Lynne Kiorpes

CUNY Graduate Center, New York, New York, United States

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Publications (83)268.85 Total impact

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    Vision research 06/2015; 114. DOI:10.1016/j.visres.2015.06.002 · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    Kritika Nayar · John Franchak · Karen Adolph · Lynne Kiorpes ·

    Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 04/2015; 135. DOI:10.1016/j.jecp.2015.03.001 · 3.12 Impact Factor
  • Lynne Kiorpes ·
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    ABSTRACT: Despite many decades of research into the development of visual cortex, it remains unclear what neural processes set limitations on the development of visual function and define its vulnerability to abnormal visual experience. This selected review examines the development of visual function and its neural correlates, and highlights the fact that in most cases receptive field properties of infant neurons are substantially more mature than infant visual function. One exception is temporal resolution, which can be accounted for by resolution of neurons at the level of the LGN. In terms of spatial vision, properties of single neurons alone are not sufficient to account for visual development. Different visual functions develop over different time courses. Their onset may be limited by the existence of neural response properties that support a given perceptual ability, but the subsequent time course of maturation to adult levels remains unexplained. Several examples are offered suggesting that taking account of weak signaling by infant neurons, correlated firing, and pooled responses of populations of neurons brings us closer to an understanding of the relationship between neural and behavioral development. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Developmental Neurobiology 02/2015; 75(10). DOI:10.1002/dneu.22276 · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Amblyopia is a developmental disorder resulting in poor vision in one eye. The mechanism by which input to the affected eye is prevented from reaching the level of awareness remains poorly understood. We recorded simultaneously from large populations of neurons in the supragranular layers of areas V1 and V2 in 6 macaques that were made amblyopic by rearing with artificial strabismus or anisometropia, and 1 normally reared control. In agreement with previous reports, we found that cortical neuronal signals driven through the amblyopic eyes were reduced, and that cortical neurons were on average more strongly driven by the non-amblyopic than by the amblyopic eyes. We analyzed multiunit recordings using standard population decoding methods, and found that visual signals from the amblyopic eye, while weakened, were not degraded enough to explain the behavioral deficits. Thus additional losses must arise in downstream processing. We tested the idea that under monocular viewing conditions, only signals from neurons dominated by – rather than driven by – the open eye might be used. This reduces the proportion of neuronal signals available from the amblyopic eye, and amplifies the interocular difference observed at the level of single neurons. We conclude that amblyopia might arise in part from degradation in the neuronal signals from the amblyopic eye, and in part from a reduction in the number of signals processed by downstream areas.
    Vision Research 01/2015; 114. DOI:10.1016/j.visres.2015.01.012 · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    Kritika Nayar · John Franchak · Karen Adolph · Lynne Kiorpes ·
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    ABSTRACT: Global visual processing is important for segmenting scenes, extracting form from background, and recognizing objects. Local processing involves attention to the local elements, contrast, and boundaries of an image at the expense of extracting a global percept. Previous work is inconclusive regarding the relative development of local and global processing. Some studies suggest that global perception is already present by 8months of age, whereas others suggest that the ability arises during childhood and continues to develop during adolescence. We used a novel method to assess the development of global processing in 3- to 10-year-old children and an adult comparison group. We used Kanizsa illusory contours as an assay of global perception and measured responses on a touch-sensitive screen while monitoring eye position with a head-mounted eye tracker. Participants were tested using a similarity match-to-sample paradigm. Using converging measures, we found a clear developmental progression with age such that the youngest children performed near chance on the illusory contour discrimination, whereas 7- and 8-year-olds performed nearly perfectly, as did adults. There was clear evidence of a gradual shift from a local processing strategy to a global one; young children looked predominantly at and touched the "pacman" inducers of the illusory form, whereas older children and adults looked predominantly at and touched the middle of the form. These data show a prolonged developmental trajectory in appreciation of global form, with a transition from local to global visual processing between 4 and 7years of age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 12/2014; 131C:38-55. DOI:10.1016/j.jecp.2014.11.001 · 3.12 Impact Factor

  • Journal of Vision 08/2014; 14(10):688-688. DOI:10.1167/14.10.688 · 2.39 Impact Factor

  • Journal of Vision 08/2014; 14(10):689-689. DOI:10.1167/14.10.689 · 2.39 Impact Factor
  • A. Voyles · A. M. Norcia · L. Kiorpes ·

    Journal of Vision 08/2014; 14(10):229-229. DOI:10.1167/14.10.229 · 2.39 Impact Factor

  • Journal of Vision 08/2014; 14(10):687-687. DOI:10.1167/14.10.687 · 2.39 Impact Factor
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    A. Ghomashchi · Z. Zheng · N. Majaj · M. Trumpis · L. Kiorpes · J. Viventi ·
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    ABSTRACT: Many experiments in neuroscience require or would benefit tremendously from a wireless neural recording system. However, commercially available wireless systems are expensive, have moderate to high noise and are often not customizable. Academic wireless systems present impressive capabilities [1]-[4], but are not available for other labs to use. To overcome these limitations, we have developed an ultra-low noise 8 channel wireless electrophysiological data acquisition system using standard, commercially available components. The system is capable of recording many types of neurological signals, including EEG, ECoG, LFP and unit activity. With a diameter of just 25 mm and height of 9 mm, including a CR2032 Lithium coin cell battery, it is designed to fit into a small recording chamber while minimizing the overall implant height (Fig. 1 and 3). Using widely available parts we were able to keep the material cost of our system under $100 dollars. The complete design, including schematic, PCB layout, bill of materials and source code, will be released through an open source license, allowing other labs to modify the design to fit their needs. We have also developed a driver to acquire data using the BCI2000 software system. Feedback from the community will allow us to improve the design and create a more useful neuroscience research tool.
  • Lynne Kiorpes · Karen Dobkins · Janine D Mendola ·

    Visual Neuroscience 11/2013; 30(5-6):183-4. DOI:10.1017/S0952523813000503 · 2.21 Impact Factor

  • 60th Meeting of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; 10/2013
  • DA-Peng Li · Maureen A Hagan · Lynne Kiorpes ·
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    ABSTRACT: Lateral spatial interactions among elements of a scene, which either enhance or degrade visual performance, are ubiquitous in vision. The neural mechanisms underlying lateral spatial interactions are a matter of debate, and various hypotheses have been proposed. Suppressive effects may be due to local inhibitory interactions, whereas facilitatory effects are typically ascribed either to the function of long-range horizontal projections in V1 or to uncertainty reduction. We investigated the development of lateral spatial interactions, facilitation and suppression, and compared their developmental profiles to those of potential underlying mechanisms in the visual system of infant macaques. Animals ranging in age from 10 weeks to 3 years were tested with a lateral masking paradigm. We found that suppressive interactions are present from very early in postnatal life, showing no change over the age range tested. However, facilitation develops slowly over the first year after birth. Our data suggest that the early maturation of suppressive interactions is related to the relatively mature receptive field properties of neurons in early visual cortical areas near birth in infant macaques, whereas the later maturation of facilitation is unlikely to be explained by development of local or long-range connectivity in primary visual cortex. Instead our data favor a late developing feedback or top-down cognitive process to explain the origin of facilitation.
    Visual Neuroscience 10/2013; 30(5-6):1-8. DOI:10.1017/S0952523813000394 · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • L. Kiorpes · A. Pham · M. Carrasco ·

    Journal of Vision 07/2013; 13(9):469-469. DOI:10.1167/13.9.469 · 2.39 Impact Factor

  • Journal of Vision 07/2013; 13(9):838-838. DOI:10.1167/13.9.838 · 2.39 Impact Factor
  • A. C. Voyles · L. Kiorpes ·

    Journal of Vision 08/2012; 12(9):476-476. DOI:10.1167/12.9.476 · 2.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To explore the relative development of the dorsal and ventral extrastriate processing streams, we studied the development of sensitivity to form and motion in macaque monkeys (Macaca nemestrina). We used Glass patterns and random dot kinematograms (RDK) to assay ventral and dorsal stream function, respectively. We tested 24 animals, longitudinally or cross-sectionally, between the ages of 5 weeks and 3 years. Each animal was tested with Glass patterns and RDK stimuli with each of two pattern types--circular and linear--at each age using a two alternative forced-choice task. We measured coherence threshold for discrimination of the global form or motion pattern from an incoherent control stimulus. Sensitivity to global motion appeared earlier than to global form and was higher at all ages, but performance approached adult levels at similar ages. Infants were most sensitive to large spatial scale (Δx) and fast speeds; sensitivity to fine scale and slow speeds developed more slowly independently of pattern type. Within the motion domain, pattern type had little effect on overall performance. However, within the form domain, sensitivity for linear Glass patterns was substantially poorer than that for concentric patterns. Our data show comparatively early onset for global motion integration ability, perhaps reflecting early development of the dorsal stream. However, both pathways mature over long time courses reaching adult levels between 2 and 3 years after birth.
    Vision research 05/2012; 63:34-42. DOI:10.1016/j.visres.2012.04.018 · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Amblyopic humans are known to have a range of spatial vision abnormalities. Prior studies have documented amblyopic deficits in global form perception but have typically used only one set of stimulus parameters. Our aim in this study was to examine the extent and nature of global form perception deficits in strabismic amblyopia using a range of spatial scales and pattern types. Glass patterns are random dot stimuli in which the local orientations of paired dots must be integrated over space to yield a global form percept. We measured coherence thresholds for discrimination of pattern structure in translational (linear) and concentric Glass patterns at three spatial scales in two control and six amblyopic observers. We found that sensitivity to Glass patterns depended on both spatial scale and pattern type in all observers. Participants with a history of abnormal early visual experience showed greater interocular threshold difference when the discrimination was based on translational patterns than when it was based on concentric patterns, and the degree of amblyopic loss was greatest at fine spatial scale. Our results show that the nature and extent of global form vision deficits vary substantially with stimulus parameters and are greatest at fine spatial scales.
    Journal of Vision 10/2010; 10(12):25. DOI:10.1167/10.12.25 · 2.39 Impact Factor
  • L. Kiorpes · J. A. Movshon ·

    Journal of Vision 10/2010; 3(9):204-204. DOI:10.1167/3.9.204 · 2.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Early experience affects the development of the visual system. Ocular misalignment or unilateral blur often causes amblyopia, a disorder that has become a standard for understanding developmental plasticity. Neurophysiological studies of amblyopia have focused almost entirely on the first stage of cortical processing in striate cortex. Here we provide the first extensive study of how amblyopia affects extrastriate cortex in nonhuman primates. We studied macaque monkeys (Macaca nemestrina) for which we have detailed psychophysical data, directly comparing physiological findings to perceptual capabilities. Because these subjects showed deficits in motion discrimination, we focused on area MT/V5, which plays a central role in motion processing. Most neurons in normal MT respond equally to visual stimuli presented through either eye; most recorded in amblyopes strongly preferred stimulation of the nonamblyopic (fellow) eye. The pooled responses of neurons driven by the amblyopic eye showed reduced sensitivity to coherent motion and preferred higher speeds, in agreement with behavioral measurements. MT neurons were more limited in their capacity to integrate motion information over time than expected from behavioral performance; neurons driven by the amblyopic eye had even shorter integration times than those driven by the fellow eye. We conclude that some, but not all, of the motion sensitivity deficits associated with amblyopia can be explained by abnormal development of MT.
    The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 09/2010; 30(36):12198-209. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3055-10.2010 · 6.34 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
268.85 Total Impact Points


  • 1988-2015
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2010-2014
    • NYU Langone Medical Center
      New York, New York, United States
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • School of Optometry
      Berkeley, MO, United States
  • 1994-2001
    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
      Ashburn, Virginia, United States
  • 1998
    • McMaster University
      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  • 1980-1985
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • • Department of Ophthalmology
      • • Department of Psychology
      Seattle, Washington, United States