized easily into benzaldehyde. A possible reaction mechanism has been proposed that could elucidate the toluene oxidation activity over OMS-2 involving two reaction routes, either with or without gaseous oxygen.
    Chemical Engineering Journal 06/2015; 270. DOI:10.1016/j.cej.2015.02.017 · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were prepared by electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) polymer solutions followed by thermal treatment. For the first time, the influence of stabilization procedure on the structure properties of CNFs was explored to improve the adsorption capacity of CNFs towards the environmental pollutants from aqueous solution. The adsorption of three organic chemicals including ciprofloxacin (CIP), bisphenol (BPA) and 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) on electrospun CNFs with high surface area of 2326m(2)/g and micro/mesoporous structure characteristics were investigated. The adsorption affinities were compared with that of the commercial powder activated carbon (PAC). The adsorption kinetics and isotherms showed that the maximum adsorption capacities (qm) of CNFs towards the three pollutants are sequenced in the order of CIP>BPA>2-CP, which are 2.6-fold (CIP), 1.6-fold (BPA) and 1.1-fold (2-CP) increase respectively in comparison with that of PAC adsorption. It was assumed that the micro/mesoporous structure of CNFs, molecular size of the pollutants and the π electron interaction play important roles on the high adsorption capacity exhibited by CNFs. In addition, electrostatic interaction and hydrophobic interaction also contribute to the adsorption of CNFs. This study demonstrates that the electrospun CNFs are promising adsorbents for the removal of pollutants from aqueous solutions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 06/2015; 447. DOI:10.1016/j.jcis.2015.01.042 · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A pilot-scale coupling catalytic ozonation–membrane filtration system was designed for the recirculating aquaculture wastewater treatment at a fish farm. The ceramic membranes were coated with Ti–Mn/TiO2 oxide for both catalytic ozonation and filtration. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) images showed that the Ti–Mn oxides were distributed smoothly over both the membrane surface and the inner walls of the pores. Compared with the TiO2/Al2O3 membranes, the Ti–Mn/TiO2/Al2O3 membranes exhibited better catalytic ozonation capability with enhanced membrane antifouling (a normalized permeate flux obtained after 2 h operation was 0.56) and higher removal efficiency of organic matters (52.1%). The ozone dose has an important effect on the degradation of organic matters and ammonia. At an ozone dose of 52 mg/min (stable permeate was obtained after 1 h operation), turbidity and nitrite were almost completely removed, and the concentration of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) dropped to less than 0.1 mg/L. The permeate quality satisfied the water quality requirement for aquaculture. The recovery ratio of the aquaculture seawater was as high as 95.8%.
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    ABSTRACT: Carbon sources shortage of biological denitrification is a great challenge in municipal wastewater treatment. Bioelectrochemical system (BES) as a new approach for denitrification has not well been established to treat low-C/N wastewater. In this study, the nitrate removal was compared in a traditional anaerobic reactor (R1), two anaerobic reactors with C–C electrodes (R2) and Fe–C electrodes (R3), respectively. The results demonstrated that the electrodes could improve significantly the denitrification at low C/N, and Fe further enhanced its performance. The increased denitrification was a result from the combination of anodic oxidation and cathodic denitrification. The anodic oxidation competed with other heterotrophic processes for utilizing carbon sources to increase denitrification. The higher nitrate removal in R3 was mainly attributed that more exoelectrogenic bacteria were enriched with the presence of Fe to enhance the anodic oxidation and better drive the cathodic denitrification to occur.
