[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuroferritinopathy is a progressive potentially treatable adult-onset movement disorder caused by mutations in the ferritin light chain gene (FTL1). Features overlap with common extrapyramidal disorders: idiopathic torsion dystonia, idiopathic Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, but the phenotype and natural history have not been defined. We studied a genetically homogeneous group of 41 subjects with the 460InsA mutation in FTL1, documenting the presentation, clinical course, biochemistry and neuroimaging. The mean age of onset was 39.4 years (SD = 13.3, range 13-63), beginning with chorea in 50%, focal lower limb dystonia in 42.5% and parkinsonism in 7.5%. The majority reported a family history of a movement disorder often misdiagnosed as Huntington's disease. The disease progressed relentlessly, becoming generalized over a 5-10 year period, eventually leading to aphonia, dysphagia and severe motor disability with subcortical/frontal cognitive dysfunction as a late feature. A characteristic action-specific facial dystonia was common (65%), and in 63% there was asymmetry throughout the disease course. Serum ferritin levels were low in the majority of males and post-menopausal females, but within normal limits for pre-menopausal females. MR brain imaging was abnormal on all affected individuals and one presymptomatic carrier. In conclusion, isolated parkinsonism is unusual in neuroferritinopathy, and unlike Huntington's disease, cognitive changes are absent or subtle in the early stages. Depressed serum ferritin is common and provides a useful screening test in routine practice, and gradient echo brain MRI will identify all symptomatic cases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuroferritinopathy is a recently recognized, dominantly inherited movement disorder caused by a mutation of the ferritin light chain gene. We present video case reports of 4 individuals with neuroferritinopathy chosen to illustrate how this disorder can present and subsequently progress clinically. The clinical phenotype of this disorder is highly variable with symptoms beginning in the third to sixth decades. Chorea, dystonia, or an akinetic-rigid syndrome can predominate in different individuals. Neuroferritinopathy is not restricted to the UK and it has been described in apparently sporadic cases. The diagnosis should therefore be considered in patients with a wide variety of different movement disorders. Characteristic neuroimaging assists in identifying affected individuals.
Movement Disorders 02/2005; 20(1):95-9. · 5.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuroferritinopathy is a recently recognised genetic disease resulting in a dominantly inherited movement disorder. The condition was mapped by linkage analysis to chromosome 19q13.3 and found to be due to a single adenine insertion in the ferritin light chain (FTL) gene at position 460-461 which is predicted to alter the C terminus of the FTL polypeptide. Clinical features of neuroferritinopathy are highly variable, with chorea, dystonia, and Parkinsonian features predominating in different affected individuals. The most consistent feature is a dystonic dysarthria. Symptoms and abnormal physical signs appear to be restricted to the nervous system and onset is typically in the fourth to sixth decades. Low serum ferritin also characterises this condition. Brain MR imaging of affected patients demonstrates iron deposition in the basal ganglia, progressing over years to cystic degeneration, and brain histochemistry shows abnormal aggregates of ferritin and iron. Now that the molecular basis of the condition is known, therapeutic interventions to reduce or reverse brain iron deposition are being evaluated. This rare disease provides evidence of a central role for iron metabolism in neurodegenerative disorders.