S P Magnusson

Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen, København, Capital Region, Denmark

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Publications (102)315.79 Total impact

  • T. Bieler, S. P. Magnusson, M. Kjaer, N. Beyer
    Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 06/2014; 73(Suppl 2):757-757. · 9.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human aging is associated with a loss of skeletal muscle and an increase in circulating inflammatory markers. It is unknown whether endurance training (Tr) can prevent these changes. Therefore we studied 15 old trained (O-Tr) healthy males and, for comparison, 12 old untrained (O-Un), 10 Young-Tr (Y-Tr) and 12 Young-Un (Y-Un). Quadriceps size, VO2 peak, CRP, IL-6, TNF-α and its receptors, suPAR, lipid profile, leucocytes and glucose homeostasis were measured. Tr was associated with an improved insulin profile (p<0.05), and lower leucocyte (p<0.05) and triglyceride levels (p<0.05), independent of age. Aging was associated with poorer glucose control (p<0.05), independent of training. The age-related changes in waist circumference, VO2 peak, cholesterol, LDL, leg muscle size, CRP and IL-6 were counteracted by physical activity (p<0.05). A significant increase in suPAR with age was observed (p<0.05). Most importantly, life-long endurance exercise was associated with a lower level of the inflammatory markers CRP and IL-6 (p<0.05), and with a greater thigh muscle area (p<0.05), compared to age-matched untrained counterparts. These findings in a limited group of individuals suggest that regular physical endurance activity may play a role in reducing some markers of systemic inflammation, even within the normal range, and in maintaining muscle mass with aging.
    Mechanisms of ageing and development 11/2013; · 4.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Achilles tendinopathy is a highly prevalent sports injury. Animal studies show a growth response in tendons in response to loading in the immature phase but not after puberty maturation. The aim of this investigation was to examine the structural and material properties in long distance runners who were either physically active (HAY) or inactive (LAY) in young age. Twelve men in HAY group and eight men in LAY group participated. Structural, functional, and biochemical properties of Achilles tendon were estimated from magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound video recordings, mechanical tests, and tendon biopsies, respectively. There was no difference between the groups with respect to tendon cross-sectional area or tendon free length. There was no difference between the groups with respect to maximal force or mechanical properties. The collagen content, enzymatic and nonenzymatic cross-link density did not differ between the groups, nor did collagen fibril density, diameter, and area. There was a correlation between age and pentosidine/collagen within the groups [(HAY: P < 0.05 and r(2) = 0.47) and (LAY: P < 0.05 and r(2) = 0.52)]. The data suggest that high or low activity during youth did not appreciably influence the mechanical, structural, or biochemical properties of the Achilles tendon in adult long distance runners.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 11/2013; · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has commonly been applied to determine tendon cross-sectional area (CSA) and length either to measure structural changes or to normalize mechanical measurements to stress and strain. The ability to reproduce CSA measurements on MRI images has been reported, but the accuracy in relation to actual tendon dimensions has never been investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare tendon CSA measured by MRI with that measured in vitro with the mould casting technique. The knee of a horse was MRI-scanned with 1.5 and 3 tesla, and two examiners measured the patellar tendon CSA. Thereafter, the patellar tendon of the horse was completely dissected and embedded in an alginate cast. The CSA of the embedded tendon was measured directly by optical imaging of the cast impression. 1.5 tesla grey tendon CSA and 3 tesla grey tendon CSA were 16.5% and 13.2% higher than the mould tendon CSA, respectively. Also, 3 tesla tendon CSA, based on the red-green border on the National Institute of Health (NIH) colour scale, was higher than the mould tendon CSA by 2.8%. The typical error between examiners was below 2% for all the measured CSA. The typical error between examiners was below 2% for all the measured CSA. These data show that measuring tendon CSA on the grey-scale MRI images is associated with an underestimation, but by optimizing the measurement using a 3 tesla MRI and the appropriate NIH colour scale, this underestimation could be reduced to 2.8% compared with the direct measurements on the mould.
    Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging 09/2013; · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study explored the age-related deterioration in stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) muscle power and concurrent force-velocity properties in women and men across the adult life span. A total of 315 participants (women: n = 188; men: n = 127) aged 18-81 years performed maximal countermovement jumps on an instrumented force plate. Maximal SSC leg extension power expressed per kg body mass (Ppeak) was greater in men than in women across the adult age span (P < 0.001); however, this gender difference was progressively reduced with increasing age, because men showed an ∼50% faster rate of decline in SSC power than women (P < 0.001). Velocity at peak power (VPpeak) was greater in men than in women (P < 0.001) but declined at a greater rate in men than in women (P = 0.002). Vertical ground reaction force at peak power (FPpeak) was higher in men than in women in younger adults only (P < 0.001) and the age-related decline was steeper in men than in women (P < 0.001). Men demonstrated a steeper rate of decline in Ppeak than women with progressive aging. This novel finding emerged as a result of greater age-related losses in men for both force and velocity. Consequently, maximal SSC power production was observed to converge between genders when approaching old age.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 03/2013; · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the structural and mechanical properties of the patellar tendon in elite male badminton players with and without patellar tendinopathy. Seven players with unilateral patellar tendinopathy (PT group) on the lead extremity (used for forward lunge) and nine players with no current or previous patellar tendinopathy (CT group) were included. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess distal patellar tendon dimensions. Patellar tendon mechanical properties were assessed using simultaneous tendon force and deformation measurements. Distal tendon cross-sectional area (CSA) normalized for body weight (mm(2) /kg(2/3) ) was lower in the PT group compared with the CT group on both the non-lead extremity (6.1 ± 0.3 vs 7.4 ± 0.2, P < 0.05) and the lead extremity (6.5 ± 0.6 vs 8.4 ± 0.3, P < 0.05). Distal tendon stress was higher in the PT group compared with the CT group for both the non-lead extremity (31 ± 1 vs 27 ± 1 MPa, P < 0.05) and the lead extremity (32 ± 3 vs 21 ± 3 MPa, P < 0.01). Conclusively, the PT group had smaller distal patellar tendon CSA on both the injured (lead extremity) and the uninjured side (non-lead extremity) compared with the CT group. Subsequently, the smaller CSA yielded a greater distal patellar tendon stress in the PT group. Therefore, a small tendon CSA may predispose to the development of tendinopathy.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 12/2012; · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Overuse Achilles tendinopathy is a common and challenging problem in sports medicine. Little is known about the etiology of this disorder, and the development of a good animal model for overuse tendinopathy is essential for advancing insight into the disease mechanisms. Our aim was to test a previously proposed rat model for Achilles tendon overuse. Ten adult male Sprague-Dawley rats ran on a treadmill with 10° incline, 1 h/day, 5 days/wk (17-20 m/min) for 12 wk and were compared with 12 control rats. Histological, mechanical, and gene-expression changes were measured on the Achilles tendons after the intervention, and local tendon glucose-uptake was measured before and after the intervention with positron emission tomography. No differences were detected between runners and controls in tissue histology or in glucose uptake, indicating that tendon pathology was not induced. Greater tendon tissue modulus (P < 0.005) and failure stress/body weight (P < 0.02) in runners compared with controls further supported that tendons successfully adapted to uphill running. Several genes of interest were regulated after 12 wk of running. Expression of collagen III and insulin-like growth factor I was increased, while collagen I was unchanged, and decreases were seen in noncollagen matrix components (fibromodulin and biglycan), matrix degrading enzymes, transforming growth factor-β1, and connective tissue growth factor. In conclusion, the tested model could not be validated as a model for Achilles tendinopathy, as the rats were able to adapt to 12 wk of uphill running without any signs of tendinopathy. Improved mechanical properties were observed, as well as changes in gene-expression that were distinctly different from what is seen in tendinopathy and in response to short-term tendon loading.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 07/2012; 113(5):827-36. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It remains unknown if inactivity changes the mechanical properties of the human patellar tendon in younger and older healthy persons. The purpose was to examine the effects of short-term unilateral immobilization on the structural and mechanical properties of the patellar tendon in older men and younger men, in vivo. Eight older men and eight younger men underwent 14days of unilateral immobilization. All individuals were assessed on both sides before and after the intervention. MRI was used to assess whole patellar tendon dimensions. The mechanical properties of the patellar tendon were assessed using simultaneous force and ultrasonographic measurements during isometric ramp contractions. In older men, tendon stiffness [Pre: mean 2949 (SD 799) vs. Post: mean 2366 (SD 774) Nmm(-1), P<0.01] and Young's Modulus [Pre: mean 1.2 (SD 0.3) vs. Post: mean 1.0 (SD 0.3) GPa, P<0.05] declined with immobilization on the immobilized side. On the control side, tendon stiffness [Pre: mean 3340 (SD 1209) vs. Post: mean 2230 (SD 503), P<0.01] and Young's Modulus [Pre: mean 1.5 (SD 0.4) vs. Post: mean 0.9 (SD 0.3) GPa, P<0.05] also decreased with immobilization. In younger men, tendon stiffness [Pre: 3622 (SD 1760) vs. Post: mean 2910 (SD 1528) Nmm(-1), P<0.01] and Young's Modulus [Pre: mean 1.7 (SD 1.1) vs. Post: mean 1.4 (SD 0.8) GPa, P<0.05] decreased only on the immobilized side. Short-term immobilization led to impaired mechanical properties of the patellar tendon on the immobilized side in both younger men and older men, which can influence the function of the muscle-tendon complex.
    Clinical biomechanics (Bristol, Avon) 07/2012; 27(9):949-54. · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to profile shoulder passive range of motion (ROM) and isometric strength for external (ER) and internal (IR) rotation as part of a preseason screening in adolescent national badminton players. Passive external range of motion (EROM) and internal range of motion (IROM) were examined on the dominant and nondominant shoulder in 31 adolescent national badminton players (12 females and 19 males) with a standard goniometer. Muscle strength was examined with a hand-held dynamometer in ER and IR. Total range of motion (TROM = EROM+IROM) was lower on the dominant side compared with the nondominant side in both groups (P < 0.001). Males were generally stronger than females in all strength measurements except for IR on the dominant side (P < 0.01). In females, IR dominant side strength was greater compared with IR on the nondominant side (P < 0.05). TROM was reduced on the dominant side compared with the nondominant side in young elite badminton players, irrespective of gender. No rotational strength differences existed between the dominant and nondominant side in male players, but in female players a higher IR strength on the dominant side was not balanced by a higher ER strength.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 05/2012; · 3.21 Impact Factor
  • P Hanson, P Aagaard, S P Magnusson
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate biomechanical properties of the Iliopsoas and Achilles tendons in young African American (AA) and Caucasian (CC) men, and attempt to clarify whether the difference in Achilles tendon ruptures between AA and CC can be explained by differences in material properties. Tissue from 12 young males (AA, n=6; CC, n=6) was obtained from routine forensic autopsies. Iliopsoas and Achilles tendon samples were obtained from cadavers that were age, height and weight matched. Tendon collagen fascicles were tested micromechanically in a Deben mechanical testing rig. Peak failure stress in Iliopsoas tendon fascicles was considerably higher (p<0.05) in AA (22.4±7.2MPa) than CC (6.8±2.1MPa) whereas peak strain did not differ (AA: 19.7±5.2%, CC: 18.3±3.5%). Likewise, Young's modulus was greater (p<0.05) in AA (165.3±67.3MPa) than CC (63.6±23.6MPa). In contrast, peak failure stress in Achilles tendon fascicles was similar (p>0.1) in AA (21.9±9.9MPa) and CC (28.1±9.8MPa), and peak strain did not differ (p>0.1) between AA (16.3±3.5%) and CC (13.8±4.4%). Young's modulus was slightly greater in CC (316.8±110MPa) than AA (222.8±84.6MPa), yet not significantly (p>0.1). These findings indicate that Iliopsoas tendon fascicles are stronger in young AA compared to CC males, which is suggested to reflect differences in muscle mass and force generating capacity. This could not be confirmed in Achilles tendon fascicles.
    Annals of anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger: official organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft 04/2012; 194(5):457-60. · 1.96 Impact Factor
  • A L Mackey, U R Mikkelsen, S P Magnusson, M Kjaer
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    ABSTRACT: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely consumed among athletes worldwide in relation to muscle injury and soreness. This review aims to provide an overview of studies investigating their effects on skeletal muscle, in particular the repair processes in injured muscle. Muscle injury occurs in diverse situations and the nature of muscle injuries varies significantly, complicating extrapolations between experimental models and "real life." Classical muscle strain injuries occur at the interphase between the muscle fibers and connective tissue, most often in the myotendinuous junction, whereas contusion or overload injury can damage both myofibers and intramuscular connective tissue. The role of NSAIDs in muscle repair is complicated by differences in injury models used, variables evaluated, and time point(s) selected for evaluations. While the temporal pattern of the influence of NSAIDs on muscle repair is difficult to settle on, it appears that a potential beneficial effect of NSAIDs in the early phase after injury is not maintained in the long term, or is even negated by a long-term repair deficit. At the cellular level, evidence exists for a negative influence of NSAIDs on the muscle stem cell population (satellite cells). At a structural level, it is known that muscle connective tissue undergoes significant remodeling during muscle regeneration, but the potential of NSAID exposure to alter this response in humans needs investigation.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 03/2012; 22(4):e8-14. · 3.21 Impact Factor
  • J Bojsen-Møller, S Schwartz, S P Magnusson
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    ABSTRACT: Different types of contractile fatiguing tasks ("force/position tasks") have shown that the rate of neuromuscular impairment is task dependent. Whether fatigue resistance is uniform across different types of limb joints is poorly understood because the force-position paradigm has mainly been applied to upper extremity joints under unstable conditions. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate task dependency in the more stable knee joint. Fourteen subjects performed two sustained isometric knee extensor contractions to failure. In the force task, 20% of maximal voluntary contraction force was maintained for as long as possible with visual feedback of the force, while in the position task, the load was similar, but subjects received visual joint angle feedback. No significant difference was observed in time to failure (force task: 423±61 s, position task: 379±48 s), increase in electromyographic amplitude or perceived exertion between tasks. The force-position paradigm has not been applied previously to the quadriceps, and the difference between the present and the previous results may partly be attributed to joint stability and the volume of co-contracting muscles, such that in addition to the previously noted mechanisms of muscle fatigue, the mechanical design of the relevant joint and muscle actuators may influence task dependency during sustained submaximal contractions.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 12/2011; 21(6):e48-55. · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Millions of older individuals consume acetaminophen or ibuprofen daily and these same individuals are encouraged to participate in resistance training. Several in vitro studies suggest that cyclooxygenase-inhibiting drugs can alter tendon metabolism and may influence adaptations to resistance training. Thirty-six individuals were randomly assigned to a placebo (67 ± 2 yr old), acetaminophen (64 ± 1 yr old; 4,000 mg/day), or ibuprofen (64 ± 1 yr old; 1,200 mg/day) group in a double-blind manner and completed 12 wk of knee extensor resistance training. Before and after training in vivo patellar tendon properties were assessed with MRI [cross-sectional area (CSA) and signal intensity] and ultrasonography of patellar tendon deformation coupled with force measurements to obtain stiffness, modulus, stress, and strain. Mean patellar tendon CSA was unchanged (P > 0.05) with training in the placebo group, and this response was not influenced with ibuprofen consumption. Mean tendon CSA increased with training in the acetaminophen group (3%, P < 0.05), primarily due to increases in the mid (7%, P < 0.05) and distal (8%, P < 0.05) tendon regions. Correspondingly, tendon signal intensity increased with training in the acetaminophen group at the mid (13%, P < 0.05) and distal (15%, P = 0.07) regions. When normalized to pretraining force levels, patellar tendon deformation and strain decreased 11% (P < 0.05) and stiffness, modulus, and stress were unchanged (P > 0.05) with training in the placebo group. These responses were generally uninfluenced by ibuprofen consumption. In the acetaminophen group, tendon deformation and strain increased 20% (P < 0.05) and stiffness (-17%, P < 0.05) and modulus (-20%, P < 0.05) decreased with training. These data suggest that 3 mo of knee extensor resistance training in older adults induces modest changes in the mechanical properties of the patellar tendon. Over-the-counter doses of acetaminophen, but not ibuprofen, have a strong influence on tendon mechanical and material property adaptations to resistance training. These findings add to a growing body of evidence that acetaminophen has profound effects on peripheral tissues in humans.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 05/2011; 111(2):508-15. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Equivocal findings exist on the effect of concurrent strength (S) and endurance (E) training on endurance performance and muscle morphology. Further, the influence of concurrent SE training on muscle fiber-type composition, vascularization and endurance capacity remains unknown in top-level endurance athletes. The present study examined the effect of 16 weeks of concurrent SE training on maximal muscle strength (MVC), contractile rate of force development (RFD), muscle fiber morphology and composition, capillarization, aerobic power (VO2max), cycling economy (CE) and long/short-term endurance capacity in young elite competitive cyclists (n=14). MVC and RFD increased 12-20% with SE (P<0.01) but not E. VO2max remained unchanged. CE improved in E to reach values seen in SE. Short-term (5-min) endurance performance increased (3-4%) after SE and E (P<0.05), whereas 45-min endurance capacity increased (8%) with SE only (P<0.05). Type IIA fiber proportions increased and type IIX proportions decreased after SE training (P<0.05) with no change in E. Muscle fiber area and capillarization remained unchanged. In conclusion, concurrent strength/endurance training in young elite competitive cyclists led to an improved 45-min time-trial endurance capacity that was accompanied by an increased proportion of type IIA muscle fibers and gains in MVC and RFD, while capillarization remained unaffected.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 03/2011; 21(6):e298-307. · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ultrasonography has been widely applied for in vivo measurements of tendon mechanical properties. Assessments of human Achilles tendon mechanical properties have received great interest. Achilles tendon injuries predominantly occur in the tendon region between the Achilles-soleus myotendinous junction and Achilles-calcaneus osteotendinous junction i.e. in the free Achilles tendon. However, there has been no adequate ultrasound based method for quantifying the mechanical properties of the free human Achilles tendon. This study aimed to: 1) examine the mechanical properties of the free human Achilles tendon in vivo by the use of ultrasonography and 2) assess the between-day reproducibility of these measurements. Ten male subjects had the Achilles tendon moment arm length, Achilles tendon cross sectional area and free Achilles tendon length determined. All subjects performed isometric plantarflexion ramp contractions to assess between-day reproducibility on two separate days. Simultaneous ultrasonography based measurements of Achilles-soleus myotendinous junction and Achilles-calcaneus osteotendinous junction displacement together with Achilles tendon force estimates yielded free Achilles tendon mechanical properties. Free Achilles tendon maximal force, deformation and stiffness were 1924 (SD 229) N, 2.2 (SD 0.6) mm and 2622 (SD 534) N/mm on day 1. For between-day reproducibility there were no significant differences between days for free Achilles tendon mechanical properties. The between-day correlation coefficient and typical error percent were 0.81 and 5.3% for maximal Achilles tendon force, 0.85 and 11.8% for maximal Achilles tendon deformation and 0.84 and 8.8% for Achilles tendon stiffness respectively. Last, osteotendinous junction proximal displacement on average contributed with 71 (SD 12) % of proximal myotendinous junction displacement. This study, for the first time, presents an ultrasonography based in vivo method for measurement of free AT mechanical properties. The method is applicable for evaluation of free human Achilles tendon mechanical properties in relation to training, injury and rehabilitation.
    Clinical biomechanics (Bristol, Avon) 03/2011; 26(7):772-7. · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The side-lying hip abduction exercise is one of the most commonly used exercises in rehabilitation to increase hip abduction strength, and is often performed without external loading. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of 6 weeks of side-lying hip abduction training, with and without external loading, on hip abduction strength in healthy subjects. Thirty-one healthy, physically active men and women were included in a randomised controlled trial and allocated to side-lying hip abduction training, with or without external loading. Training without external loading was performed using only the weight of the leg as resistance, whereas training with external loading was performed with a relative load corresponding to 10 repetition maximum. Hip abduction strength was measured pre- and post-intervention. Isometric and eccentric hip abduction strength of the trained leg increased after hip abduction training with external loading by 12% and 17%, respectively, (P<0.05). Likewise, isometric and eccentric hip abduction strength of the trained leg increased after hip abduction training without external loading by 11% and 23%, respectively, (P<0.001). The strength increases were not different between groups (P>0.05). Six weeks of side-lying hip abduction training, with or without external loading, increases isometric and eccentric hip abduction strength to the same extent.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 10/2010; 20 Suppl 2:70-7. · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aging is characterized by loss of spinal motor neurons (MNs) due to apoptosis, reduced insulin-like growth factor I signaling, elevated amounts of circulating cytokines, and increased cell oxidative stress. The age-related loss of spinal MNs is paralleled by a reduction in muscle fiber number and size (sarcopenia), resulting in impaired mechanical muscle performance that in turn leads to a reduced functional capacity during everyday tasks. Concurrently, maximum muscle strength, power, and rate of force development are decreased with aging, even in highly trained master athletes. The impairment in muscle mechanical function is accompanied and partly caused by an age-related loss in neuromuscular function that comprise changes in maximal MN firing frequency, agonist muscle activation, antagonist muscle coactivation, force steadiness, and spinal inhibitory circuitry. Strength training appears to elicit effective countermeasures in elderly individuals even at a very old age (>80 years) by evoking muscle hypertrophy along with substantial changes in neuromuscular function, respectively. Notably, the training-induced changes in muscle mass and nervous system function leads to an improved functional capacity during activities of daily living.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 02/2010; 20(1):49-64. · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Eccentric hip adduction and abduction strength plays an important role in the treatment and prevention of groin injuries in soccer players. Lower extremity strength deficits of less than 10% on the injured side, compared to the uninjured side, have been suggested as the clinical milestone before returning to sports following injury. To examine whether a side-to-side eccentric hip adduction or abduction strength symmetry can be assumed in non-injured soccer players and matched controls. Nine elite soccer players 19.4 (1.5) years and nine recreational athletes 19.5 (2.0) years matched for sex, height and weight were included. Eccentric hip adduction and abduction strength of the dominant and non-dominant leg was tested for all the participants using an eccentric break test with a handheld dynamometer. The dominant leg was 14% stronger than the non-dominant leg for hip adduction in the soccer players (p<0.05). No other side-to-side strength differences existed in soccer players or controls. In soccer players, hip abduction strength was 17-31% greater than controls for the dominant (p<0.05) and non-dominant leg (p<0.001). Eccentric hip adduction strength was greater in the dominant leg than in the non-dominant leg in soccer players, but not in matched controls. Eccentric hip abduction strength was greater in soccer players than matched controls, but soccer does not seem to induce a similar eccentric strength adaptation in the hip adductors.
    British journal of sports medicine 10/2009; 45(1):10-3. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The adaptive response of connective tissue to loading requires increased synthesis and turnover of matrix proteins, with special emphasis on collagen. Collagen formation and degradation in the tendon increases with both acute and chronic loading, and data suggest that a gender difference exists, in that females respond less than males with regard to an increase in collagen formation after exercise. It is suggested that estrogen may contribute toward a diminished collagen synthesis response in females. Conversely, the stimulation of collagen synthesis by other growth factors can be shown in both animal and human models where insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) and transforming growth factor-beta-1 (TGF-beta-1) expression increases to accompany or precede an increase in procollagen expression and collagen synthesis. In humans, it can be demonstrated that an increase in the interstitial concentration of TGF-beta, PGE2, IGF-I plus its binding proteins and interleukin-6 takes place after exercise. The increase in IGF-I expression in tendon includes the isoform that has so far been thought only to exist in skeletal muscle (mechano growth factor). The increase in IGF-I and procollagen expression showed a similar response whether the tendon was stimulated by concentric, isometric or eccentric muscle contraction, suggesting that strain rather that stress/torque determines the collagen-synthesis stimulating response seen with exercise. The adaptation time to chronic loading is longer in tendon tissue compared with contractile elements of skeletal muscle or the heart, and only with very prolonged loading are significant changes in gross dimensions of the tendon observed, suggesting that habitual loading is associated with a robust change in the size and mechanical properties of human tendons. An intimate interplay between mechanical signalling and biochemical changes in the matrix is needed in tendon, such that chemical changes can be converted into adaptations in the morphology, structure and material properties.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 09/2009; 19(4):500-10. · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A randomized-controlled single-blind trial was conducted to investigate the clinical, structural and functional effects of peritendinous corticosteroid injections (CORT), eccentric decline squat training (ECC) and heavy slow resistance training (HSR) in patellar tendinopathy. Thirty-nine male patients were randomized to CORT, ECC or HSR for 12 weeks. We assessed function and symptoms (VISA-p questionnaire), tendon pain during activity (VAS), treatment satisfaction, tendon swelling, tendon vascularization, tendon mechanical properties and collagen crosslink properties. Assessments were made at 0 weeks, 12 weeks and at follow-up (half-year). All groups improved in VISA-p and VAS from 0 to 12 weeks (P<0.05). VISA-p and VAS improvements were maintained at follow-up in ECC and HSR but deteriorated in CORT (P<0.05). In CORT and HSR, tendon swelling decreased (-13+/-9% and -12+/-13%, P<0.05) and so did vascularization (-52+/-49% and -45+/-23%, P<0.01) at 12 weeks. Tendon mechanical properties were similar in healthy and injured tendons and were unaffected by treatment. HSR yielded an elevated collagen network turnover. At the half-year follow-up, treatment satisfaction differed between groups, with HSR being most satisfied. Conclusively, CORT has good short-term but poor long-term clinical effects, in patellar tendinopathy. HSR has good short- and long-term clinical effects accompanied by pathology improvement and increased collagen turnover.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 09/2009; 19(6):790-802. · 3.21 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
315.79 Total Impact Points


  • 2007–2013
    • Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1998–2013
    • Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen University
      • Institute for Sports Medicine
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1996–2013
    • University of Copenhagen
      • • Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences
      • • Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2002–2012
    • IT University of Copenhagen
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2011
    • University of Southern Denmark
      • Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics
      Copenhagen, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2008
    • Rigshospitalet
      • Department of Rheumatology
      Copenhagen, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2006
    • University of Copenhagen Herlev Hospital
      Herlev, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1997
    • Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte
      Hellebæk, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1994
    • Gracie Square Hospital, New York, NY
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1993
    • Lenox Hill Hospital
      New York City, New York, United States