    Chemical Engineering Journal 04/2015; 266. DOI:10.1016/j.cej.2014.12.082 · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reduction of aqueous Cu(II) and Co(II) is one critical step for simultaneous recovery of copper and cobalt, and recycle of spent lithium ion batteries, but suffers from consumption of large amount of energy and chemicals. Here we report Co(II)-reduced microbial electrolysis cells (MECCo) can be driven by Cu(II)-reduced microbial fuel cells (MFCCu) for simultaneous Cu(II) and Co(II) recovery with no external energy consumption, and system performance was heavily dependent on cathode material of MECCo and cathode volumes in both MECCo and MFCCu. Either titanium sheet (TS) or stainless steel mesh (SSM) cathode achieved efficient Co(II) reduction whereas carbon rod (CR) cannot proceed this occurrence. While smaller cathode volumes in MFCCu led to appreciable Co(II) reduction (41.4 ± 3.8%) on the CR cathode, the highest Co(II) reduction using TS (45.0 ± 0.3%) or SSM (39.7 ± 3.6%) was obtained under smaller cathode volumes in both MFCCu and MECCo. Moreover, when a mixed Cu(II) and Co(II) catholyte was deliberately used as the influent of MFCCu and the effluent of MFCCu was subsequently imported into the connected MECCo for tentatively simultaneous Cu(II) and Co(II) recovery from simulated mixed wastes, this so-called sequential MFCCu and MECCo operation achieved Cu(II) reduction of 100% and Co(II) reduction of 65.3-72.0% using either TS or SSM cathodes. These results illustrate cathode material of MECCo and cathode volumes in both MECCo and MFCCu were critical for efficient Co(II) reduction in MECCo driven by MFCCu with achievements of simultaneous copper and cobalt recovery as well as no external energy consumption.
    Chemical Engineering Journal 04/2015; 266:121-132. DOI:10.1016/j.cej.2014.12.078 · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Charge separation at the interface of heterojunctions is affected by the energy band alignments of the materials that compose the heterojunctions. Controlling the contact crystal facets can lead to different energy band alignments owing to the varied electronic structures of the different crystal facets. Therefore, BiVO4-TiO2 heterojunctions are designed with different BiVO4 crystal facets at the interface ({110} facet or {010} facet), named BiVO4-110-TiO2 and BiVO4-010-TiO2, respectively, to achieve high photocatalytic performance. Higher photocurrent density and lower photoluminescence intensity are observed with the BiVO4-110-TiO2 heterojunction than those of the BiVO4-010-TiO2 heterojunction, which confirms that the former possesses higher charge carrier separation capacity than the latter. The photocatalytic degradation results of both Rhodamine B and 4-nonylphenol demonstrate that better photocatalytic performance is achieved on the BiVO4-110-TiO2 heterojunction than the BiVO4-010-TiO2 heterojunction under visible light (≥422 nm) irradiation. The higher electron transfer capacity and better photocatalytic performance of the BiVO4-110-TiO2 heterojunction are attributed to the more fluent electron transfer from the {110} facet of BiVO4 to TiO2 caused by the smaller interfacial energy barrier. This is further confirmed by the selective deposition of Pt on the TiO2 surface as well as the longer lifetime of Bi5+ in the BiVO4-110-TiO2 heterojunction.
    Advanced Functional Materials 04/2015; DOI:10.1002/adfm.201500521 · 10.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, an acidogenic reactor packed with a pair of Fe–carbon electrodes (R1) was developed to enhance anaerobic acidogenesis of organic wastewater at short hydraulic retention times. The results indicated that the acidogenic efficiency was improved by settling a bio-electrochemical system. When hydraulic retention times decreased from 12 to 3 h, R1 showed 18.9% more chemical oxygen demand removal and 13.8% more acidification efficiency. After cutting off the voltage of R1, the COD removal decreased by about 5%. Coupling of Fe2+ leaching and electric field accelerated the hydrolysis of polysaccharide, relieving its accumulation in the sludge phase. Several acidophilic methanogenic Archaea such as Methanosarcina sp. were enriched in R1, which was favorable for consuming organic acids and preventing excessive pH decline. Thus, the developed acidogenic reactor with Fe–carbon electrodes is expected to be potentially effective and useful for wastewater treatment.
