[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the United States, more than 40% of cancer patients develop brain metastasis. The median survival for untreated patients is 1 to 2 months, which may be extended to 6 months with conventional radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The growth and survival of metastasis depend on the interaction of tumor cells with host factors in the organ microenvironment. Brain metastases are surrounded and infiltrated by activated astrocytes and are highly resistant to chemotherapy. We report here that coculture of human breast cancer cells or lung cancer cells with murine astrocytes (but not murine fibroblasts) led to the up-regulation of survival genes, including GSTA5, BCL2L1, and TWIST1, in the tumor cells. The degree of up-regulation directly correlated with increased resistance to all tested chemotherapeutic agents. We further show that the up-regulation of the survival genes and consequent resistance are dependent on the direct contact between the astrocytes and tumor cells through gap junctions and are therefore transient. Knocking down these genes with specific small interfering RNA rendered the tumor cells sensitive to chemotherapeutic agents. These data clearly demonstrate that host cells in the microenvironment influence the biologic behavior of tumor cells and reinforce the contention that the organ microenvironment must be taken into consideration during the design of therapy.
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 03/2011; 13(3):286-98. · 5.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Potential treatments for ovarian cancers that have become resistant to standard chemotherapies include modulators of tumor cell survival, such as endothelin receptor (ETR) antagonist. We investigated the therapeutic efficacy of the dual ETR antagonist, macitentan, on human ovarian cancer cells, SKOV3ip1 and IGROV1, growing orthotopically in nude mice. Mice with established disease were treated with vehicle (control), paclitaxel (weekly, intraperitoneal injections), macitentan (daily oral administrations), or a combination of paclitaxel and macitentan. Treatment with paclitaxel decreased tumor weight and volume of ascites. Combination therapy with macitentan and paclitaxel reduced tumor incidence and further reduced tumor weight and volume of ascites when compared with paclitaxel alone. Macitentan alone occasionally reduced tumor weight but alone had no effect on tumor incidence or ascites. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that treatment with macitentan and macitentan plus paclitaxel inhibited the phosphorylation of ETRs and suppressed the survival pathways of tumor cells by decreasing the levels of pVEGFR2, pAkt, and pMAPK. The dose of macitentan necessary for inhibition of phosphorylation correlated with the dose required to increase antitumor efficacy of paclitaxel. Treatment with macitentan enhanced the cytotoxicity mediated by paclitaxel as measured by the degree of apoptosis in tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells. Collectively, these results show that administration of macitentan in combination with paclitaxel prevents the progression of ovarian cancer in the peritoneal cavity of nude mice in part by inhibiting survival pathways of both tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells.
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 02/2011; 13(2):167-79. · 5.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) enhance the growth and metastasis of human prostate cancer in the bone, we evaluated the effects of decreasing interleukin-6 (IL-6) production by tumor cells and TAMs in a mouse model of bone metastasis. Human PC-3MM2 cells that produce IL-6 were transfected with lentivirus containing IL-6 small hairpin RNA (shRNA) or nonspecific RNA and injected into the tibias of nude mice treated intraperitoneally every 5days for 5weeks with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), liposomes containing PBS, or liposomes containing clodronate (to decrease the number of macrophages). Transfection of PC-3MM2 cells with IL-6 shRNA significantly decreased cellular expression of IL-6 and the number of TAMs and osteoclasts in bone tumors, which correlated with significant decreases in tumor size, bone lysis, and incidence of lymph node metastasis. Treatment of mice with clodronate liposomes significantly decreased the number of TAMs and osteoclasts in the bone tumors, the expression of IL-6 in the PC3-MM2 cells, and the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α by TAMs. These findings correlated with a significant decrease in tumor size, bone lysis, and lymph node metastasis. Knocking down IL-6 in tumor cells and decreasing TAMs was associated with the lowest incidences of bone tumors and lymph node metastasis. These results suggest that TAMs enhance the growth of prostate cancer cells in the bone.
International immunopharmacology 01/2011; 11(7):862-72. · 2.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Experimental metastases in the brain of mice are infiltrated by microglia, and parabiosis experiments of green fluorescent protein (GFP(+)) and GFP(-) mice revealed that these microglia are derived from circulating monocytes (GFP(+), F4/80(+), and CD68(+)). These findings raised the question as to whether microglia (specialized macrophages) possess tumoricidal activity. C8-B4 murine microglia cells were incubated in vitro in medium (control) or in medium containing both lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ. Control microglia were not tumoricidal against a number of murine and human tumor cells, whereas lipopolysaccharide/interferon-γ-activated microglia lysed murine and human tumor cells by release of nitric oxide. Parallel experiments with murine peritoneal macrophages produced identical results. Neither activated microglia nor activated macrophages lysed nontumorigenic murine or human cells. Collectively, these data demonstrate that brain metastasis-associated microglia are derived from circulating mononuclear cells and exhibit selective and specific tumoricidal activity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify the roles of various circulating cells (eg, endothelial and/or stem and progenitor cells) in angiogenesis, we parabiosed a wild-type syngeneic mouse with a transgenic syngeneic green fluorescent protein mouse. Following the establishment of a common circulation between these parabionts, we investigated acute (7 to 10 days), subacute (2 to 3 weeks), and chronic (4 to 6 weeks) phases of angiogenesis in wild-type mice using wound healing, implanted gel foam fragments, and subcutaneous tumor assays, respectively. We found that under in vitro conditions, circulating murine monocytes expressed F4/80, CD31, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, but neither CD133 nor von Willebrand factor, whereas murine endothelial cells expressed CD31, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, and von Willebrand factor, but neither CD133 nor F4/80. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that green fluorescent protein-positive cells in the walls of new vessels in wounds, gel foam blocks, and tumors expressed both F4/80 and CD31, that is, macrophages. Pericytes, cells that express both CD31 and desmin, were found both in the walls of tumor-associated vessels and within tumors. Collectively, these data demonstrate that monocytes (ie, cells that express both CD31 and F4/80) may be recruited to the site of tissue injury and directly contribute to angiogenesis, reaffirming the close relationships between various cell types within the reticuloendothelial system and suggesting possible targets for anticancer treatments.
American Journal Of Pathology 05/2009; 174(5):1972-80. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGF-R) activation with AEE788 can decrease prostate cancer (CaP) growth/progression. We determined whether tumor cells or tumor-associated endothelial cells were the primary target by treating multidrug-resistant (MDR) CaP growing in the prostate of nude mice.
MDR human CaP cells with 30-fold increased taxane-resistance were implanted into nude mouse prostates. After 2 weeks, mice were randomized to control, paclitaxel, AEE788, and AEE788/paclitaxel for 10 weeks. Mice were necropsied and tumors stained.
AEE788 or AEE788 plus paclitaxel significantly reduced tumor incidence and tumor weight, and eradicated lymph node metastasis. Inhibiting VEGF-R and EGF-R phosphorylation induced apoptosis of tumor-associated endothelial cells causing a second apoptotic wave of surrounding tumor cells.
Inhibiting VEGF-R and EGF-R activation on tumor-associated endothelial cells with AEE788 combined with paclitaxel can bypass CaP cell resistance and prevent lymph node metastasis.
The Prostate 01/2007; 66(16):1788-98. · 3.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhibiting phosphorylation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) by treatment with the PDGFR kinase inhibitor imatinib and the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel reduces the incidence and size of human prostate cancer bone lesions in nude mice. Because tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells express activated PDGFR, the primary target for imatinib has been unclear.
We selected multidrug-resistant human PC-3MM2 prostate cancer cells (termed PC-3MM2-MDR cells) by culturing them in increasing concentrations of paclitaxel. PC-3MM2-MDR cells were implanted into one tibia of 80 nude mice. Two weeks later, the mice were randomly assigned to receive distilled water (control group), paclitaxel, imatinib, or imatinib plus paclitaxel for 10 weeks (20 mice per group). Tumor incidence and weight, bone structure preservation and osteolysis, and the incidence of lymph node metastasis were determined. The phosphorylation status of PDGFR on tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells and levels of apoptosis were examined with immunohistochemical analyses. Microvessel density was assessed as the number of cells expressing CD31/platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1). All statistical tests were two-sided.
PC-3MM2-MDR cells were resistant to paclitaxel and imatinib in vitro. Treatment of implanted mice with imatinib plus paclitaxel led to statistically significant decreases in bone tumor incidence (control = 19 mice with tumors of 19 mice total; imatinib plus paclitaxel = four of 18 mice; P < .001), median tumor weight (control = 1.3 g, interquartile range [IQR] = 1.0-1.9; imatinib plus paclitaxel = 0.1 g, IQR = 0-0.3; P < .001), bone lysis, and the incidence of lymph node metastasis (control = 19 of 19 mice total; imatinib plus paclitaxel = three of 18 mice; P < .001). Treatment with imatinib alone had similar effects, and imatinib treatment also inhibited phosphorylation of PDGFR on tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells and increased the level of apoptosis of endothelial cells, but not tumor cells. Treatment with imatinib and more so with imatinib and paclitaxel decreased mean vessel density (three CD31/PECAM-1-positive cells, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0 to 9; and control group = 38 CD31/PECAM-1-positive cells, 95% CI = 17 to 59) (P < .001), which was followed by apoptosis of tumor cells.
Tumor-associated endothelial cells, rather than tumor cells themselves, appear to be the target for imatinib in prostate cancer bone metastasis.