[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cold-sensitive single-residue mutation of glycine 680 in the reactive thiol region of Dictyostelium discoideum myosin-2 or the corresponding conserved glycine in other myosin isoforms has been reported to interfere with motor function. Here we present the x-ray structures of myosin motor domain mutants G680A in the absence and presence of nucleotide as well as the apo structure of mutant G680V. Our results show that the Gly-680 mutations lead to uncoupling of the reactive thiol region from the surrounding structural elements. Structural and functional data indicate that the mutations induce the preferential population of a state that resembles the ADP-bound state. Moreover, the Gly-680 mutants display greatly reduced dynamic properties, which appear to be related to the recovery of myosin motor function at elevated temperatures.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2011; 286(40):35051-60. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myosin-1B is one of three long tailed class-1 myosins containing an ATP-insensitive actin-binding site in the tail region that are produced in Dictyostelium discoideum. Myosin-1B localizes to actin-rich structures at the leading edge of migrating cells where it has been implicated in the formation and retraction of membrane projections, the recycling of plasma membrane components, and intracellular particle transport. Here, we have used a combination of molecular engineering approaches to describe the kinetic and motile properties of the myosin-1B motor and its regulation by TEDS site phosphorylation. Our results show that myosin-1B is a low duty ratio motor and displays the fastest nucleotide binding kinetics of any of the Dictyostelium class-1 myosins studied so far. Different from Dictyostelium myosin-1D and myosin-1E, dephosphorylated myosin-1B is not inactivated but moves actin filaments efficiently, albeit at an up to 8-fold slower velocity in the in vitro motility assay. A further difference is that myosin-1B lacks the ability to switch between rapid movement and bearing tension upon physiological changes of free Mg2+ ions. In this respect, its motor properties appear to be more closely related to Dictyostelium myosin-2 and rabbit skeletal muscle myosin.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2008; 283(8):4520-7. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: All class 2 myosins contain an N-terminal extension of approximately 80 residues that includes an Src homology 3 (SH3)-like subdomain. To explore the functional importance of this region, which is also present in most other myosin classes, we generated truncated constructs of Dictyostelium discoideum myosin-2. Truncation at position 80 resulted in the complete loss of myosin-2 function in vivo. Actin affinity was more than 80-fold, and the rate of ADP release approximately 40-fold decreased in this mutant. In contrast, a myosin construct that lacks only the SH3-like subdomain, corresponding to residues 33-79, displayed much smaller functional defects. In complementation experiments with myosin-2 null cells, this construct rescued myosin-2-dependent processes such as cytokinesis, fruiting body formation, and sporogenesis. An 8-fold reduction in motile activity and changes of similar extent in the affinity for ADP and filamentous actin indicate the importance of the SH3-like subdomain for correct communication between the functional regions within the myosin motor domain and suggest that local perturbations in this region can play a role in modulating myosin-2 motor activity.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2006; 281(47):36102-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Class I myosins are single-headed motor proteins, implicated in various motile processes including organelle translocation, ion-channel gating, and cytoskeleton reorganization. Here we describe the cellular localization of myosin-IE and its role in the phagocytic uptake of solid particles and cells. A complete analysis of the kinetic and motor properties of Dictyostelium discoideum myosin-IE was achieved by the use of motor domain constructs with artificial lever arms. Class I myosins belonging to subclass IC like myosin-IE are thought to be tuned for tension maintenance or stress sensing. In contrast to this prediction, our results show myosin-IE to be a fast motor. Myosin-IE motor activity is regulated by myosin heavy chain phosphorylation, which increases the coupling efficiency between the actin and nucleotide binding sites tenfold and the motile activity more than fivefold. Changes in the level of free Mg(2+) ions, which are within the physiological range, are shown to modulate the motor activity of myosin-IE by inhibiting the release of adenosine diphosphate.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The myosin cross-bridge has two essential properties: to undergo the "power stroke" and to bind and release from actin - both under control of ATP binding and hydrolysis. In the absence of ATP the cross-bridge binds to actin with high affinity: the binding of ATP causes rapid release of the cross-bridge from actin. The actin binding-site is split by a deep cleft that closes on strong binding to actin. The cleft is straddled by a short polypeptide known as the "strut". In the following we summarise the structural basis of the power stroke and the control of actin affinity and then present data on the effects on actin affinity of replacing the strut by a flexible linker.
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility 02/2006; 27(2):115-23. · 1.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Class I myosins are single-headed motor proteins implicated in various motile processes including organelle translocation, ion channel gating, and cytoskeleton reorganization. Dictyostelium discoideum myosin-ID belongs to subclass 1alpha, whose members are thought to be tuned for rapid sliding. The direct analysis of myosin-ID motor activity is made possible by the production of single polypeptide constructs carrying an artificial lever arm. Using these constructs, we show that the motor activity of myosin-ID is activated 80-fold by phosphorylation at the TEDS site. TEDS site phosphorylation acts by stabilizing the actomyosin complex and increasing the coupling between actin binding and the release of hydrolysis products. A surprising effect of Mg(2+) ions on in vitro motility was discovered. Changes in the level of free Mg(2+) ions within the physiological range are shown to modulate motor activity by inhibiting ADP release. Our results indicate that higher concentrations of free Mg(2+) ions stabilize the tension-bearing actin myosin ADP state and shift the system from the production of rapid movement toward the generation of tension.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2005; 280(7):6064-71. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: All members of the diverse myosin superfamily have a highly conserved globular motor domain that contains the actin- and nucleotide-binding sites and produces force and movement. The light-chain-binding domain connects the motor domain to a variety of functionally specialized tail domains and amplifies small structural changes in the motor domain through rotation of a lever arm. Myosins move on polarized actin filaments either forwards to the barbed (+) or backwards to the pointed (-) end. Here, we describe the engineering of an artificial backwards-moving myosin from three pre-existing molecular building blocks. These blocks are: a forward-moving class I myosin motor domain, a directional inverter formed by a four-helix bundle segment of human guanylate-binding protein-1 and an artificial lever arm formed by two alpha-actinin repeats. Our results prove that reverse-direction movement of myosins can be achieved simply by rotating the direction of the lever arm 180 degrees.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dominant-negative inhibition is a powerful genetic tool for the characterization of gene function in vivo, based on the specific impairment of a gene product by the coexpression of a mutant version of the same gene product. We describe the detailed characterization of two myosin constructs containing either point mutations F487A or F506G in the relay region. Dictyostelium cells transformed with F487A or F506G myosin are unable to undergo processes that require myosin II function, including fruiting-body formation, normal cytokinesis and growth in suspension. Our results show that the dominant-negative inhibition of myosin function is caused by disruption of the communication between active site and lever arm, which blocks motor activity completely, and perturbation of the communication between active site and actin-binding site, leading to an approximately 100-fold increase in the mutants' affinity for actin in the presence of ATP.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Successful host cell invasion is a prerequisite for survival of the obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasites and establishment of infection. Toxoplasma gondii penetrates host cells by an active process involving its own actomyosin system and which is distinct from induced phagocytosis. Toxoplasma gondii myosin A (TgMyoA) is presumed to achieve power gliding motion and host cell penetration by the capping of apically released adhesins towards the rear of the parasite. We report here an extensive biochemical characterization of the functional TgMyoA motor complex. TgMyoA is anchored at the plasma membrane and binds a novel type of myosin light chain (TgMLC1). Despite some unusual features, the kinetic and mechanical properties of TgMyoA are unexpectedly similar to those of fast skeletal muscle myosins. Microneedle-laser trap and sliding velocity assays established that TgMyoA moves in unitary steps of 5.3 nm with a velocity of 5.2 microm/s towards the plus end of actin filaments. TgMyoA is the first fast, single-headed myosin and fulfils all the requirements for power parasite gliding.
The EMBO Journal 06/2002; 21(9):2149-58. · 9.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The PEVK domain of the giant muscle protein titin is a proline-rich sequence with unknown secondary/tertiary structure. Here we compared the force-extension behavior of cloned cardiac PEVK titin measured by single-molecule atomic force spectroscopy with the extensibility of the PEVK domain measured in intact cardiac muscle sarcomeres. The analysis revealed that cardiac PEVK titin acts as an entropic spring with the properties of a random coil exhibiting mechanical conformations of different flexibility. Since in situ, titin is in close proximity to the thin filaments, we also studied whether the PEVK domain of cardiac or skeletal titin may interact with actin filaments. Interaction was indeed found in the in vitro motility assay, in which recombinant PEVK titin constructs slowed down the sliding velocity of actin filaments over myosin. Skeletal PEVK titin affected the actin sliding to a lesser degree than cardiac PEVK titin. The cardiac PEVK effect was partially suppressed by physiological Ca(2+) concentrations, whereas the skeletal PEVK effect was independent of [Ca(2+)]. Cosedimentation assays confirmed the Ca(2+)-modulated actin-binding propensity of cardiac PEVK titin, but did not detect interaction between actin and skeletal PEVK titin. In myofibrils, the relatively weak actin-PEVK interaction gives rise to a viscous force component opposing filament sliding. Thus, the PEVK domain contributes not only to the extensibility of the sarcomere, but also affects contractile properties.
Journal of Structural Biology 01/2002; 137(1-2):194-205. · 3.36 Impact Factor