Itamar Willner

Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Yerushalayim, Jerusalem District, Israel

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Publications (679)3680.4 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The microRNA, miR-141, is a promising biomarker for prostate cancer. We implement a two-step sensing platform for the sensitive detection of miR-141. The first step involves the use of semiconductor CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) modified by a FRET quencher-functionalized nucleic acid that includes the recognition sequence for miR-141 and a telomerase primer sequence for the second-step of the analytical platform. Subjecting the probe-modified QDs to miR-141, in the presence of duplex specific nuclease, DSN, leads to the formation of the miR-141/probe duplex and to its DSN-mediated cleavage, while regenerating the miR-141. The DSN-induced cleavage of the quencher units leads to the activation of the fluorescence of the QDs, thus allowing the optical detection of miR-141 with a sensitivity corresponding to 1.0×10-12 M. The nucleic acid residues associated with the QDs after cleavage of the probe nucleic acids by DSN act as primers for telomerase. The subsequent telomerase/dNTPs-stimulated elongation of the primer units form G-quadruplex telomer chains. Incorporation of hemin in the resulting G-quadruplex telomer chains yields horseradish peroxidase-mimicking DNAzyme units that catalyze the generation of chemiluminescence in the presence of luminol/H2O2. The resulting chemiluminescence intensities provide a readout signal for miR-141, DL = 2.8×10-13 M. The first-step of the sensing platform is non-selective toward miR-141 and the resulting fluorescence may be considered only as an indicator for the existence of miR-141. The second-step in the sensing protocol involving telomerase provides a selective chemiluminescence signal for the existence of miR-141. The two-step sensing platform is implemented for analyzing miR-141 in sera samples of healthy individuals and prostate cancer carriers. Impressive discrimination of healthy/prostate cancer carriers is demonstrated.
    Chemical Science 09/2014; · 8.31 Impact Factor
  • Ran Tel‐Vered, Itamar Willner
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    ABSTRACT: The native photosynthetic reaction centers photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII) act as functional nanostructures for the assembly of photo-biofuel cells. By electrical wiring of PSI and/or PSII with electrodes, the conversion of light energy into electrical power has been demonstrated. Different methodologies to electrically contact the photosystems with the electrodes have been developed, including the reconstitution of the photosystems on relay units, the application of redox-active polymers as charge-transport matrices, and the use of metallic nanoparticles or nanoclusters as electron-transfer relays. Electrical contact of the photosystems with the electrodes facilitates charge separation of the redox intermediates generated upon illumination of the assemblies, thus retarding destructive back electron-transfer reactions and enhancing the conversion of light energy into electrical power. Recent advances to fabricate electrically wired PSI and/or PSII electrodes are surveyed, and different approaches to assemble photo-bioelectrochemical cells are discussed. The limitations and future perspectives of the systems will also be presented.
    ChemElectroChem. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: DNA-tethered poly-N-isopropylacrylamide copolymer chains, pNIPAM, that include nucleic acid tethers have been synthesized. They are capable of inducing pH-stimulated crosslinking of the chains by i-motif structures or to be bridged by Ag+ ions to form duplexes. The solutions of pNIPAM chains undergo crosslinking at pH 5.2 or in the presence of Ag+ ions to form hydrogels. The hydrogels reveal switchable hydrogel-to-solution transitions by the reversible crosslinking of the chains at pH 5.2 and the separation of the crosslinking units at pH 7.5, or by the Ag+ ion-stimulated crosslinking of the chains and the reverse dissolution of the hydrogel by the cysteamine-induced elimination of the Ag+ ions. The DNA-crosslinked hydrogels are thermosensitive and undergo reversible temperature-controlled hydrogel-to-solid transitions. The solid pNIPAM matrices are protected against the OH− or cysteamine-stimulated dissociation to the respective polymer solutions.
    Angewandte Chemie 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: DNA-tethered poly-N-isopropylacrylamide copolymer chains, pNIPAM, that include nucleic acid tethers have been synthesized. They are capable of inducing pH-stimulated crosslinking of the chains by i-motif structures or to be bridged by Ag+ ions to form duplexes. The solutions of pNIPAM chains undergo crosslinking at pH 5.2 or in the presence of Ag+ ions to form hydrogels. The hydrogels reveal switchable hydrogel-to-solution transitions by the reversible crosslinking of the chains at pH 5.2 and the separation of the crosslinking units at pH 7.5, or by the Ag+ ion-stimulated crosslinking of the chains and the reverse dissolution of the hydrogel by the cysteamine-induced elimination of the Ag+ ions. The DNA-crosslinked hydrogels are thermosensitive and undergo reversible temperature-controlled hydrogel-to-solid transitions. The solid pNIPAM matrices are protected against the OH− or cysteamine-stimulated dissociation to the respective polymer solutions.
    Angewandte Chemie International Edition 08/2014; · 11.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In nature, post-transcriptional alternative splicing processes expand the proteome biodiversity, providing means to synthesize various protein isoforms. We describe the input-guided assembly of a DNAzyme-based full-adder computing system, which mimics functions of the natural processes by increasing the diversity of logic elements by the reconfiguration of the inputs. The full-adder comprises the simultaneous operation of three inputs that yield two different output signals, acting as sum and carry bits. The DNAzyme-based full-adder system consists of a library of Mg2+-dependent DNAzyme subunits and their substrates that are modified by two different fluorophore/quencher pairs that encode the sum and carry outputs. The input-guided assembly of DNAzyme subunits, formed by three inputs composed of nucleic acid hairpin structures, leads to computing modules that yield the sum and carry outputs of the full-adder. In the presence of a single input the DNAzyme computing module yields the sum fluorescence output. In the presence of two of the inputs, the reconfiguration of the input structures proceeds, leading to an input-guided computing module that yields the carry fluorescence output. By introducing all the three inputs the sequential inter-input hybridization leads to the reconfiguration of the inputs into polymer wires. These include binding sites for two types of DNAzyme and their substrates leading to the carry and sum fluorescence outputs. The advantages of the simultaneous three-input operation of the full-adder and the possibilities to implement DNAzyme-based computing modules for cascading full-adders are discussed.
    Chemical Science 08/2014; · 8.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Luminescent Ag nanoclusters (NCs) stabilized by nucleic acids are implemented as optical labels for the detection of the explosives picric acid, trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). The sensing modules consist of two parts, a nucleic acid with the nucleic acid-stabilized Ag NCs and a nucleic acid functionalized with electron donating units, including L-DOPA, L-tyrosine and 6-hydroxy-L-DOPA, self-assembled on a nucleic acid scaffold. The formation of donor-acceptor complexes between the nitro-substituted explosives, exhibiting electron acceptor properties, and the electron donating sites, associated with the sensing modules, concentrates the explosives in close proximity to the Ag NCs. This leads to the electron transfer quenching of the luminescence of the Ag NCs by the explosive molecule. The quenching of the luminescence of the Ag NCs provides a readout signal for the sensing process. The sensitivities of the analytical platforms are controlled by the electron donating properties of the donor substituents, as 6-hydroxy-L-DOPA was found to be the most sensitive module. Picric acid, TNT and RDX are analyzed with detection limits corresponding to 5.2 × 10</sup>-12 M, 1.0 × 10</sup>-12 M and 3.0 × 10</sup>-12 M respectively, using the 6-hydroxy-L-DOPA-modified Ag NCs sensing module.
    Nano letters. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The K+-induced formation of G-quadruplexes provides a versatile motif to lock or unlock substrates trapped in the pores of mesoporous SiO2 nanoparticles, MP-SiO2 NPs. In one system, the substrate is locked in the MP-SiO2 NPs by K+-ion-stabilized G-quadruplex units, and the pores are unlocked by the elimination of K+ ions using Kryptofix [2.2.2] (KP) or 18-crown-6-ether (CE) from the G-quadruplexes. In the second system, the substrate is locked in the pores by means of K+-stabilized aptameric G-quadruplex/thrombin units. Unlocking of the pores is triggered by the dissociation of the aptamer/thrombin complexes through the KP- or CE-mediated elimination of the stabilizing K+ ions. In the third system, duplex DNA units lock the pores of MP-SiO2 NPs, and the release of the entrapped substrate is stimulated by the K+-ion-induced dissociation of the duplex caps through the formation of the K+-stabilized G-quadruplexes. The latter system is further implemented to release the anti-cancer drug, doxorubicin, in the presence of K+ ions, from the MP-SiO2 NPs. Preliminary intracellular experiments reveal that doxorubicin-loaded MP-SiO2 NPs lead to effective death of breast cancer cells.