    Bioresource Technology 03/2015; 179. DOI:10.1016/j.biortech.2014.11.102 · 5.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose is to investigate the effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on neuronal apoptosis in hippocampus of rat offspring, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms associated with calcium homeostasis. A cross-fostering model was established, enabling the evaluation of prenatal and postnatal exposure. Internal exposure was measured via PFOS concentration analysis in serum and hippocampus. Cell apoptosis of hippocampus neuron was identified along with the measurement of intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). Continuous PFOS exposure in both prenatal and postnatal period induced an increasing apoptosis in hippocampus neurocyte. Meantime, [Ca2+]i increased in a dose dependent manner in the continuous exposure groups and prenatal exposure groups. Furthermore, expression of apoptosis-related genes serves for the mechanistic analysis of the apoptotic effects induced by PFOS. Both apoptosis-linked gene-2 (alg-2) and death-associated protein kinase (dapk2) genes were up-regulated, especially in prenatal exposure groups on postnatal day (PND) 35. Bcl-2 was also significantly up-regulated both on PND7 and PND35. Overall results indicated that PFOS exposure caused increasing of apoptosis in hippocampus, where [Ca2+]i overload acted as a potential mechanism. Moreover, prenatal exposure results in long-lasting effects on calcium homeostasis and the genes expression regulating calcium signaling and apoptosis of rat offspring, highlighting the developmental neurotoxicity risk of fetal PFOS exposure.
    03/2015; DOI:10.1039/C4TX00177J
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    ABSTRACT: Acidogenic reactors commonly operated at short hydraulic retention times (HRT) are liable to cause low chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and acidogenic efficiency especially under fluctuating feed. Granular sludge as an efficient form for anaerobic microbial community to resist shocks in methanogenic reactors has been widely investigated, which however was less focused in acidogenic reactors. Adding Fe(0) in an acidogenic reactor with propionate as the substrate operated at HRT of 2 h was found to enhance the propionate decomposition and sludge granulation in this study. When increasing the organic load and decreasing pH in the feed, the propionate conversion and COD removal in the reactor with Fe(0) were higher than those in the control reactor. The sludge granulation was well developed in this reactor. Fe(0) advanced the growth of homoacetogenic bacteria that consumed the hydrogen produced in acetification of propionate. The propionate-oxidizing bacteria and homoacetogenic bacteria grew together in the sludge to accelerate hydrogen transfer, which was an important reason for the enhanced propionate decomposition and sludge granulation in the acidogenesis.
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    ABSTRACT: Sludge granulation is a key factor to sustain anaerobic systems operating efficiently and steadily. Nitrate as a H2 consumer was added into anaerobic digesters to investigate its effects on the sludge granulation. The results showed that adding nitrate increased the sludge granule size by 289%, 325% and 790% with acetate, propionate and butyrate as substrates, respectively. Butyrate was preferable to the denitrifying bacteria because it was capable of releasing more electrons available for denitrification during acetogenesis. The analyses of fluorescence in situ hybridization, scanning electron microscope, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis indicated that denitrifying bacteria and volatile fatty acid (VFA)-oxidizing bacteria in the butyrate digester were richer than those in the other digesters. Taken together, addition of nitrate accelerated the decomposition of VFA and simultaneously improved the granulation of anaerobic process.
    Biochemical Engineering Journal 03/2015; 95:104-111. DOI:10.1016/j.bej.2014.12.011 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensing for sensitive assaying of active DNA glycosylase was developed using the enhanced host-guest recognition technique. The α-cyclodextrin was selected as the host molecule which captured the guest-labeled ECL probe to the surface of electrode by the host-guest recognition. The ECL probe can be protected from the digestion of exonuclease I (Exo I) and exonuclease III (Exo III) with the presence of the target enzyme human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (hOGG 1), resulting in the ECL emission intensity was correlated with the quantity of hOGG 1. The α-cyclodextrin functionalized gold/silica (Au/SiO2) cell-shell nanoparticles was prepared to enhance the host-guest recognition sensitivity. Because of the increased recognition sites provided by α-cyclodextrin functionalized Au/SiO2 cell-shell nanoparticles, the nanoparticle-modified electrode displayed a high capacity for the guest ECL probe, and four fold enhancement of the ECL signals was achieved. The as-prepared ECL sensing exhibits excellent analytical property for the detection of hOGG 1 in the linear range of 2–100 U mL−1 with a detection limit of 0.225 U mL−1 (S/N = 3). Interference tests show that the ECL intensity of the interferents human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE 1), T4 endonuclease V (T4 PDG) and endonuclease III (Endo III) is within 36.5 to 44.7% of that of hOGG 1. The ECL sensing exhibits long-term stability with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.6% for 16 cycles of continuous potential scans, and the life time of the ECL sensing is up to 20 days. The obtained results in this study indicate that the proposed ECL sensing possesses high sensitivity, specificity and stability and provides a powerful tool for assaying hOGG 1 activity.
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    ABSTRACT: Heat or alkali pretreatment is the effective method to improve hydrolysis of waste sludge and then enhance anaerobic sludge digestion. However the pretreatment may inactivate the methanogens in the sludge. In the present work, zero-valent iron (ZVI) was used to enhance the methanogenic activity in anaerobic sludge digester under two methanogens-suppressing conditions, i.e. heat-pretreatment and alkali condition respectively. With the addition of ZVI, the lag time of methane production was shortened, and the methane yield increased by 91.5% compared to the control group. The consumption of VFA was accelerated by ZVI, especially for acetate, indicating that the acetoclastic methanogenesis was enhanced. In the alkali-condition experiment, the hydrogen produced decreased from 27.6 to 18.8mL when increasing the ZVI dosage from 0 to 10g/L. Correspondingly, the methane yield increased from 1.9 to 32.2mL, which meant that the H2-utilizing methanogenes was enriched. These results suggested that the addition of ZVI into anaerobic digestion of sludge after pretreated by the heat or alkali process could efficiently recover the methanogenic activity and increase the methane production and sludge reduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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    ABSTRACT: This study presents a new electrochemical sensor based on molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) modified boron doped diamond (BDD) electrode (MIP/BDD electrode) for the quantitative determination of Sulfamethoxazole (SMX). This MIP/BDD electrode is prepared by in situ electro-polymerization of pyrrole (Py) on BDD electrode in the presence of SMX. This sensor based on MIP/BDD electrode performs a linear response for SMX from 0.1-100 μM with a limit of detection of 24.1 nM (S/N=3) and a highly reproducible response (2.32 %). The detection of SMX in surface water samples spiked at different concentration levels performs satisfactorily at a recovery of 96.0-106.2%. Furthermore, this sensor exhibits a superior selectivity to recognize SMX molecules even compared with other structural analogues (SDM, SD and SIZ). This high-selectivity determination is originated from the imprinted sites of the MIP film which have the advantages of proper cavity size and homologous functional groups for the specific recognition of SMX molecules. This specially-designed sensor offers a simple, selective, sensitive, reliable, stable and environment friendly approach for SMX determination, providing a responsible strategy for effective SMX analysis in environment water.
    Analytical methods 02/2015; 7(6). DOI:10.1039/C4AY03055A · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sulfonamides, a class of the most commonly used antibiotics, are being increasingly released into the aquatic environment and have recently caused considerable concerns. However, knowledge on their fate and ecotoxicological effects upon aquatic organisms is not understood yet. This work investigated mainly the bioconcentration kinetics (uptake/depuration) of sulfadiazine (SDZ) and sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) by exposure in different concentrations under semi-static conditions for 48d. The uptake rate (k1), growth-corrected depuration rate (k2g), and biological half-lives (t1/2) of two sulfonamides in liver and muscle were determined and they were 0.135-9.84Lkg(-1)d(-1), 0.0361-0.838d(-1), 8.3-19.2d, respectively. With exposure concentrations increasing, the uptake rates in liver and muscle decreased obviously but the depuration rates were not closely related with the exposure concentrations. SDZ exhibited higher uptake but lower excretion rates in almost all the liver and muscle than SMZ, resulting in both higher BCFs and half-lives for SDZ. The growth-corrected bioconcentration factors (BCFkg) were measured to be 1.65-165.73Lkg(-1)ww and their averages were in good consistency with the values predicted by previous models within one log unit. The work presented here was the first to model bioconcentration of SMZ and SDZ from water by laboratory-exposed fish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Chemosphere 02/2015; 120:592-7. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.09.075 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An ultrasensitive methodology was successfully developed for quantitative detection of picomolar Hg2+ based on the combination of the thymine-Hg2+-thymine (T-Hg2+-T) coordination chemistry and the Exonuclease III -aided recycling signal amplification. Single-strand probe DNA was immobilized on an Au electrode via the Au-S bond. In the presence of Hg2+, the probe DNA would hybridize with the target DNA of four thymine-thymine (T-T) mismatches via the Hg2+-mediated coordination of T-Hg2+-T base pairs. Then the probe DNA in DNA duplex would be specifically recognized and selectively digested by Exonuclease III, in contrast the target DNA would be safely dissociated from DNA duplexes to continuously hybridize with a new signal probe, leading to the target recycling and signal amplification. As a result, the peak currents caused by the electrostatic interactions of [Ru(NH3)6]3+ cations onto the backbone of probe DNA would decrease with different degrees corresponding to the Hg2+ concentrations. Under the optimum conditions, the proposed electrochemical DNA biosensor showed a robust detection limit as low as 1 pM (S/N=3), with a wide linear range from 0.01 to 500 nM and a good selectivity. In addition, the proposed method was successfully applied to assay Hg2+ in real environmental samples.
    The Analyst 01/2015; DOI:10.1039/C5AN00082C · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Membrane filtration provides effective solutions to remove contaminants, but achieving high permeability, good selectivity and antifouling ability remains a great challenge for the existing membrane filtration technologies. In this paper, membrane filtration coupling with electrochemistry has been developed to enhance filtration performance on CNTs/Al2O3 membrane. The as-prepared CNTs/Al2O3 membrane, by coating interconnected CNTs on Al2O3 substrate, presented good pore-size tunability, mechanical stability and electroconductivity. For removing target (silica spheres as probe) with size comparable to membrane pore size, its removal efficiency and flux at + 1.5 V were 1.1 and 1.5 times as high as those without electrochemical assistance, respectively. Moreover, it also exhibited greatly enhanced removal efficiency for contaminants with size smaller than membrane pore, which was 4 orders of magnitude and 5.7-fold enhancement for latex particles and phenol, respectively. These results indicated both permeability and selectivity of CNTs/Al2O3 membrane could be significantly improved by electrochemical assistance, which was further confirmed by natural organic matters (NOMs) removal. The permeate flux and NOMs removal efficiency at +1.5 V were about 1.6 and 3.0 times as great as those of membrane without electrochemical assistance, respectively. In addition, the lost flux of fouled membrane was almost completely recovered by electrochemically assisted backwashing process.
    Environmental Science and Technology 01/2015; 49(4). DOI:10.1021/es5039479 · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antibiotics have been considered to be a potential risk to human and ecological health. In an effort to develop convenient and effective treatment technology for the removal of fluoroquinoline antibiotics ciprofloxacin (CIP) from aqueous solution, a dynamic adsorption experimental apparatus based on carbon nanofibers (CNFs) was built and the adsorption of CIP was quantitatively measured by in situ fluorescence (FL) for the first time. The experimental results show that the adsorption kinetics and isotherms match well with the pseudo-second-order model and the Langmuir model, respectively. The adsorption equilibrium accomplished within 4 h, which is much shorter than the adsorption of CIP on the other carbon materials reported before. The maximum adsorption capacity (qm) is 10.36 mg/g, which is similar to the qm of CIP adsorption on biocomposite fibers. The strong adsorption affinity exhibited by CNFs was ascribed to the contributions of π–π electron–donor–acceptor (EDA) interaction, hydrophobic interaction and electrostatic interaction. The dynamic adsorption of CIP on CNFs provides a novel and effective approach for CIP removal, implying the potential practical application of CNFs in the field of water treatment.
    01/2015; 39. DOI:10.1016/j.jwpe.2014.12.006
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    ABSTRACT: Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) using either Cr(VI) (MFCsCr) or Cu(II) (MFCsCu) as a final electron acceptor, are stacked to self-drive microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) using Cd(II) (MECsCd) as an electron acceptor for simultaneous reduction of Cr(VI) in MFCsCr, Cu(II) in MFCsCu and Cd(II) in MECsCd with no external energy consumption. Titanium sheet (TS) and carbon rod (CR) as the cathodes of MECsCd are assessed for efficient system performance. MFCsCr and MFCsCu in series is superior to the parallel configuration, and higher Cd(II) reduction along with simultaneous Cr(VI) and Cu(II) reduction supports TS function as a good cathode material. Conversely, CR can not entirely proceed Cd(II) reduction in MECsCd despite of more Cr(VI) and Cu(II) reduction in the same serial configuration than either system alone. While a decrease in cathode volume in both MFCsCr and MFCsCu with serial connection benefits to reduction of Cr(VI) in MFCsCr and Cu(II) in MFCsCu, Cd(II) reduction in MECsCd is substantially enhanced under a decrease in cathode volume in individual MFCsCr and serially connected with volume-unchanged MFCsCu. This study demonstrates simultaneous Cr(VI), Cu(II) and Cd(II) recovery from MFCsCr-MFCsCu-MECsCd self-driven system is feasible, and TS as the cathodes of MECsCd is critical for efficient system performance.
    Journal of Power Sources 01/2015; 273:1103–1113. DOI:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.09.126 · 5.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Norfloxacin (NOR), an ionizable antibiotic frequently used in the aquaculture industry, has aroused public concern due to its persistence, bacterial resistance, and environmental ubiquity. Therefore, we investigated the photolysis of different species of NOR and the impact of a ubiquitous component of natural water — dissolved organic matter (DOM), which has a special photochemical activity and normally acts as a sensitizer or inhibiter in the photolysis of diverse organics; furthermore, scavenging experiments combined with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) were performed to evaluate the transformation of NOR in water. The results demonstated that NOR underwent direct photolysis and self-sensitized photolysis via hydroxyl radical (OH) and singlet oxygen (1O2) based on the scavenging experiments. In addition, DOM was found to influence the photolysis of different NOR species, and its impact was related to the concentration of DOM and type of NOR species. Photolysis of cationic NOR was photosensitized by DOM at low concentration, while zwitterionic and anionic NOR were photoinhibited by DOM, where quenching of OH predominated according to EPR experiments, accompanied by possible participation of excited triplet-state NOR and 1O2. Photo-intermediate identification of different NOR species in solutions with/without DOM indicated that NOR underwent different photodegradation pathways including dechlorination, cleavage of the piperazine side chain and photooxidation, and DOM had little impact on the distribution but influenced the concentration evolution of photolysis intermediates. The results implied that for accurate ecological risk assessment of emerging ionizable pollutants, the impact of DOM on the environmental photochemical behavior of all dissociated species should not be ignored.
    Journal of Environmental Sciences 01/2015; 27. DOI:10.1016/j.jes.2014.08.015 · 1.92 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
1,111.02 Total Impact Points


  • 1998–2015
    • Dalian University of Technology
      • • Department of Environmental Science and Technology
      • • School of Environmental and Biological Science and Technology
      Lü-ta-shih, Liaoning, China
  • 2007
    • The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
      Chiu-lung, Kowloon City, Hong Kong
  • 2003
    • Pohang University of Science and Technology
      • Department of Chemical Engineering
      Geijitsu, Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea