L Kiorpes

CUNY Graduate Center, New York City, New York, United States

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Publications (59)209.34 Total impact

  • DA-Peng Li, Maureen A Hagan, Lynne Kiorpes
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    ABSTRACT: Lateral spatial interactions among elements of a scene, which either enhance or degrade visual performance, are ubiquitous in vision. The neural mechanisms underlying lateral spatial interactions are a matter of debate, and various hypotheses have been proposed. Suppressive effects may be due to local inhibitory interactions, whereas facilitatory effects are typically ascribed either to the function of long-range horizontal projections in V1 or to uncertainty reduction. We investigated the development of lateral spatial interactions, facilitation and suppression, and compared their developmental profiles to those of potential underlying mechanisms in the visual system of infant macaques. Animals ranging in age from 10 weeks to 3 years were tested with a lateral masking paradigm. We found that suppressive interactions are present from very early in postnatal life, showing no change over the age range tested. However, facilitation develops slowly over the first year after birth. Our data suggest that the early maturation of suppressive interactions is related to the relatively mature receptive field properties of neurons in early visual cortical areas near birth in infant macaques, whereas the later maturation of facilitation is unlikely to be explained by development of local or long-range connectivity in primary visual cortex. Instead our data favor a late developing feedback or top-down cognitive process to explain the origin of facilitation.
    Visual Neuroscience 10/2013; · 1.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To explore the relative development of the dorsal and ventral extrastriate processing streams, we studied the development of sensitivity to form and motion in macaque monkeys (Macaca nemestrina). We used Glass patterns and random dot kinematograms (RDK) to assay ventral and dorsal stream function, respectively. We tested 24 animals, longitudinally or cross-sectionally, between the ages of 5 weeks and 3 years. Each animal was tested with Glass patterns and RDK stimuli with each of two pattern types--circular and linear--at each age using a two alternative forced-choice task. We measured coherence threshold for discrimination of the global form or motion pattern from an incoherent control stimulus. Sensitivity to global motion appeared earlier than to global form and was higher at all ages, but performance approached adult levels at similar ages. Infants were most sensitive to large spatial scale (Δx) and fast speeds; sensitivity to fine scale and slow speeds developed more slowly independently of pattern type. Within the motion domain, pattern type had little effect on overall performance. However, within the form domain, sensitivity for linear Glass patterns was substantially poorer than that for concentric patterns. Our data show comparatively early onset for global motion integration ability, perhaps reflecting early development of the dorsal stream. However, both pathways mature over long time courses reaching adult levels between 2 and 3 years after birth.
    Vision research 05/2012; 63:34-42. · 2.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Early experience affects the development of the visual system. Ocular misalignment or unilateral blur often causes amblyopia, a disorder that has become a standard for understanding developmental plasticity. Neurophysiological studies of amblyopia have focused almost entirely on the first stage of cortical processing in striate cortex. Here we provide the first extensive study of how amblyopia affects extrastriate cortex in nonhuman primates. We studied macaque monkeys (Macaca nemestrina) for which we have detailed psychophysical data, directly comparing physiological findings to perceptual capabilities. Because these subjects showed deficits in motion discrimination, we focused on area MT/V5, which plays a central role in motion processing. Most neurons in normal MT respond equally to visual stimuli presented through either eye; most recorded in amblyopes strongly preferred stimulation of the nonamblyopic (fellow) eye. The pooled responses of neurons driven by the amblyopic eye showed reduced sensitivity to coherent motion and preferred higher speeds, in agreement with behavioral measurements. MT neurons were more limited in their capacity to integrate motion information over time than expected from behavioral performance; neurons driven by the amblyopic eye had even shorter integration times than those driven by the fellow eye. We conclude that some, but not all, of the motion sensitivity deficits associated with amblyopia can be explained by abnormal development of MT.
    Journal of Neuroscience 09/2010; 30(36):12198-209. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    Kimberly A Feltner, Lynne Kiorpes
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    ABSTRACT: The ability to extract form information from a visual scene, for object recognition or figure-ground segregation, is a fundamental visual system function. Many studies of nonhuman primates have addressed the neural mechanisms involved in global form processing, but few have sought to demonstrate this ability behaviorally. In this study, we probed global visual processing in macaque monkeys (Macaca nemestrina) using classical Kanizsa illusory shapes as an assay of global form perception. We trained three monkeys on a "similarity match-to-sample" form discrimination task, first with complete forms embedded in fields of noncontour-inducing "pacman" elements. We then tested them with classic Kanizsa illusory shapes embedded in fields of randomly oriented elements. Two of the three subjects reached our criterion performance level of 80% correct or better on four of five illusory test conditions, demonstrating clear evidence of Kanizsa illusory form perception; the third subject mastered three of five conditions. Performance limits for illusory form discrimination were obtained by manipulating support ratio and by measuring threshold for discriminating "fat" and "thin" illusory squares. Our results indicate that macaque monkeys are capable of global form processing similarly to humans and that the perceptual mechanisms for "filling-in" contour gaps exist in macaques as they do in humans.
    Visual Neuroscience 07/2010; 27(3-4):131-8. · 1.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In human and non-human primates, higher form vision matures substantially later than spatial acuity and contrast sensitivity, as revealed by performance on such tasks as figure-ground segregation and contour integration. Our goal was to understand whether delayed maturation on these tasks was intrinsically form-dependent or, rather, related to the nature of spatial integration necessary for extracting task-relevant cues. We used an intermediate-level form task that did not call for extensive spatial integration. We trained monkeys (6-201 weeks) to discriminate the orientation of pattern modulation in a two-alternative forced choice paradigm. We presented two families of form patterns, defined by texture or contrast variations, and luminance-defined patterns for comparison. Infant monkeys could discriminate texture- and contrast-defined form as early as 6 weeks; sensitivity improved up to 40 weeks. Surprisingly, sensitivity for texture- and contrast-defined form matured earlier than for luminance-defined form. These results suggest that intermediate-level form vision develops in concert with basic spatial vision rather than following sequentially. Comparison with earlier results reveals that different aspects of form vision develop over different time courses, with processes that depend on comparing local image content maturing earlier than those requiring "global" linking of multiple visual elements across a larger spatial extent.
    Journal of Vision 01/2010; 10(11):11. · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Amblyopic humans are known to have a range of spatial vision abnormalities. Prior studies have documented amblyopic deficits in global form perception but have typically used only one set of stimulus parameters. Our aim in this study was to examine the extent and nature of global form perception deficits in strabismic amblyopia using a range of spatial scales and pattern types. Glass patterns are random dot stimuli in which the local orientations of paired dots must be integrated over space to yield a global form percept. We measured coherence thresholds for discrimination of pattern structure in translational (linear) and concentric Glass patterns at three spatial scales in two control and six amblyopic observers. We found that sensitivity to Glass patterns depended on both spatial scale and pattern type in all observers. Participants with a history of abnormal early visual experience showed greater interocular threshold difference when the discrimination was based on translational patterns than when it was based on concentric patterns, and the degree of amblyopic loss was greatest at fine spatial scale. Our results show that the nature and extent of global form vision deficits vary substantially with stimulus parameters and are greatest at fine spatial scales.
    Journal of Vision 01/2010; 10(12):25. · 2.48 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Vision - J VISION. 01/2010; 7(9):392-392.
  • L. Kiorpes, J. A. Movshon
    Journal of Vision - J VISION. 01/2010; 3(9):204-204.
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    Cynthia Hall-Haro, Lynne Kiorpes
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the development of sensitivity to complex motion using plaid patterns. We hypothesized, based on neurophysiological data showing a dearth of pattern direction-selective (PDS) cells in area medial temporal (MT) of infant macaques, that sensitivity to pattern motion would develop later than other forms of global motion sensitivity. We tested 10 macaque monkeys (Macaca nemestrina) ranging in age from 7 weeks to 109-160 weeks (adult). The monkeys discriminated horizontal from vertical pattern motion; sensitivity for one-dimensional (1D) direction discrimination and detection were tested as control tasks. The results show that pattern motion discrimination ability develops relatively late, between 10 and 18 weeks, while performance on the 1D control tasks was excellent at the earliest test ages. Plaid discrimination performance depends on both the speed and spatial scale of the underlying patterns. However, development is not limited by contrast sensitivity. These results support the idea that pattern motion perception depends on a different mechanism than other forms of global motion perception and are consistent with the idea that the representation of PDS neurons in MT may limit the development of complex motion perception.
    Visual Neuroscience 11/2008; 25(5-6):675-84. · 1.48 Impact Factor
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    Kara A Stavros, Lynne Kiorpes
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    ABSTRACT: We measured the developmental time course for temporal contrast sensitivity in macaque monkeys. The animals, aged 5 weeks to 4 years, detected an unpatterned field of light sinusoidally modulated over time at frequencies ranging from 1 to 40 Hz. Young infants showed reduced sensitivity for all frequencies, and a reduced range of detectable frequencies. Sensitivity to high and low frequencies developed at different rates, but the shape of the temporal contrast sensitivity function did not change significantly with age. Temporal contrast sensitivity matures earlier than spatial contrast sensitivity. The development of high, but not low, frequency sensitivity may be limited by maturation of the magnocellular pathway.
    Vision Research 06/2008; 48(11):1335-44. · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One of the most interesting questions in cognitive development is how we acquire and mentally represent knowledge about objects. We investigated the development of object concepts in macaque monkeys. Monkeys viewed trajectory occlusion movies in which a ball followed a linear path that was occluded for some portion of the display while their point of gaze was recorded with a corneal-reflection eye tracker. We analyzed the pattern of eye movements as an indicator of object representation. A majority of eye movements of adult monkeys were anticipatory, implying a functional internal object representation that guided oculomotor behavior. The youngest monkeys lacked this strong internal representation of objects. Longitudinal testing showed that this ability develops over time providing compelling evidence that object concepts develop similarly in monkeys and humans. Therefore, the macaque monkey provides an animal model with which to examine neural mechanisms underlying the development of object representations.
    Developmental Psychobiology 05/2008; 50(3):278-87. · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the development of visual activation longitudinally in two infant monkeys aged 103-561 days using the BOLD fMRI technique under opiate anesthesia and compared the results with those obtained in three adult animals studied under identical conditions. Visual activation in primary visual cortex, V1, was strong and reliable in monkeys of the youngest and oldest ages, showing that functional imaging techniques give qualitatively similar results in infants and adults. Visual activation in extrastriate areas involved in processing motion (MT/V5) and form (V4) was not evident in the younger animals, but became more adult-like in the older animals. This delayed onset of measurable BOLD responses in extrastriate visual cortex may reflect delayed development of visual responses in these areas, although at this stage it is not possible to rule out either effects of anesthesia or of changes in cerebral vascular response mechanisms as the cause. The demonstration of visually evoked BOLD responses in young monkeys shows that the BOLD fMRI technique can usefully be employed to address functional questions of brain development.
    Magnetic Resonance Imaging 06/2006; 24(4):359-66. · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • Lynne Kiorpes
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    ABSTRACT: In the past five years, substantial progress has been made in our knowledge of the neural basis of amblyopia. Recent advances based on animal models are described, along with new psychophysical data showing perceptual deficits in amblyopic animals that are not explained by simple losses in contrast sensitivity. Studies of contour integration and integration of motion and form signals in the presence of noise show that 1) there are fundamental losses in temporal as well as spatial vision, 2) the losses extend to the fellow eye in many cases, 3) amblyopic animals are especially impaired in the presence of background noise, and 4) these losses must depend on a process downstream from area V1 in the extrastriate cortex.
    Strabismus 04/2006; 14(1):3-10.
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    Lynne Kiorpes, Chao Tang, J Anthony Movshon
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    ABSTRACT: Amblyopia is usually considered to be a deficit in spatial vision. But there is evidence that amblyopes may also suffer specific deficits in motion sensitivity as opposed to losses that can be explained by the known deficits in spatial vision. We measured sensitivity to visual motion in random dot displays for strabismic and anisometropic amblyopic monkeys. We used a wide range of spatial and temporal offsets and compared the performance of the fellow and amblyopic eye for each monkey. The amblyopes were severely impaired at detecting motion at fine spatial and long temporal offsets, corresponding to fine spatial scale and slow speeds. This impairment was also evident for the untreated fellow eyes of strabismic but not anisometropic amblyopes. Motion sensitivity functions for amblyopic eyes were shifted toward large spatial scales for amblyopic compared to fellow eyes, to a degree that was correlated with the shift in scale of the spatial contrast sensitivity function. Amblyopic losses in motion sensitivity, however, were not correlated with losses in spatial contrast sensitivity. This, combined with the specific impairment for detecting long temporal offsets, reveals a deficit in spatiotemporal integration in amblyopia which cannot be explained by the lower spatial resolution of amblyopic vision.
    Visual Neuroscience 01/2006; 23(2):247-56. · 1.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vision in infant primates is poor, but it is not known which structures in the eye or brain set the main limits to its development. We studied the visual response properties of 348 neurons recorded in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of macaque monkeys aged 1 week to adult. We measured spatial and temporal frequency tuning curves and contrast responses with drifting achromatic sinusoidal gratings. Even in animals as young as 1 week, the main visual response properties of neurons in the magnocellular (M) and parvocellular (P) divisions of the LGN were qualitatively normal, including the spatial organization of receptive fields and the characteristic response properties that differentiate M- and P-cells. At 1 and 4 weeks, spatial and temporal resolution were less than one-half of adult values, whereas contrast gain and peak response rates for optimal stimuli were about two-thirds of adult values. Adult levels were reached by 24 weeks. Analysis of correlations between S-potentials representing retinal inputs and LGN cells suggested that the LGN follows retinal input as faithfully in infants as in adults, implicating retinal development as the main driving force in LGN development. Comparisons with previously published psychophysical data and ideal observer models suggest that the relatively modest changes in LGN responses during maturation impose no significant limits on visual performance. In contrast to previous studies, we conclude that these limits are set by neural development in the visual cortex, not in or peripheral to the LGN.
    Journal of Neuroscience 04/2005; 25(10):2712-22. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    L Kiorpes, Ja Movshon
    01/2004;
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    Lynne Kiorpes, J Anthony Movshon
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    ABSTRACT: The development of spatial vision is relatively well documented in human and nonhuman primates. However, little is known about the development of sensitivity to motion. We measured the development of sensitivity to direction of motion, and the relationship between motion and contrast sensitivity in macaque monkeys as a function of age. Monkeys (Macaca nemestrina, aged between 10 days and 3 years) discriminated direction of motion in random-dot kinematograms. The youngest monkeys showed directionally selective orienting and the ability to integrate motion signals at large dot displacements and fast speeds. With age, coherence sensitivity improved for all spatial and temporal dot displacements tested. The temporal interval between the dots was far less important than the spatial offset in determining the animals' performance at all but the youngest ages. Motion sensitivity improved well beyond the end of the first postnatal year, when mid-spatial-frequency contrast sensitivity reached asymptote, and continued for at least 3 years. Sensitivity to contrast at high spatial frequencies also continued to develop beyond the end of the first year. We conclude that the development of motion sensitivity depends on mechanisms beyond the low-level filters presumed to limit acuity and contrast sensitivity, and most likely reflects the function of extrastriate visual areas.
    Visual Neuroscience 01/2004; 21(6):851-9. · 1.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To explore the factors limiting the development of visual sensitivity, we constructed an ideal observer model for the infant macaque visual system. We made measurements of retinal morphology in infant and adult macaque monkeys, and used the data in combination with published optical data to formulate the model. We compared the ideal observer's ability to detect low-contrast gratings presented either in isolation or in spatiotemporal noise with behavioral data obtained under matched conditions. The ideal observer showed some improvement in visual performance up to the age of 4 weeks, but little change thereafter. Behavioral data show extensive changes over the ages 5-50 wk, after the ideal observer's performance has become asymptotic. We conclude that the development of visual sensitivity in infant monkeys is not limited by changes in the front-end factors captured by the ideal observer model, at least after the age of 5 weeks. Using noise masking, we also estimated the variability of neural processing in comparison with the photon noise-limited ideal. We found that both additive and multiplicative components of this variability are elevated in infant monkeys, and improve (though not to ideal levels) during development. We believe that these changes all reflect maturation of visual processing in cortical circuits, and that no aspect of visual performance in the regime we studied is limited by the properties of the retina and photoreceptors, either in infant or in adult animals.
    Journal of Vision 02/2003; 3(10):630-41. · 2.48 Impact Factor
  • Petra Kozma, Lynne Kiorpes
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    ABSTRACT: Amblyopia is characterized by losses in a variety of aspects of spatial vision, such as acuity and contrast sensitivity. Our goal was to learn whether those basic spatial deficits lead to impaired global perceptual processing in strabismic and anisometropic amblyopia. This question is unresolved by the current human psychophysical literature. We studied contour integration and contrast sensitivity in amblyopic monkeys. We found deficient contour integration in anisometropic as well as strabismic amblyopic monkeys. Some animals showed poor contour integration in the fellow eye as well as in the amblyopic eye. Orientation jitter of the elements in the contour systematically decreased contour-detection ability for control and fellow eyes, but had less effect on amblyopic eyes. The deficits were not clearly related to basic losses in contrast sensitivity and acuity for either type of amblyopia. We conclude that abnormal contour integration in amblyopes reflects disruption of mechanisms that are different from those that determine acuity and contrast sensitivity, and are likely to be central to V1.
    Visual Neuroscience 01/2003; 20(5):577-88. · 1.48 Impact Factor
  • Lynne Kiorpes, Sarah A Bassin
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    ABSTRACT: Studies of visual development show that basic metrics of visual development such as spatial resolution develop over the first 6-9 months in monkeys and over the first 6 or so years in humans. However, more complex visual functions may develop over different, or more protracted, time courses. To address the question of whether global perceptual processing is linked to or otherwise dependent on the development of basic spatial vision, we studied the development of contour integration, a global perceptual task, in comparison to that of grating acuity in macaque monkeys. We find that contour integration develops substantially later than acuity. Contour integration begins to develop at 5-6 months, near the time that acuity development is complete and continues to mature well into the second postnatal year. We discuss this later development in terms poor central efficiency and consider the relevant anatomy and physiology of the developing visual system. We conclude that contour integration is not likely to be limited by the same mechanisms that are permissive to acuity development, and may instead reflect the emergence of function central to V1.
    Visual Neuroscience 01/2003; 20(5):567-75. · 1.48 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
209.34 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1988–2013
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York City, New York, United States
    • Emory University
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • 1989–2012
    • New York University
      • • Center for Neural Science (CNS)
      • • Department of Psychology
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2010
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • School of Optometry
      Berkeley, MO, United States
  • 2006
    • Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics
      • Department of Physiology of Cognitive Processes
      Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2003
    • Retina Foundation of the Southwest
      Dallas, Texas, United States
  • 1994–2001
    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
      Maryland, United States
  • 1998
    • McMaster University
      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  • 1997
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 1995
    • The University of Calgary
      Calgary, Alberta, Canada
  • 1984
    • University of Washington Seattle
      Seattle, Washington, United States