M G Nicholls

Canterbury District Health Board, Christchurch, Canterbury Region, New Zealand

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Publications (330)1855.02 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: A history of pre-eclampsia increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity by mechanisms yet unknown. The aim of the present study was to assess whether plasma norepinephrine (NE) levels are increased 5-6 years after pre-eclamptic pregnancy and to investigate associations with pathophysiological mechanisms of cardiovascular disease: insulin sensitivity, vascular function and arterial pressure. A total of 28 women with previous pre-eclampsia and 20 controls were examined. Blood pressure (BP) and plasma levels of NE and endothelin-1 (ET-1) were measured at rest and after standing for 5 min. Insulin sensitivity was assessed with minimal model analysis and vascular function was assessed using venous occlusion plethysmography and pulse wave analysis. Twenty-four-hour BP measurements were carried out. Women with previous pre-eclampsia had higher levels of NE at rest (P=0.02), which did not associate significantly with insulin sensitivity or overall vasodilatory capacity. The 24-h mean of systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BPs) and heart rate did not differ between the groups (P=0.30, P=0.10 and P=0.46, respectively), and there was no significant association with NE levels. ET-1 levels were similar between the groups, but a positive correlation with systolic (P=0.04) and diastolic (P=0.03) BPs in the upright position was shown in the patient group. Increased levels of plasma NE are sustained in women with previous pre-eclampsia and may contribute to the increased risk for cardiovascular disease in these women.Journal of Human Hypertension advance online publication, 19 September 2013; doi:10.1038/jhh.2013.84.
    Journal of human hypertension 09/2013; · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Association of maternal angiopoietin-like protein 6 (Angptl6) levels with subsequent development of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH). Methods: At 24 and 32 weeks of gestation in 47 relatively overweight (BMI ≥ 24 kg/m(2)), nulliparous pregnant women serum concentrations of Angptl6 were quantified prospectively. Insulin sensitivity and lipids were measured at 24 weeks. Results: Angptl6 levels at 24 weeks, but not at 32 weeks, were significantly higher in women with subsequent PIH. Metabolic factors at 24 weeks did not correlate with Angptl6 levels. Conclusion: This preliminary study suggests that in the second trimester, Angptl6 levels are higher in women with subsequent PIH.
    Hypertension in Pregnancy 08/2013; 32(3):203-13. · 0.93 Impact Factor
  • M G Nicholls, C M Frampton, T G Yandle
    Heart (British Cardiac Society) 02/2008; 94(1):6-7. · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study documents the determinants and plasma levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) among hypertensive and normotensive subjects in a multi-ethnic population in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). We obtained demographic, anthropometric and clinical data, together with fasting NT-proBNP and biochemical indices from 128 hypertensive patients and 138 normotensive subjects matched for age, gender and ethnicity. Plasma NT-proBNP levels were significantly (P<0.001), and several-fold higher among hypertensives (median 5.92, inter quartile range (IQR): 1.79-18.48 pmol/l) than normotensives (median 1.78, IQR: 0.59-4.32 pmol/l) in the total study population, and the same was true for the ethnic groups separately. Similarly, plasma levels of glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine, but not insulin, were significantly (P<0.05) higher among hypertensives than normotensives. For all subjects combined, log NT-proBNP correlated positively and significantly with age (P<0.01), log glucose (P<0.05), systolic blood pressure (SBP, P<0.001), log BUN (P<0.001) and log creatinine (P<0.001). Multivariate regression analysis showed that NT-proBNP levels were independently and positively correlated with SBP, age, gender, log BUN, Emirati and South East Asian ethnic groups and inversely associated with current exercise. In conclusion, we found circulating levels of NT-proBNP to be significantly increased in hypertensive versus normotensive subjects in the UAE and independently related to SBP, age, gender, indices of renal function and possibly exercise. Our results further suggest a possible modulating effect of ethnicity on NT-proBNP levels.
    Journal of Human Hypertension 08/2007; 21(8):647-53. · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients who sustain an acute spinal cord injury (SCI) experience rapid dramatic reductions in bone mineral density (BMD), especially marked in sublesional areas and sometimes leading to hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria, as well as increased fracture risk. In this prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, we evaluated the hypothesis that oral alendronate administration would preserve BMD when administered soon after acute SCI. Thirty-one patients with acute SCI were randomly allocated to receive oral alendronate 70 mg/wk or placebo, within 10 d of acute SCI, for 12 months. At entry and at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months, total body bone density, lumbar and hip BMD, ultrasound of the calcaneus, 24-h urinary calcium, and serum C-telopeptide (betaCTX) were measured. At study entry, patients in the two groups were well matched for age, gender, severity of neurological deficit, BMD, urinary calcium, and betaCTX. BMD indices declined steadily in the placebo group, and this effect was attenuated significantly by alendronate. After 12 months, there was a 5.3% difference (P<0.001) in total body BMD and a 17.6% difference (P<0.001) in the total hip BMD between the two groups. Alendronate compared with placebo induced significant (P<0.001) reductions in urinary calcium excretion and serum betaCTX. No treatment-related side effects were noted. We conclude that alendronate therapy, 70 mg/wk, initiated soon after acute SCI, prevents bone loss and is not associated with side effects.
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 05/2007; 92(4):1385-90. · 6.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of short-term statin treatment on impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and haemodynamic abnormalities typically occurring in chronic heart failure (CHF). In a double-blind, crossover study endothelium-dependent vasodilatation was measured in conduit and resistance vessels of 23 patients with non-ischaemic CHF after 6 weeks of placebo and 40 mg atorvastatin. The haemodynamic impact was assessed by cardioendocrine hormones, echocardiography and clinical indicators of CHF. Cholesterol concentrations were population average (low density lipoprotein 3.56 (SEM 0.16) mmol/l, triglycerides 1.70 (0.20) mmol/l and high density lipoprotein 1.17 (0.07) mmol/l). In resistance vessels, the area under the curve ratio during acetylcholine infusion increased from 9.2 (1.9) with placebo to 12.2 (2.1) with statin (p < 0.01). This improvement was reversed during co-infusion with the nitric oxide antagonist N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine. In conduit arteries, flow-mediated dilatation increased from 5.64 (SEM 0.88)% with placebo to 6.83 (0.97)% with statin (p < 0.05). Endothelium-independent vasodilatation did not change (p = 0.68 for conduit and p = 0.45 for resistance vessels). Endothelin 1 and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) decreased from 1.57 (0.08) and 51.3 (1.0) with placebo to 1.42 (0.09) pg/ml (p < 0.05) and 42.1 (7.5) pmol/l (p < 0.05), respectively, with statin. In patients with non-ischaemic CHF and population-average cholesterol concentrations, short-term statin treatment improves endothelial function in conduit and resistance vessels and lowers plasma endothelin 1 and ANP concentrations.
    Heart (British Cardiac Society) 12/2006; 92(11):1603-9. · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plasma levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and its N-terminal propeptide (NT-BNP) are elevated in renal impairment and provide a robust prognostic index. The effect of peritoneal dialysis on plasma NT-BNP, however, is unknown. Furthermore, no information exists regarding levels of the N-terminal propeptide for C-type natriuretic peptide (NT-CNP) in renal failure and the effects of peritoneal dialysis. Accordingly, we documented venous levels of these peptides, and adrenomedullin, across peritoneal dialysis. We measured venous BNP, NT-BNP, NT-CNP, adrenomedullin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine before, during and after completion of overnight peritoneal dialysis in 11 patients, and identical sampling was carried out in eight patients (controls) but between peritoneal dialysis treatments. Peptide levels were measured using well-validated, published methods. Baseline levels of NT-CNP (212, 150-303 pmol/l, median and 25th and 75th percentiles) were much higher than recorded previously in healthy volunteers or in heart failure, and correlated with plasma creatinine (rs=0.53, P<0.05). Peritoneal dialysis had no effect on plasma NT-CNP, nor on NT-BNP, BNP or adrenomedullin (all elevated above normal), whereas both BUN and creatinine levels, as expected, declined (P<0.001). We conclude that plasma levels of NT-CNP are grossly elevated in chronic renal failure and correlated with plasma creatinine, but are not altered by peritoneal dialysis. Likewise, BNP, NT-BNP and adrenomedullin are elevated but are not altered by peritoneal dialysis. This information is needed if levels of these hormones are to be used as prognostic indicators or as a guide to the management of patients with chronic renal failure.
    Kidney International 02/2006; 69(1):152-6. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The sympathetic nervous system and adrenomedullin (AM) both participate in the regulation of cardiac and circulatory function but their interaction remains uncertain. We have examined the effects of AM on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (CSNA) and hemodynamics and contrasted these effects with pressure-matched nitro-prusside (NP) administration in normal conscious sheep. Compared with vehicle control, arterial pressure fell similarly with AM (P=0.04) and NP (P<0.001). Heart rate rose in response to both AM (P<0.001) and NP (P=0.002) but the rise with AM was significantly greater than that induced by NP (P<0.001). Cardiac output increased in response to AM compared with both control and NP (both P<0.001). CSNA burst frequency (bursts/min) were increased in response to both AM (P<0.001) and NP (P=0.005) with the rise in burst frequency being greater with AM compared with NP (P<0.001). CSNA burst area/min was also raised by both AM (P=0.03) and NP (P=0.002) with a trend for burst area being greater with AM than NP (P=0.07). CSNA burst incidence (bursts/100 beats) showed no significant differences between any treatment day. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that AM is associated with a greater increase in CSNA and heart rate for a given change in arterial pressure than seen with the classic balanced vasodilator NP.
    Journal of Endocrinology 11/2005; 187(2):275-81. · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypertension has been the single most important risk factor for heart failure until the last few decades. Now, it is frequently claimed that atherosclerotic coronary artery disease dominates as the major underlying cause, and hypertension is of lesser importance. We here review evidence regarding the contribution of hypertension to heart failure in the recent decades. It is not possible, in our view, to be confident of the relative importance of hypertension and coronary artery disease since there are significant limitations in the available data. The often-questionable diagnostic criteria used in defining heart failure is one such limitation. The absence or inadequacy of blood pressure recordings over the years prior to a diagnosis of heart failure seriously hinders the reaching of firm conclusions in many reports. Extrapolations from aetiological observations in one racial group to those in other racial groups, and from highly selected study groups in tertiary referral centres to patients with heart failure in primary and secondary care, may not be justified. Finally, the situation of heart failure primarily due to impaired left ventricular diastolic function, where hypertension is a frequent precursor, is often ignored in discussions of aetiology. Our view is that hypertension remains and probably is the single most, important modifiable risk factor for cardiac failure in some races and countries, where the dominant cardiac abnormality is left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. The situation is less clear for patients with heart failure primarily due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction.
    Journal of Human Hypertension 05/2005; 19(4):267-75. · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The time course of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (CSNA) following acute myocardial infarction (MI) is unknown. We therefore undertook serial direct recordings of CSNA, arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) in 11 conscious sheep before and after MI, and compared them with 10 controls. Conscious CSNA recordings were taken daily from electrodes glued into the thoracic cardiac nerves. Infarction was induced under pethidine and diazepam analgesia by applying tension to a coronary suture. MI size was assessed by left ventricular planimetry (%) at postmortem, peak troponin T and brain natriuretic peptide levels (BNP). Baroreflex slopes were assessed daily using phenylephrine-nitroprusside ramps. The mean infarcted area was 14.4 +/- 2.9%, troponin T 1.88 +/- 0.39 microg l(-1) and BNP 8.4 +/- 1.3 pmol l(-1). There were no differences in haemodynamic parameters or CSNA between groups at baseline. MAP and HR remained constant following MI. CSNA burst frequency increased from baseline levels of 55.8 +/- 7.1 bursts min(-1) to levels of 77.5 +/- 8.7 bursts min(-1) at 2 h post-MI, and remained elevated for 2 days (P < 0.001). CSNA burst area also increased and was sustained for 7 days following MI (P= 0.016). Baroreflex slopes for pulse interval and CSNA did not change. CSNA increases within 1 h of the onset of MI and is sustained for at least 7 days. The duration of this response may be longer because the recording fields decrease with time. This result is consistent with a sustained cardiac excitatory sympathetic reflex.
    The Journal of Physiology 05/2005; 565(Pt 1):325-33. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adrenomedullin (AM) may play a role in the pathophysiology of heart failure. Plasma levels of AM are raised in cardiovascular disease in proportion to severity of cardiac dysfunction, and plasma AM levels measured in acute myocardial infarction and heart failure are a useful prognostic indicator of outcome. AM administration in both experimental and human heart failure induces a beneficial spectrum of biological action including reduced arterial and atrial pressures, improved cardiac output, inhibition of plasma aldosterone and preservation or augmentation of urinary sodium excretion. Combining AM administration with either angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition or neutral endopeptidase inhibition results in augmentation of the hemodynamic and renal effects of the individual treatments. Manipulating the AM system may prove beneficial as an adjunctive therapeutic strategy in cardiac disease.
    Future Cardiology 03/2005; 1(2):235-43.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the normality or otherwise of neurohormone indices, particularly the sympathetic nervous system, in pre-eclamptic patients and document whether changes in body posture magnify any differences between pre-eclamptic and normal women. We studied 11 women with pre-eclampsia and compared them with 17 matched normotensive pregnant women and eight nonpregnant women. Measurements of arterial pressure, heart rate and neurohormones were carried out with subjects in the left lateral position, then supine, left lateral, with upright posture and finally with assumption of the left lateral position again. Main outcome measures were arterial pressure, heart rate and hormones (plasma norepinephrine, renin activity, natriuretic peptides and endothelin-1). We observed that plasma norepinephrine levels were higher in pre-eclamptic than normotensive pregnant women and this was most obvious in the upright position. Plasma renin activity was likewise higher in pre-eclamptic than normotensive pregnant women, again most obvious with upright posture. Plasma natriuretic peptides and endothelin-1 levels were similar in pre-eclamptics and normotensive pregnant women. These data strengthen the premise that pre-eclampsia is associated with sympathetic overactivity as reflected by plasma norepinephrine levels, most obviously observed in the upright position.
    Journal of Human Hypertension 12/2004; 18(11):789-94. · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    M G Nicholls
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    ABSTRACT: Adrenomedullin, a 52-amino acid residue peptide, has numerous biological actions which are of potential importance to cardiovascular homeostasis, growth and development of cardiovascular tissues and bone, prevention of infection, and regulation of body fluid and electrolyte balance. Studies in man using intravenous infusion of the peptide have demonstrated that, at plasma levels detected after myocardial infarction or in heart failure, adrenomedullin reduces arterial pressure, increases heart rate and cardiac output, and activates the sympathetic and renin-angiotensin systems but suppresses aldosterone. The thresholds for these responses differ, being lower under some experimental circumstances for arterial pressure than for the other biological effects. Adrenomedullin administration inhibits the pressor and aldosterone-stimulating action of angiotensin II in man. By contrast, the pressor effect of norepinephrine is little altered by concomitant adrenomedullin administration. Although in the absence of a safe, specific antagonist of the actions of endogenous adrenomedullin it is difficult to be certain about the physiological and pathophysiological importance of this peptide in man, current evidence suggests that it serves to protect against cardiovascular overload and injury. Hope has been expressed that adrenomedullin or an agonist specific for adrenomedullin receptors might find a place in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders.
    Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 09/2004; 37(8):1247-53. · 1.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: By monitoring efferent cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (CSNA) directly in a conscious animal we observed, for the first time, that ventricular fibrillation (VF) following myocardial infarction (MI) was preceded by a paroxysm of CSNA which was not baroreflexmodulated. This observation has potential therapeutic implications.
    Clinical Autonomic Research 11/2003; 13(5):339-41. · 1.48 Impact Factor
  • Journal of the American College of Cardiology 01/2003; 41(5). · 14.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Regulation of cardiovascular system activity involves complex interactions amongst numerous factors. Three of these vasoactive factors are adrenomedullin, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and endothelin-1 (ET-1), each of which is claimed to have important local effects. To investigate paracrine/autocrine regulation of the secretion of these peptides we used a cell immunoblot method. We postulated that basal release of adrenomedullin and CNP by endothelial cells is modulated by ET-1. Dispersed human aortic endothelial cells were attached to a protein binding membrane and incubated for 1 or 4 h with control medium or with ET-1, endothelin receptor antagonists or antibody to ET-1, and then submitted to immunohistochemical staining. Peptides (adrenomedullin, CNP and ET-1) within individual cells were stained, as was peptide secreted and adjacent to the cell. It was demonstrated that adrenomedullin, CNP and ET-1 can be contained within the same cell. In addition, we observed that individual endothelial cells can secrete all three peptides. The endothelin ET-A/ET-B receptor antagonist, bosentan, the ET-B receptor antagonist, BQ-788, and anti-ET-1 serum decreased the percentage of endothelial cells that secreted adrenomedullin and CNP relative to control. Conversely, the addition of ET-1 induced an increase in the number of endothelial cells that secreted adrenomedullin and CNP. These results provide strong evidence that endogenous ET-1, from human vascular endothelial cells, acts in a paracrine/autocrine manner to modulate the basal release of adrenomedullin and CNP. Our observations of this modulation suggest that vascular endothelial cells of humans constitute an important component of a self-responsive vasoregulatory system.
    Journal of Endocrinology 11/2002; 175(1):225-32. · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The physiological role of adrenomedullin (ADM) in volume and pressure homeostasis remains unclear. Accordingly, we assessed possible modulatory actions of ADM infusions on the neurohumoral response to acute volume loading with dextran in normal conscious sheep. Dextran (15 ml/kg), given with concurrent ADM (5.5 pmol/kg per min--raising plasma ADM from below detection to approximately 10 pmol/l) or vehicle control infusions, induced matched significant (P<0.001 by ANOVA) falls in hematocrit (27-30%) during both ADM and control and similar increases in right atrial pressure (approximately 10 mmHg). Compared with control, both systemic (P=0.033) and pulmonary (P=0.005) arterial pressure and peripheral resistance (P=0.004) were reduced during ADM but were raised post-infusion. The dextran-induced increase in cardiac output was augmented by ADM (P=0.048). Dextran-induced increases in plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP; P=0.008), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP; P=NS) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP; P=0.003) were augmented post-ADM infusions. The dextran-induced fall in plasma renin activity (PRA) was attenuated by ADM (P=0.039) whereas plasma aldosterone levels were unaltered. ADM augmented the increase in urinary volume during the second 2-h clearance period post-dextran. Our data indicate that ADM modifies the hemodynamic and hormonal response to an acute volume challenge, enhances natriuretic peptide secretion and reduces systemic vascular resistance. These results provide further evidence that ADM plays a physiological role in volume and pressure homeostasis.
    Journal of Endocrinology 04/2002; 173(1):123-9. · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of adrenomedullin (ADM) in volume and pressure homeostasis remains undefined. Accordingly, we compared the biological responses to infusions of ADM and nitroprusside (NP; matched for reduction of arterial pressure) and assessed their effects on responses to ANG II and norepinephrine in eight conscious sheep. During matched falls in arterial pressure (8-10 mmHg, both P < 0.001) ADM and NP induced similar increases in heart rate. ADM increased cardiac output (P < 0.001), and the fall in calculated peripheral resistance was greater with ADM than NP (P = 0.013). ADM infusions raised plasma ADM levels (P < 0.001), plasma renin activity (P = 0.001), and ANG II (P < 0.001) but tended to blunt any concurrent rise in aldosterone compared with NP (P = 0.056). ADM maintained both urine flow (P < 0.001) and sodium excretion (P = 0.01) compared with falls observed with NP. ADM attenuated the vasopressor actions of exogenous ANG II (P = 0.006) but not norepinephrine. In addition, ADM antagonized the ANG II-induced rise in plasma aldosterone (P < 0.001). In conclusion, ADM induces a different spectrum of hemodynamic, renal, and endocrine actions to NP. These results clarify mechanisms by which ADM might contribute to volume and pressure homeostasis.
    AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 01/2002; 281(6):R1887-94. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although the biological effects of adrenomedullin (AM) and PAMP have been reported extensively in animal studies and from in-vitro experiments, relatively little information is available on responses to the hormone administered to man. This review summarizes data from the few studies carried out in man. In healthy volunteers, i.v. infusion of AM reduces arterial pressure, probably at a lower rate of administration than is required to elicit other responses. AM stimulates heart rate, cardiac output, plasma levels of cAMP, prolactin, norepinephrine and renin whilst inhibiting any concomitant response in plasma aldosterone. Little or no increase in urine volume or sodium excretion has been observed. Patients with essential hypertension differ only in showing a greater fall in arterial pressure and in the development of facial flushing and headache. In patients with heart failure or chronic renal failure, i.v. AM has similar effects to those seen in normal subjects but also induces a diuresis and natriuresis, depending on the dose administered. Infusion of AM into the brachial artery results in a dose-related increase in forearm and skin blood flow, more prominent and more dependent on endogenous nitric oxide in healthy volunteers than in patients with cardiac failure. When infused into a dorsal hand vein, AM partially reversed the venoconstrictor action of norepinephrine. Although much more information is required to clarify the role of AM under physiological and pathophysiological circumstances, it is clear that it has prominent hemodynamic and neurohormonal effects, though generally lesser urinary effects when administered short-term in doses sufficient to raise its levels in plasma to those seen in a number of clinical disorders. The only study of PAMP in man showed that its skeletal muscle vasodilator potency, when infused into the brachial artery of healthy volunteers, was less than one hundredth that of AM, and it was without effect on skin blood flow.
    Peptides 12/2001; 22(11):1745-52. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adrenomedullin (ADM) is a novel peptide with actions which include reduction of arterial pressure and interaction with a number of hormone systems. In order to assess possible interactions with the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, we have examined neurohumoral responses to hypotensive haemorrhage (15 ml/kg over 15 min) with or without co-infusions of ADM (5.5 pmol/kg per min) in six non-pregnant and eight pregnant conscious sheep. Haemorrhage induced a greater decrease in arterial pressure, but a blunted increase in heart rate in pregnant sheep. There was no significant effect of ADM on haemodynamic responses to haemorrhage in either group. In non-pregnant sheep, haemorrhage-induced activation of both RAS and HPA was significantly augmented by ADM, as indicated by greater increases in plasma renin activity (P<0.01), angiotensin II (P<0.05) and arginine vasopressin (P<0.01). In contrast, ADM did not augment these responses to haemorrhage in pregnant sheep. Rather, plasma concentrations of aldosterone (P=0.039) and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (P=0.012) were decreased by ADM. In conclusion, ADM-induced augmentation of the RAS and HPA responses to hypotensive haemorrhage is abolished in the pregnant state.
    Journal of Endocrinology 11/2001; 171(2):363-71. · 4.06 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

7k Citations
1,855.02 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1994–2007
    • Canterbury District Health Board
      • • Lipid and Diabetes Research Group
      • • Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
      • • Department of Nephrology
      Christchurch, Canterbury Region, New Zealand
  • 2004–2006
    • United Arab Emirates University
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Al Ain, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
  • 1999–2004
    • Helsinki University Central Hospital
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
      Helsinki, Province of Southern Finland, Finland
  • 1992–2001
    • University of Otago
      • Department of Medicine (Dunedin)
      Dunedin, Otago, New Zealand
  • 1989–2000
    • The Chinese University of Hong Kong
      • • Prince of Wales Hospital
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      • • Department of Medicine and Therapeutics
      • • Department of Chemical Pathology
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    • Auckland City Hospital
      Окленд, Auckland, New Zealand
  • 1998–1999
    • The University of Hong Kong
      • Department of Medicine
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 1997
    • University of Auckland
      • Department of Medicine
      Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
  • 1990–1996
    • Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong
      Chiu-lung, Kowloon City, Hong Kong
  • 1981–1994
    • The Princess Margaret Hospital
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • Concordia University–Ann Arbor
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
    • University of Szeged
      Algyő, Csongrád, Hungary
  • 1980–1983
    • University of Michigan
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 1979
    • Medical Research Council (UK)
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom