[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Haemophilia is a rare disease. To improve knowledge, prospective studies of large numbers of subjects are needed. To establish a large well-documented birth cohort of patients with haemophilia enabling studies on early presentation, side effects and outcome of treatment. Twenty-one haemophilia treatment centres have been collecting data on all children with haemophilia with FVIII/IX levels up to 25% born from 2000 onwards. Another eight centres collected data on severe haemophilia A only. At baseline, details on delivery and diagnosis, gene mutation, family history of haemophilia and inhibitors are collected. For the first 75 exposure days, date, reason, dose and product are recorded for each infusion. Clinically relevant inhibitors are defined as follows: at least two positive inhibitor titres and a FVIII/IX recovery <66% of expected. For inhibitor patients, results of all inhibitor- and recovery tests are collected. For continued treatment, data on bleeding, surgery, prophylaxis and clotting factor consumption are collected annually. Data are downloaded for analysis annually. In May 2013, a total of 1094 patients were included: 701 with severe, 146 with moderate and 247 with mild haemophilia. Gene defect data were available for 87.6% of patients with severe haemophilia A. The first analysis, performed in May 2011, lead to two landmark publications. The outcome of this large collaborative research confirms its value for the improvement of haemophilia care. High-quality prospective observational cohorts form an ideal source to study natural history and treatment in rare diseases such as haemophilia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In elderly people with haemophilia (PWH), surgery of more than one joint of the lower extremities might be needed. Multiple joint procedures (MJP) were introduced in 1995, defined as any combination of Total Knee or Total Hip Arthroplasty or Ankle Arthrodesis during one in-hospital stay. The expectation is that by means of such procedures this specific population is able to physically function better for an extended period of time. Thus, they will participate in their society in an optimal way. In this study, we tried to describe an outcome after MJP, including pre- and post-operative pain and range of motion (ROM), and recommend measurement tools. 22 of 37 PWH who underwent MJP between 1995 and 2012 were available for assessment. Pain (WFH score) and range of motion were compared pre and postoperatively. Current outcome was described by VAS per joint, nocturnal and overall pain, MACTAR, Hemophilia Activity List, SF36, and EQ-5D. Mean age at surgery was 50, 3 years (SD 8, 3); mean follow-up 12 years (1-18 years). Pain (VAS) decreased post-surgery (Median 1 - 1, 5), but moderate pain remained. Extension of knees slightly increased, but both knee flexion and ankle plantar and dorsal flexion decreased. PWH reported the ability to stand longer but also pointed at specific problems, e.g. riding a bike (MACTAR). The HAL showed limited activities (functional domains), especially in the 'complex lower extremity' (22, 8/100). The SF36 and EQ-5D showed a mix of physical problems of our population, while experiencing moderate pain and reasonable physical functioning. This led us to the conclusion that adequate follow-up is needed: ROM of all joints, VAS of all joints as well as nocturnal and overall pain, HAL, SF36 and EQ5D. Performance based activities and participation need further attention.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently we reported data suggesting that platelets could compensate for the bleeding phenotype in severe haemophilia A (HA). The aim of this study was to confirm these results in a larger population with a detailed characterisation of clinical phenotype. Patients with diagnostic severe HA (FVIII:C <1%) were scored for clinical phenotype by integrating data on age at first joint bleed, joint damage, bleeding frequency and FVIII consumption. Phenotype was defined as onset of joint bleeding-score + arthropathy-score + joint bleeding-score + (2* treatment intensity-score). After a washout period of three days, blood was collected for measurement of basal level of platelet activation, platelet reactivity, endothelial cell activation and presence of procoagulant phospholipids in plasma. Thirty-three patients with severe HA were included, 13 patients with a mild, 12 patients with an average and eight patients with a severe clinical phenotype. No relevant differences in basal level of platelet activation, platelet reactivity, endothelial cell activation and procoagulant phospholipids between all three groups were observed. The mean annual FVIII consumption per kg did not correlate with the platelet P-selectin expression and glycoprotein (GP)IIbIIIa activation on platelets. In conclusion, variability in clinical phenotype in patients with diagnostic severe HA is not related to platelet activation or reactivity, measured as platelet degranulation and platelet GPIIbIIIa opening.
Thrombosis and Haemostasis 01/2014; 111(6). · 6.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An adequate use of coping strategies could help patients to deal with disease-related stress. The study aim was to explore coping behaviour in adult patients with severe haemophilia and its possible determinants. Coping was assessed through three basic dimensions (task-oriented, emotion-oriented and avoidance coping), using the short version of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS-21). Patients' scores were compared with Dutch working men (N = 374), according to three categories: low use (<P25 of normal), average use (P25-P75) and high use (>P75). Determinants were measured using questionnaires on activities (Haemophilia Activities List), participation (Impact on Participation and Autonomy Questionnaire), physical functioning [physical component of the Dutch Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales-2 (D-AIMS2)] and socio-psychological health (psychological component of the D-AIMS2). In total, 86 adults with severe haemophilia (FVIII/IX<1%) were included. The median age was 38 years (range: 18-68) with 85% affected with haemophilia A and 75% using prophylaxis. Patients with haemophilia used task-oriented coping as frequently as the control group (P = 0.13); but used significantly less emotion-oriented coping (57% vs. 25%, P < 0.05) and avoidance coping (P < 0.05). Emotion-oriented coping showed a strong correlation with socio-psychological health (r = 0.67) and weak correlations with participation (r = 0.32) and social interaction (r = 0.29). Other associations of coping strategies with patient characteristics of health status could not be demonstrated. Overall, patients predominantly used the task-oriented approach to deal with their disease; the use of this strategy was comparable to the control group. Having a poor psychological health, less social interaction and/or less participation in daily life was associated with an increased use of emotion-oriented coping.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scores for haemophilic arthropathy are useful for evaluation of early and moderate arthropathy. The most recent additive International Prophylaxis Study Group (IPSG) MRI scale for haemophilic arthropathy includes joint effusion. However, it is unknown whether joint effusion is haemophilia specific. Correct interpretation of joint effusion is needed for outcome assessment of prophylactic therapies in haemophilia care. The aim of this study was to compare joint effusion on MRI between young adults with haemophilia and healthy controls. MRI's of both knees and ankles of 26 haemophilic patients (104 joints) and 30 healthy active men (120 joints) were assessed. Scans in both groups were performed in 2009/2010 and 2012 respectively. Joint effusion was measured and scored according to the MRI atlas referred by the IPSG MRI scale for haemophilic arthropathy. Median age of haemophilic patients and healthy controls was 21 and 24 years respectively. In haemophilic patients 23% of knees and 22% of ankles showed joint effusion. Healthy controls had significantly more positive scores for knee effusion (67%, P < 0.01) and a comparable scores for effusion in the ankle (17%). Joint effusion according to criteria of the IPSG MRI scale was observed significantly more often in knees of healthy controls, while findings in ankles were similar. These data suggest that joint effusion in knees and ankles is not haemophilia specific. Inclusion of joint effusion in the MRI scale is expected to reduce its specificity for haemophilic arthropathy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate outcome of prophylactic clotting factor replacement in children with haemophilia, the Haemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS) was developed aiming at scoring early joint changes in children aged 4-18. The HJHS has been used for adults on long-term prophylaxis but interpretation of small changes remains difficult. Some changes in these patients may be due to sports-related injuries. Evaluation of HJHS score in healthy adults playing sports could improve the interpretation of this score in haemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the HJHS scores in a cohort of young, healthy men participating in sports. Concomitant with a project collecting MRI images of ankles and knees in normal young adults, HJHS scores were assessed in 30 healthy men aged 18-26, participating in sports one to three times per week. One physiotherapist assessed their clinical function using the HJHS 2.1. History of joint injuries was documented. MRI images were scored by a single radiologist, using the International Prophylaxis Study Group additive MRI score. Median age of the study group was 24.3 years (range 19.0-26.4) and median frequency of sports activities was three times per week (range 1-4). Six joints (five knees, one ankle) had a history of sports-related injury. The median overall HJHS score was 0 out of 124 (range 0-3), with 60% of subjects showing no abnormalities on HJHS. All joints were normal on MRI. These results suggest that frequent sports participation and related injuries are not related with abnormalities in HJHS scores.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with inherited bleeding disorders are an interesting group to study the long-term course of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, because of their uniform mode of infection and reliable follow-up. Our aim was to assess the long-term occurrence of adverse liver-related events in these patients.
The occurrence and determinants of end-stage liver disease (ESLD) were assessed using retrospective data of 863 HCV infected patients with inherited bleeding disorders from the Netherlands and the UK.
Median follow-up since HCV infection was 31 years, while 30% of patients had >35 follow-up years. Nineteen percent of patients spontaneously cleared the virus and 81% developed chronic HCV infection. Of the 700 patients with chronic HCV, 90 (13%) developed ESLD. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was diagnosed in 3% of patients with chronic HCV, 41% of which occurred in the last six years. Determinants of ESLD development were age at infection (hazard ratio (HR) 1.09 per year increase), HIV co-infection (HR 10.85), history of alcohol abuse (HR 4.34) and successful antiviral treatment (HR 0.14). Of the 487 patients who were still alive at the end of follow-up, 49% did not undergo optimal conventional antiviral treatment.
After over 30 years of HCV infection, ESLD occurred in a significant proportion of patients with inherited bleeding disorders. HCC appears to be an increasing problem. There is a significant potential for both conventional and new antiviral treatment regimens to try and limit ESLD occurrence in the future.
Journal of Hepatology 08/2013; · 9.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prophylactic treatment in severe hemophilia is very effective but limited by cost-issues. The implementation of two different prophylactic regimens in the Netherlands and Sweden since the 1970s may be considered as a 'natural experiment'. We compared costs and outcome of Dutch intermediate- and Swedish high-dose prophylactic regimens for patients with severe hemophilia (FVIII/IX <1IU/dl) born 1970-1994 using prospective standardised outcome assessment and retrospective collection of cost data. 78 Dutch and 50 Swedish patients, median age 24 (range14-37) were included. Intermediate-dose prophylaxis used less factor concentrates [median (IQR) Netherlands 2100 IU/kg/yr (1400-2900) vs Sweden 4000 IU/kg/yr (3000-4900); p<0.01]. Clinical outcome was slightly inferior for the intermediate-dose regimen (p<0.01): 5-year bleeding [median 1.3 (0.8-2.7) vs 0 (0.0-2.0) joint bleeds/yr] and joint health [HJHS score over 10/144 points in 46% vs 11%], while social participation and quality of life (EQ-5D) were similar. Annual total costs were 66% higher for high-dose prophylaxis: mean 180 (95%CI 163-196)x1000 USD for Dutch vs 298 (95%CI 271-325)X1000 USD for Swedish patients (p<0.01). At group level, the incremental benefits of high dose prophylaxis appear limited. At patient level, prophylaxis should be tailored individually and many patients may do well on lower doses of concentrate without compromising safety.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Outcome assessment in haemophilia is important to assess results of prophylactic treatment. Recently, the Haemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS) was developed to assess early joint damage in children with haemophilia. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess reliability and explore validity of the HJHS in teenagers and young adults with haemophilia. Twenty-two patients with haemophilia (mean age 20.4, range 14-30, including 15 severe) were assessed by the HJHS1.0, Haemophilia Activities List (HAL), SF36 and self-evaluation was performed using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scale. A subset of 12 patients were assessed by three physiotherapists to establish interobserver reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient: ICC). Total HJHS1.0 scores were calculated without overall global gait. Validity was explored by the assessment of Pearson's correlation with all outcome parameters and recent Pettersson scores. Overall outcome was good, with median HJHS score of 5.5 of a maximum 144 (range 0-34), median patients' VAS of 96.5 and maximum scores for HAL and SF36 physical functioning for the majority of patients. Pettersson scores were low (median 3.5 of 78, N = 18). Interobserver reliability was good (ICC 0.84), with limits of agreement of ±7.2 points. ICC was unaffected by different score calculation methods. Exploration of validity in 22 patients showed weak correlations of HJHS scores with patients' VAS (0.33) and HAL (-0.40) and strong correlations with SF36-PF (-0.66) and Pettersson scores (0.86). These results suggest that interobserver reliability of the HJHS1.0 in teenagers and young adults with limited joint damage is excellent. Preliminary data on validity were similar or better than those in children.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most sensitive imaging modality to assess joint lesions, but the clinical relevance of subtle joint changes in haemophilic patients playing sports is unknown. A haemophilia specific MRI score is available, but was never evaluated in physically active healthy controls. It is not known if unexpected MRI changes in young active haemophilic patients are due to sports participation. The aim of this study was to evaluate knees and ankles in a cohort of young active healthy men using a haemophilia specific MRI score to provide context for joint evaluation by MRI in young haemophilic patients. Three Tesla MRI of knees and ankles were performed in 30 healthy men aged 18-26 years, regularly active in sports. MR images were scored by a single independent radiologist, using the International Prophylaxis Study Group additive MRI score. One physiotherapist assessed clinical function using the Haemophilia joint health scores (HJHS). History of complaints or injuries affecting knees and/or ankles, very intensive sports and current sports activities were documented. Median age was 24.3 years (range 19.0-26.4) and median number of sports activities per week was 3 (range 1-4). Six joints (five knees, one ankle) had a history of a sports-related injury. The median HJHS per joint was 0 out of 20 (range 0-1). All joints had a MRI score of 0. These results suggest that regular sports participation or very low HJHS scores are not associated with haemophilia specific MRI changes in knees and ankles.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The increasing attention to healthcare costs and treatment efficiency has led to an increasing demand for quantitative data concerning patient and treatment characteristics in haemophilia. However, most of these data are difficult to obtain. The aim of this study was to use expert judgement elicitation (EJE) to estimate currently unavailable key parameters for treatment models in severe haemophilia A. Using a formal expert elicitation procedure, 19 international experts provided information on (i) natural bleeding frequency according to age and onset of bleeding, (ii) treatment of bleeds, (iii) time needed to control bleeding after starting secondary prophylaxis, (iv) dose requirements for secondary prophylaxis according to onset of bleeding, and (v) life-expectancy. For each parameter experts provided their quantitative estimates (median, P10, P90), which were combined using a graphical method. In addition, information was obtained concerning key decision parameters of haemophilia treatment. There was most agreement between experts regarding bleeding frequencies for patients treated on demand with an average onset of joint bleeding (1.7 years): median 12 joint bleeds per year (95% confidence interval 0.9-36) for patients ≤18, and 11 (0.8-61) for adult patients. Less agreement was observed concerning estimated effective dose for secondary prophylaxis in adults: median 2000 IU every other day The majority (63%) of experts expected that a single minor joint bleed could cause irreversible damage, and would accept up to three minor joint bleeds or one trauma related joint bleed annually on prophylaxis. Expert judgement elicitation allowed structured capturing of quantitative expert estimates. It generated novel data to be used in computer modelling, clinical care, and trial design.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: either the recombination activating genes RAG1 or RAG2, resulting in partial V(D)J recombinase activity, were shown to be re- sponsible for OS. This study reports on the characterization of new RAG1/2 gene muta- tions in a series of 9 patients with OS. Given the occurrence of the same mutations in patients with T-B-severe combined immune deficiency or OS on 3 separate occasions, the proposal is made that an additional factor may be required in certain circum- stances for the development of the Omenn phenotype. The nature of this factor is discussed. (Blood. 2001;97:2772-2776)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Key points High-dosed intensive factor VIII treatment increases the risk of inhibitor development in severe hemophilia A patientsIn severe hemophilia A patients factor VIII prophylaxis decreases the inhibitor risk, especially in patients with low-risk F8 mutations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increase of factor VIII activity (FVIII) after physical exercise has been reported in healthy subjects and small-scale studies in patients with coagulopathies. The aim was to study whether moderate and mild haemophilia A patients are able to increase their endogenous FVIII activity levels by physical activity. We studied changes in FVIII activity levels after high-intensity exercise in 15 haemophilia A patients, 20-39 years, eight with moderate, seven with mild haemophilia. Patients cycled until volitional exhaustion, blood samples were drawn before and 10 min after the exercise test. FVIII activity increased 2.5 times (range 1.8-7.0 times), for both severities. Absolute increases were markedly different: median 7 IU dL(-1) (range 3-9 IU dL(-1) ) in patients with moderate, compared to 15 IU dL(-1) (range 6-62 IU dL(-1) ) in mild haemophilia patients. VWF and VWFpp increased independently of severity; median 50% (range 8-123%) and median 165% (range 48-350%), respectively, reflecting acute release of VWF. These observations may be used to promote high-intensity activities before participating in sports for moderate and mild haemophilia A patients, to reduce bleeding risk. Further studies are warranted to fully appreciate the clinical significance of exercise on different levels of intensity in patients with mild and moderate haemophilia A.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with haemophilia (PWH) are relatively protected from cardiovascular death. Recent insights have shown that this is not due to less formation of atherosclerosis than in non-haemophilic men, therefore protection from the final occlusive thrombus will be the major determinant. Prevalence and incidence rates of cardiovascular disease (especially non-fatal events) are scarce, although ongoing studies are addressing this issue.Meanwhile, because the haemophilia population is aging, we are increasingly confronted with cardiovascular events. The main cardiovascular risk factors that should be part of regular screening programs are hypertension, overweight, lipometabolic disorders and smoking. Anticoagulation therapy in haemophilia is feasible, provided that individual tailored coagulation therapy and close monitoring is provided.Here, we present our view on anticoagulation management in PWH. There is an absolute need for risk assessment tools and prospective validation of suggested anticoagulation management strategies in PWH. Until then, we are managing the unknown.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Children with haemophilia often experience limitations in activities of daily life. Recently the Paediatric Haemophilia Activities List (PedHAL) has been developed and tested in Dutch children with intensive replacement therapy. The psychometric properties of the PedHAL in children not receiving intensive replacement therapy are not known. The objective was to gain further insight into the psychometric properties of the PedHAL and to study the functional health status of Romanian children and adolescents with haemophilia. Children attending to the rehabilitation centre of Buzias in Romania were sampled consecutively. Construct validity of the PedHAL was evaluated by concurrent testing with objective and subjective measures of physical function and functional ability. Reproducibility was tested by a 3-day test-retest by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and limits of agreement (LOA). Responsiveness to rehabilitation was assessed by Haemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS) and PedHAL. Twenty-nine children with severe (n = 25) or moderate (n = 4) haemophilia participated. Mean age was 13.2 years (SD 4.0). Median score of the PedHAL was 83.5 (IQR 47.9-90.5). The PedHAL correlated moderately with HJHS (rho = -0.59), Functional Independence Score in& Haemophilia (rho = 0.65) and Child Health Questionnaire-physical function (rho = 0.40) and not with Child Health Questionnaire-mental health, Child Health Questionnaire-behaviour and 6MWT. Test-retest reliability was good (ICC = 0.95). LOA was 17.4 points for the sum score. HJHS scores improved slightly after rehabilitation, whereas PedHAL scores did not change. In general, construct validity and test-retest reliability were good, test-retest agreement showed some variability. Therefore, currently the PedHAL may be more appropriate for research purposes than for individual patient monitoring in clinical practice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Long-term adherence to prophylactic therapy is the key to successful prevention of bleeds in severe haemophilia. The present study aims to provide a systematic review of the literature on the determinants of adherence to prophylaxis in haemophilia. A literature search in the largest medical databases in Oct 2011 yielded 880 articles, which were reduced to 72 by further selection on title. Twenty-eight articles were excluded due to inclusion criteria. Full paper evaluation of 44 articles yielded five relevant articles that were critically appraised using the STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement and items extracted from the critical appraisal criteria for cohort studies (Dutch Cochrane Centre). After critical appraisal, 2/5 studies were considered as the best evidence available. The results of these two studies were further used in the synthesis for description of the determinants of adherence. This concerned a total of 245 subjects in all age groups. Data were collected using questionnaires and interviews. Motivators for a high adherence were as follows: experience of symptoms, a positive belief of necessity of treatment and a good relationship with the health care provider. Important barriers were defined as: infrequent or absence of symptoms and increasing age. Two high-quality studies were identified. Reported determinants of adherence to prophylaxis were age, symptoms, beliefs, and the relation with the health care provider. This information may provide a first step towards a strategy to promote adherence in haemophilia, with an important focus on age-specific interventions and patient education.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Moderate haemophilia is the rarest form of haemophilia. This study aims to assess short-and long-term outcome, including its association with treatment, in patients with moderate haemophilia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-five patients with moderate haemophilia (1-5% factor VIII/factor IX activity), without a history of inhibitors, treated at the van Creveldkliniek, Utrecht (NL) were included in the study. Life-long data on bleeding and treatment were collected. Joints were evaluated using the Haemophilia Joint Health Score. Adults completed questionnaires on activity (HAL) and quality of life (SF-36, EQ5D). RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 37 years (IQR 23-52 years) and haemophilia A was diagnosed in 89%. Bleeding frequency was low: the median annual bleeding rate was 2.0 bleeds/year (IQR 0.8-3.7 bleeds/year), including a median of 0 joint bleeds/year (IQR 0.8-3.7 bleeds/year). Joint function was good: 82% scored <10 out of 126 points of the Haemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS). Nevertheless, 29% of patients with moderate haemophilia had a history of prophylaxis, because of a high bleeding frequency. Median age at first joint bleed was 4.8 years (IQR 3.5-8.5). Use of prophylaxis was more associated with age at first joint bleed (P <0.01) than with baseline factor activity (P =0.12). Most patients (52%) who suffered their first joint bleed before the age of 5 years required prophylaxis later in life. DISCUSSION: The majority of patients with moderate haemophilia have few bleeds and complications; however, a considerable subset of patients with a more severe bleeding pattern need prophylactic treatment. These latter patients may be identified by the onset of joint bleeding before the age of 5 years.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is reported to be decreased in haemophilia patients, but reports on the prevalence of CVD risk factors are conflicting. A cross-sectional assessment of CVD risk profiles was performed in a large cohort of haemophilia patients. Baseline data on CVD risk factors of 709 Dutch and UK haemophilia patients aged ≥30 years were analysed and compared with the general age-matched male population. CVD risk profiles were assessed using the QRISK® 2-2011 and SCORE algorithms. Although QRISK®2 was only validated in the UK, comparison with SCORE indicated similar properties of QRISK®2 in both Dutch and UK patients (correlation 0.86). Mean age was 49.8 years. Hypertension was more common in haemophilia patients than in the general population (49% vs. 40%), while the prevalences of obesity and hypercholesterolaemia were lower (15 vs. 20% and 44 vs. 68%, respectively), and those of diabetes and smoking were similar. The predicted 10-year QRISK®2 risk was significantly higher in haemophilia patients than in the general population (8.9 vs. 6.7%), indicating more unfavourable cardiovascular disease risk profiles. This increased risk became apparent after the age of 40 years. Our results indicate an increased prevalence of hypertension and overall more unfavourable CVD risk profiles in haemophilia patients compared with the general age-matched male population.
Thrombosis and Haemostasis 11/2012; 109(1). · 6.09 Impact Factor