    Advanced Functional Materials 07/2014; · 9.77 Impact Factor
  • Zhanxia Zhang, Fuan Wang, Dora Balogh, Itamar Willner
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    ABSTRACT: The pH-controlled release of substrates from mesoporous SiO2 nanoparticles, MP–SiO2 NPs, is demonstrated by capping the pores with the Mg2+- or UO22+-dependent DNAzyme sequences and unlocking of the pores with Mg2+ ions or UO22+ ions at appropriate pH values. While the Mg2+-dependent DNAzyme reveals high activity at pH = 7.2, moderate activity at pH = 6.0, and it lacks activity at pH = 5.2, the UO22+-dependent DNAzyme reveals high activity at pH = 5.2, moderate activity at pH = 6.0, and it is catalytically inactive at pH = 7.2. Accordingly, the MP–SiO2 NPs were loaded with methylene blue, MB+, or thionine, Th+, and locked in the pores by the Mg2+- and UO22+-dependent DNAzyme sequences, respectively. The pH-programmed release of MB+ or Th+ from the loaded NPs proceeds, in the presence of Mg2+ ions or UO22+ ions, at pH = 7.2 and pH = 5.2, using the Mg2+- and UO22+-dependent DNAzyme as catalysts that cleave the protecting caps and unlock the pores, respectively. At pH = 6.0 the MB+- and Th+-loaded NPs are concomitantly unlocked by the two DNAzymes. The unlocking processes are selective and other metal ions do not stimulate the release processes.
    J. Mater. Chem. B. 06/2014; 2(28).
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    ABSTRACT: Interlocked DNA rings (catenanes) are interesting reconfigurable nanostructures. The synthesis of catenanes with more than two rings is, however, hampered, owing to low yields of these systems. We report a new method for the synthesis of catenanes with a controlled number of rings in satisfactory yields. Our approach is exemplified by the synthesis of a five-ring DNA catenane that exists in four different configurations. By the use of nucleic acids as "fuels" and "antifuels", the cyclic reconfiguration of the system across four states is demonstrated. One of the states, olympiadane, corresponds to the symbol of the Olympic Games. The five-ring catenane was implemented as a mechanical scaffold for the reconfiguration of Au NPs. The advantages of DNA catenanes over supramolecular catenanes include the possibility of generating highly populated defined states and the feasibility of tethering nanoobjects to the catenanes, which act as a mechanical scaffold to reconfigure the nanoobjects.
    Angewandte Chemie International Edition in English 05/2014; · 13.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: L-cysteine induces the aggregation of Au nanoparticles (NPs), resulting in a color transition from red to blue due to interparticle plasmonic coupling in the aggregated structure. The hemin/G-quadruplex horseradish peroxidase-mimicking DNAzyme catalyzes the aerobic oxidation of L-cysteine to cystine, a process that inhibits the aggregation of the NPs. The degree of inhibition of the aggregation process is controlled by the concentration of the DNAzyme in the system. These functions are implemented to develop sensing platforms for the detection of a target DNA, for the analysis of aptamer-substrate complexes, and for the analysis of L-cysteine in human urine samples. A hairpin DNA structure that includes a recognition site for the DNA analyte and a caged G-quadruplex sequence, is opened in the presence of the target DNA. The resulting self-assembled hemin/G-quadruplex acts as catalyst that controls the aggregation of the Au NPs. Also, the thrombin-binding aptamer folds into a G-quadruplex nanostructure upon binding to thrombin. The association of hemin to the resulting G-quadruplex aptamer-thrombin complex leads to a catalytic label that controls the L-cysteine-mediated aggregation of the Au NPs. The hemin/G-qaudruplex-controlled aggregation of Au NPs process was further implemented for visual and spectroscopic detection of L-cysteine concentration in urine samples.
    Small 04/2014; · 7.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A two-ring (α/β) interlocked DNA catenane rotor system is described. Using appropriate fuel and anti-fuel strands, the triggered switchable rotation across three states S1, S2 and S3 associated with the circular track of ring α is demonstrated.
    Chemical Communications 03/2014; · 6.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Programmed nucleic acid sequences undergo K(+) ion-induced self-assembly into G-quadruplexes and separation of the supramolecular structures by the elimination of K(+) ions by crown ether or cryptand ion-receptors. This process allows the switchable formation and dissociation of the respective G-quadruplexes. The different G-quadruplex structures bind hemin, and the resulting hemin-G-quadruplex structures reveal horseradish peroxidase DNAzyme catalytic activities. The following K(+) ion/receptor switchable systems are described: 1) The K(+) -induced self-assembly of the Mg(2+) -dependent DNAzyme subunits into a catalytic nanostructure using the assembly of G-quadruplexes as bridging unit. 2) The K(+) -induced stabilization of the anti-thrombin G-quadruplex nanostructure that inhibits the hydrolytic functions of thrombin. 3) The K(+) -induced opening of DNA tweezers through the stabilization of G-quadruplexes on the "tweezers' arms" and the release of a strand bridging the tweezers into a closed structure. In all of the systems reversible, switchable, functions are demonstrated. For all systems two different signals are used to follow the switchable functions (fluorescence and the catalytic functions of the derived hemin-G-quadruplex DNAzyme).
    Chemistry 03/2014; · 5.93 Impact Factor
  • Xiaoqing Liu, Chun-Hua Lu, Itamar Willner
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    ABSTRACT: Conspectus The base sequence in DNA dictates structural and reactivity features of the biopolymer. These properties are implemented to use DNA as a unique material for developing the area of DNA nanotechnology. The design of DNA machines represents a rapidly developing research field in the area of DNA nanotechnology. The present Account discusses the switchable reconfiguration of nucleic acid nanostructures by stimuli-responsive DNA machines, and it highlights potential applications and future perspectives of the area. Programmed switchable DNA machines driven by various fuels and antifuels, such as pH, Hg(2+) ions/cysteine, or nucleic acid strands/antistrands, are described. These include the assembly of DNA tweezers, walkers, a rotor, a pendulum, and more. Using a pH-oscillatory system, the oscillatory mechanical operation of a DNA pendulum is presented. Specifically, the synthesis and "mechanical" properties of interlocked DNA rings are described. This is exemplified with the preparation of interlocked DNA catenanes and a DNA rotaxane. The dynamic fuel-driven reconfiguration of the catenane/rotaxane structures is followed by fluorescence spectroscopy. The use of DNA machines as functional scaffolds to reconfigurate Au nanoparticle assemblies and to switch the fluorescence features within fluorophore/Au nanoparticle conjugates between quenching and surface-enhanced fluorescence states are addressed. Specifically, the fluorescence features of the different DNA machines are characterized as a function of the spatial separation between the fluorophore and Au nanoparticles. The experimental results are supported by theoretical calculations. The future development of reconfigurable stimuli-responsive DNA machines involves fundamental challenges, such as the synthesis of molecular devices exhibiting enhanced complexities, the introduction of new fuels and antifuels, and the integration of new payloads being reconfigured by the molecular devices, such as enzymes or catalytic nanoparticles. Exciting applications of these systems are ahead of us, and switchable catalytic nanoparticle systems, switchable enzyme cascades, and spatially programmed nanoparticles for innovative nanomedicine may be envisaged. Also, the intracellular reconfiguration of nucleic acids by stimuli-responsive DNA machines holds great promise as a means to silence genes or inhibit metabolic pathways.
    Accounts of Chemical Research 03/2014; · 20.83 Impact Factor
  • Fuan Wang, Bilha Willner, Itamar Willner
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    ABSTRACT: The base sequence in nucleic acids encodes substantial structural and functional information into the biopolymer. This encoded information provides the basis for the tailoring and assembly of DNA machines. A DNA machine is defined as a molecular device that exhibits the following fundamental features. (1) It performs a fuel-driven mechanical process that mimics macroscopic machines. (2) The mechanical process requires an energy input, "fuel." (3) The mechanical operation is accompanied by an energy consumption process that leads to "waste products." (4) The cyclic operation of the DNA devices, involves the use of "fuel" and "anti-fuel" ingredients. A variety of DNA-based machines are described, including the construction of "tweezers," "walkers," "robots," "cranes," "transporters," "springs," "gears," and interlocked cyclic DNA structures acting as reconfigurable catenanes, rotaxanes, and rotors. Different "fuels", such as nucleic acid strands, pH (H(+)/OH(-)), metal ions, and light, are used to trigger the mechanical functions of the DNA devices. The operation of the devices in solution and on surfaces is described, and a variety of optical, electrical, and photoelectrochemical methods to follow the operations of the DNA machines are presented. We further address the possible applications of DNA machines and the future perspectives of molecular DNA devices. These include the application of DNA machines as functional structures for the construction of logic gates and computing, for the programmed organization of metallic nanoparticle structures and the control of plasmonic properties, and for controlling chemical transformations by DNA machines. We further discuss the future applications of DNA machines for intracellular sensing, controlling intracellular metabolic pathways, and the use of the functional nanostructures for drug delivery and medical applications.
    Topics in current chemistry 03/2014; · 8.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DNA hydrogels, consisting of Y-shaped nucleic acid subunits or of nucleic acid-functionalized acrylamide chains, undergo switchable gel-to-solution transitions. The Ag(+)-stimulated formation of cytosine-Ag(+)-cytosine complexes results in the crosslinking of the units to yield the hydrogels, while the cysteamine-induced elimination of the Ag(+) ions dissociates the hydrogels into a solution phase.
    Chemical Communications 03/2014; · 6.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Scaffolding proteins play a central role in many regulatory cellular networks, where signalling proteins trigger different, and even orthogonal biological pathways. Such biological regulatory networks can be duplicated by multiplexer/demultiplexer logic operations. We present the use of libraries of Mg2+-dependent DNAzyme subunits as computational moduli for the construction of 2:1 and 4:1 multiplexers and a 1:2 demultiplexer. In the presence of the appropriate inputs, and the presence or absence of selector units, the guided assembly of the DNAzyme subunits to form active Mg2+-dependent DNAzyme proceeds. The formation of the active DNAzyme nanostructures is controlled by the energetics associated with the resulting duplexes between the inputs/selectors and the DNAzyme subunits. The library subunits are designed in such a way that, in the presence of the appropriate inputs/selectors, the inputs are knocked-down or triggered-on to yield the respective multiplexer/demultiplexer operations. Fluorescence is used as the readout for the outputs of the logic operations. The DNAzyme-based multiplexer/demultiplexer systems present biomolecular assemblies for data compression and decompression.
    Chemical Science 03/2014; 5(3):1074-1081. · 8.31 Impact Factor
  • Fuan Wang, Chun-Hua Lu, Itamar Willner
    Chemical Reviews 02/2014; · 41.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Telomeres are guanosine-rich nucleic-acid chains that fold in the presence of K+ ions and hemin, into the telomeric hemin/G-quadruplex structure exhibiting horseradish peroxidase mimicking functions. The telomeric hemin/G-quadruplex structures catalyze the oxidation of thiols (e.g L-cysteine) into disulfides (e.g cystine). As cysteine stimulates the aggregation of Au NPs accompanied with absorbance changes from red (individual Au NPs) to blue (aggregated Au NPs), the process is implemented to quantitatively analyse the activity (content) of telomerase that is a versatile biomarker for cancer cells. Telomerase extracted from 293T cancer cells catalyses, in the presence of dNTPs mixture and an appropriate primer probe, the telomerization process, leading to the generation of catalytic telomeric hemin/G-quadruplex chains that control the L-cysteine-mediated aggregation of Au NPs. The extent of aggregation is controlled by the concentration of telomerase. The method enabled the detection of telomerase with a detection limit of 27cells/µl. The spectral changes accompanying the aggregation of Au NPs are further supported by TEM imaging.
    Analytical Chemistry 02/2014; · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The amplified, highly-sensitive detection of DNA using the dendritic rolling circle amplification (RCA) is introduced. The analytical platform includes a circular DNA and a structurally-tailored hairpin structure. The circular nucleic acid template includes a recognition sequence for the analyte DNA (the Tay-Sachs mutant gene), a complementary sequence to the Mg(2+)-dependent DNAzyme, and a sequence identical to the loop region of the co-added hairpin structure. The functional hairpin in the system consists of the analyte-sequence that is caged in the stem region and a single-stranded loop domain that communicates with the RCA product. The analyte activates the RCA process, leading to DNA chains consisting of the Mg(2+)-dependent DNAzyme and sequences that are complementary to the loop of the functional hairpin structure. Opening of the co-added hairpin releases the caged analyte sequence, resulting in the dendritic RCA-induced synthesis of the Mg(2+)-dependent DNAzyme units. The DNAzyme-catalyzed cleavage of a fluorophore/quencher-modified substrate leads to a fluorescence readout signal. The method enabled the analysis of the target DNA with a detection limit corresponding to 1 aM. By the design of two different circular DNAs that include recognition sites for two different target genes, complementary sequences for two different Mg(2+)-dependent DNAzyme sequences, and two different functional hairpin structures, the dendritic RCA-stimulated multiplexed analysis of two different genes is demonstrated. The amplified dendritic RCA detection of DNA is further implemented to yield the hemin/G-quadruplex horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mimicking DNAzyme as catalytic labels that provide colorimetric or chemiluminescent readout signals.
    Analytical Chemistry 12/2013; · 5.70 Impact Factor
  • Eyal Golub, Ronit Freeman, Itamar Willner
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    ABSTRACT: This study describes the novel hemin/G-quadruplex DNAzyme-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of thiols to disulfides and the respective mechanism. The mechanism of the reaction involves the DNAzyme-catalyzed oxidation of thiols to disulfides and the thiol-mediated autocatalytic generation of H2O2 from oxygen. The coupling of a concomitant H2O2-mediated hemin/G-quadruplex-catalyzed oxidation of Amplex Red to the fluorescent resorufin as a transduction module provides a fluorescent signal for probing the catalyzed oxidation of the thiol to disulfides and for probing sensing processes that yield the hemin/G-quadruplex as a functional label. Accordingly, a versatile sensing method for analyzing thiols (l-cysteine, glutathione) using the H2O2-mediated DNAzyme-catalyzed oxidation of Amplex Red to the resorufin was developed. Also, the l-cysteine and Amplex Red system was implemented as an auxiliary fluorescent transduction module for probing recognition events that form the catalytic hemin/G-quadruplex structures. This is exemplified with the development of thrombin aptasensor. The thrombin/thrombin binding aptamer recognition complex binds hemin, and the resulting catalytic complex activates the auxiliary transduction module, involving the aerobic oxidation of l-cysteine and the concomitant formation of the fluorescent resorufin. Finally, the hemin/G-quadruplex DNAzyme/Amplex Red system was used to follow the activity of acetylcholine esterase, AChE, and to probe its inhibition. The AChE-catalyzed hydrolysis of acetylthiocholine to the thiol-functionalized thiocholine enabled the probing of the enzymatic activity of AChE through the hemin/G-quadruplex-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of thiocholine to the respective disulfide and the concomitant generation of the fluorescent resorufin product.
    Analytical Chemistry 12/2013; · 5.70 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

14k Citations
3,680.40 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1976–2014
    • Hebrew University of Jerusalem
      • • Institute of Chemistry
      • • Farkas Center for Light-Induced Processes
      • • Fritz Haber Center for Molecular Dynamics Research
      • • Department of Organic Chemistry
      Yerushalayim, Jerusalem District, Israel
  • 2011
    • East China University of Science and Technology
      • School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2005–2010
    • University of Duisburg-Essen
      • Anorganische Chemie Arbeitsgruppe
      Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • University of Liège
      • Département de Chimie Appliquée
      Liège, WAL, Belgium
    • Northwestern University
      Evanston, Illinois, United States
  • 2009
    • Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
    • Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
      Modène, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
    • Vienna University of Technology
      • Center for Micro and Nanostructures
      Vienna, Vienna, Austria
  • 2008
    • University of Bologna
      • "Giacomo Ciamician" Department of Chemistry CHIM
      Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 1998
    • University of Freiburg
      • Institute of Biology I
      Freiburg, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 1992
    • Universität Stuttgart
      • Institute of Organic Chemistry
      Stuttgart, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany