[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Flexible bronchoscopy with bronchial washing is a useful procedure for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), when a patient cannot produce sputum spontaneously or when sputum smears are negative. However, the benefit of gaining serial bronchial washing specimens for diagnosis of TB has not yet been studied. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective study to determine the diagnostic utility of additional bronchial washing specimens for the diagnosis of pulmonary TB in suspected patients.
A retrospective analysis was performed on 174 patients [sputum smear-negative, n=95 (55%); lack of sputum specimen, n=79 (45%)] who received flexible bronchoscopy with two bronchial washing specimens with microbiological confirmation of pulmonary TB in Samsung Medical Center, between January, 2010 and December, 2011.
Pulmonary TB was diagnosed by first bronchial washing specimen in 141 patients (81%) out of 174 enrolled patients, and an additional bronchial washing specimen established diagnosis exclusively in 22 (13%) patients. Smear for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) was positive in 46 patients (26%) for the first bronchial washing specimen. Thirteen patients (7%) were positive only on smear of an additional bronchial washing specimen. Combined smear positivity of the first and second bronchial washing specimens was significantly higher compared to first bronchial washing specimen alone [Total cases: 59 (34%) vs. 46 (26%), p 0.001; cases for smear negative sputum: 25 (26%) vs. 18 (19%), p=0.016; cases for poor expectoration: 34 (43%) vs. 28 (35%), p=0.031]. The diagnostic yield determined by culture was also significantly higher in combination of the first and second bronchial washing specimens compared to the first bronchial washing. [Total cases: 163 (94%) vs. 141 (81%), p 0.001; cases for smear negative sputum: 86 (91%) vs. 73 (77%), p 0.001; cases for poor expectoration: 77 (98%) vs. 68 (86%), p=0.004].
Obtaining an additional bronchial washing specimen could be a beneficial and considerable option for diagnosis of TB in patients with smear-negative sputum or who cannot produce sputum samples.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bronchoscopic intervention can provide immediate relief from suffocation and an opportunity for additional treatment in patients with malignant airway obstruction. However, few studies have specifically identified prognostic factors affecting the survival of advanced lung or esophageal cancer patients receiving bronchoscopic intervention.
We aimed to investigate prognostic factors influencing survival in these patients.
We conducted retrospective study.
The clinical parameters were retrospectively reviewed in 51 patients (lung cancer: n = 35; esophageal cancer: n = 16) who underwent palliative bronchoscopic interventions due to malignant airway.
Bronchoscopic interventions, such as mechanical removal (n = 26), stenting (n = 31), laser cauterization (n = 19), and ballooning (n = 16), were performed on intraluminal (n = 21, 41%), extrinsic (n = 8, 16%), and combined lesions (n = 22, 43%). Tracheal invasion was found in 24 patients (47%). Successful palliation was achieved in 49 patients (96%). After the intervention, additional anti-cancer treatment was followed in 24 patients (47%). The median survival time and overall survival rate were 3.4 months and 4%. Survival was increased with selected conditions, including a treatment-naïve status (hazard ratio [HR], 0.359; confidence interval [CI], 0.158-0.815; P = 0.01), an intact proximal airway (HR, 0.265; CI, 0.095-0.738; P = 0.01), and post-procedural additional treatment (HR, 0.330; CI, 0.166-0.657; P < 0.01).
Brochoscopic intervention could provide immediate relief and survival improvement in advanced lung or esophageal cancer patients with selected conditions such as a treatment-naïve status, an intact proximal airway, and available post-procedural additional treatment.
Annals of Thoracic Medicine 04/2013; 8(2):86-92. · 1.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a rare case of lung disease caused by Mycobacterium lentiflavum in a previously healthy woman. A 54-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to chronic cough and sputum. A computed tomography scan of the chest revealed bilateral bronchiectasis with bronchiolitis in the right middle lobe and the lingular division of the left upper lobe. Nontuberculous mycobacteria were isolated twice from three expectorated sputum specimens. All isolates were identified as M. lentiflavum by multilocus sequence analysis based on rpoB, hsp65, and 16S rRNA fragments. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented case of M. lentiflavum lung disease in an immunocompetent adult in Korea.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases 04/2013; 74(4):187-90.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether earlier intervention was associated with decreased mortality in critically ill cancer patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU).
A retrospective observational study was performed of 199 critically ill cancer patients admitted to the ICU from the general ward between January 2010 and December 2010. A logistic regression model was used to adjust for potential confounding factors in the association between time to intervention and in-hospital mortality.
In-hospital mortality was 52 %, with a median Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3 (SAPS 3) of 80 [interquartile range (IQR) 67-93], and a median Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score of 8 (IQR 5-11). Median time from physiological derangement to intervention (time to intervention) prior to ICU admission was 1.5 (IQR 0.6-4.3) h. Median time to intervention was significantly shorter in survivors than in non-survivors (0.9 vs. 3.0 h; p < 0.001). Additionally, the mortality rates increased significantly with increasing quartiles of time to intervention (p < 0.001, test for trend). Other factors associated with in-hospital mortality were severity of illness, performance status, hematologic malignancy, stem-cell transplantation, presence of three or more abnormal physiological variables, time from derangement to ICU admission, presence of infection, need for mechanical ventilation and vasopressor, and low PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio. Even after adjusting for potential confounding factors, time to intervention was still significantly associated with hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio 1.445, 95 % confidence interval 1.217-1.717).
Early intervention before ICU admission was independently associated with decreased in-hospital mortality in critically ill cancer patients admitted to the ICU.
European Journal of Intensive Care Medicine 05/2012; 38(9):1505-13. · 5.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reduced lung function is associated with incident insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between lung function and incident type 2 diabetes in Korean men.
This study included 9,220 men (mean age: 41.4 years) without type 2 diabetes at baseline who were followed for five years. Subjects were divided into four groups according to baseline forced vital capacity (FVC) (% predicted) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (% predicted) quartiles. The incidence of type 2 diabetes at follow-up was compared according to FVC and FEV1 quartiles.
The overall incidence of type 2 diabetes was 2.2%. Reduced lung function was significantly associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes after adjusting for age, BMI, education, smoking, exercise, alcohol, and HOMA-IR. Both FVC and FEV1 were negatively associated with type 2 diabetes (P < 0.05). In non-obese subjects with BMI < 25, the lowest quartile of FVC and FEV1 had a significantly higher odds ratio for type 2 diabetes compared with the highest quartile after adjusting for age and BMI (2.15 [95% CI 1.02-4.57] and 2.19 [95% CI 1.09-4.42]).
Reduced lung function is independently associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes in Korean men.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of low-dose steroid therapy in the management of septic shock has been extensively studied. However, the association between the timing of low-dose steroid therapy and the outcome has not been evaluated. Therefore, we evaluated whether early initiation of low-dose steroid therapy is associated with mortality in patients with septic shock.
We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 178 patients who received low-dose corticosteroid therapy for septic shock between January 2008 and December 2009. Time-dependent Cox regression models were used to adjust for potential confounding factors in the association between the time to initiation of low-dose corticosteroid therapy and in-hospital mortality.
The study population consisted of 107 men and 71 women with a median age of 66 (interquartile range, 54 to 71) years. The 28-day mortality was 44% and low-dose corticosteroid therapy was initiated within a median of 8.5 (3.8 to 19.1) hours after onset of septic shock-related hypotension. Median time to initiation of low-dose corticosteroid therapy was significantly shorter in survivors than in non-survivors (6.5 hours versus 10.4 hours; P=0.0135). The mortality rates increased significantly with increasing quintiles of time to initiation of low-dose corticosteroid therapy (P=0.0107 for trend). Other factors associated with 28-day mortality were higher Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) 3 (P<0.0001) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores (P=0.0007), dose of vasopressor at the time of initiation of low-dose corticosteroid therapy (P<0.0001), need for mechanical ventilation (P=0.0001) and renal replacement therapy (P<0.0001), while the impaired adrenal reserve did not affect 28-day mortality (81% versus 82%; P=0.8679). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the time to initiation of low-dose corticosteroid therapy was still significantly associated with 28-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.025, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.007 to 1.044, P=0.0075). The early therapy group (administered within 6 hours after the onset of septic shock, n=66) had a 37% lower mortality rate than the late therapy group (administered more than 6 hours after the onset of septic shock, n=112) (32% versus 51%, P=0.0132).
Early initiation of low-dose corticosteroid therapy was significantly associated with decreased mortality.
Critical care (London, England) 01/2012; 16(1):R3. · 4.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In critically ill patients with hematologic malignancies, acute kidney injury (AKI) usually occurs in the context of multiple organ failure due to various etiologies and is associated with poor prognosis. The objective of the present study was to identify the prognostic factors associated with intensive care unit (ICU) mortality in patients with hematologic malignancies and AKI requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT).
We retrospectively evaluated 94 patients with hematologic malignancies and AKI who received RRT in the ICU of Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea, between January 2004 and December 2007.
The study sample included 65 men and 29 women with a median age of 49 years (interquartile range [IQR], 36-61 years). The median Simplified Acute Physiology Score II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores at ICU admission were 64 (IQR, 46-79) and 13 (IQR, 9-16), respectively. The RRT for AKI was initiated at a median time of 1 day (IQR, 0-4 day) after ICU admission. Seventy-two (77%) patients died in the ICU after a median time of 4 days (IQR, 2-20 days) after the initiation of RRT. Among the 22 patients who survived, 5 (23%) required RRT after ICU discharge. Intensive care unit mortality was associated with an etiology of AKI, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II score, and SOFA score. Modified SOFA (mSOFA) score (defined as the sum of the 5 nonrenal components of the SOFA score) at the initiation of RRT was lower in survivors than in nonsurvivors. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, ICU mortality was independently associated with mSOFA score (odds ratio, 1.83 per mSOFA score increase; 95% confidence interval, 1.38-2.42) at the initiation of RRT. The estimated area under the curve for mSOFA score was 0.902 (95% confidence interval, 0.831-0.972).
The severity of organ failure, excluding renal failure, at initiation of RRT was independently associated with ICU mortality in patients with hematologic malignancies and AKI requiring RRT.
Journal of critical care 02/2011; 26(1):107.e1-6. · 2.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The determination of mediastinal lymphadenopathy is important in the management of extrapulmonary malignancy. The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic performance of EBUS-TBNA in the diagnosis of mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy in patients with proven or suspicious extrapulmonary malignancy.
Retrospective analysis was performed in 57 patients (81 lesions) with proven (n=51) or suspicious (n=6) extrapulmonary malignancies who underwent EBUS-TBNA between May 2009 and January 2011.
There were 37 male and 20 female patients, with a median age of 64 years. Thirty-five (61.4%) patients were confirmed as malignancy (34 extrapulmonary malignancy and 1 primary lung cancer) and 22 (38.6%) patients were confirmed as benign. EBUS-TBNA identified malignancy in 30 patients. One patient who was diagnosed as primary lung cancer was excluded from diagnostic performance analysis. Overall cancer prevalence was 61% in 56 study patients. The diagnostic sensitivity, accuracy, and negative predictive value of EBUS-TBNA per patient were 88%, 93%, and 85%. The diagnostic sensitivity, accuracy, and negative predictive value of PET/CT scan per patient were 81%, 82%, and 71%, respectively. There were no serious complications related to EBUS-TBNA.
Since mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy do not always result from metastases in patients with extrapulmonary malignancy, histopathologic confirmation is mandatory. EBUS-TBNA is a sensitive modality and can be considered as the initial test for the histopathological diagnosis of mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy in patients with extrapulmonary malignancy.
Internal Medicine 01/2011; 50(21):2525-32. · 0.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Health care-associated pneumonia (HCAP) has been proposed as a new category of respiratory infection. ATS/IDSA guidelines state that all patients with HCAP should receive empirical therapy directed at multidrug-resistant pathogens. However, recent data from other countries have reported a different picture of HCAP.
We conducted a retrospective observational study of patients with HCAP and CAP who were hospitalized through the emergency department in January-December 2008 at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea, and compared clinical characteristics, severity, distribution of pathogen, and outcomes.
In total, 345 patients hospitalized with pneumonia were eligible, 182 (52.8%) with HCAP and 163 (47.2%) with CAP. Patients with HCAP had greater comorbidity and higher Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) score (P < 0.001). Although Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most frequently isolated pathogen in HCAP and CAP patients, the occurrence of potentially drug-resistant pathogens (29.3% vs. 13.0%; P = 0.044) and inappropriate initial antimicrobial treatment (24.6% vs. 8.7%; P = 0.032) were significantly higher in HCAP patients. Patients with HCAP had a longer duration of hospital stay (13 [8-18] vs. 8 [6-12] days; P < 0.001), and higher in-hospital mortality (19.2% vs. 7.4%; P = 0.001). In a multiple logistic regression analysis, however, in-hospital mortality was independently associated with higher PSI class (OR 2.82, 95% CI 1.19-6.70) and ICU admission (OR 15.37, 95% CI 3.58-66.05).
Severity of illness, rather than type of pneumonia, was the main predicting factor for in-hospital mortality among patients with pneumonia hospitalized through the emergency department.
Respiratory medicine 11/2010; 104(11):1729-35. · 2.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate treatment outcomes in patients with thoracic actinomycosis and identify patient characteristics associated with unfavorable responses to antibiotic therapy.
A retrospective analysis was performed on 40 patients with pathologically confirmed thoracic actinomycosis.
Initial surgical treatment was performed on 17 patients to control severe symptoms such as hemoptysis or rule out lung cancer. Sixteen (94%) patients were successfully treated, including three patients who did not receive postoperative antibiotics, and one patient died of a postoperative complication. The median duration of oral antibiotic therapy after surgery was 3 months. After the diagnosis of actinomycosis, 23 patients began antibiotic therapy. The median duration of oral antibiotic therapy was 5 months. Favorable treatment outcomes were achieved in 18 of these 23 patients (78%), while five (22%) showed unfavorable responses to antibiotic therapy. Surgery was successfully performed in these five patients. The patients with unfavorable responses to antibiotic therapy had a longer duration of symptoms prior to treatment (median, 10 months) as compared to patients with favorable responses (median, 2 months; P = 0.012).
Medical treatment failure is possible in patients with thoracic actinomycosis, and close monitoring is necessary in those who begin antibiotic therapy. In addition, surgical resection may be a valid option for patients who do not respond to antibiotic therapy, with the consideration of the age and comorbid conditions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The decision to start chemotherapy in critically ill cancer patients is extremely complex in the intensive care unit (ICU). Therefore, this study evaluated the outcomes and prognostic factors in critically ill cancer patients receiving chemotherapy in the ICU.
A retrospective analysis was performed using 62 cancer patients who received chemotherapy in the ICU between October 2002 and December 2008. The dataset included 49 hematologic malignancies (79%) and 13 solid tumors (21%).
Twenty (32%) patients were admitted to the ICU with septic shock, 15 (24%) with respiratory failure, and 14 (23%) with renal failure. The median SOFA and SAPS II scores at the time of chemotherapy were 10 (interquartile range, 6-14) and 53 (interquartile range, 41-68), respectively. Twenty-three (37%) patients had concomitant infections when chemotherapy was initiated. Thirty-eight (61%) patients received mechanical ventilation, and 19 (31%) patients underwent renal replacement therapy at the moment of chemotherapy. Overall, 25 (40%) patients died in the ICU; death occurred due to septic shock (13, 52%), cancer progression (9, 36%), or bleeding (2, 8%). ICU mortality after chemotherapy was correlated with respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation (OR, 6.26; 95% CI, 1.12-34.95) and a SOFA score of ≥10 (OR, 9.66; 95% CI, 1.43-65.47) upon initiating chemotherapy.
Chemotherapy in the ICU for critically ill cancer patients can be considered even when infection or organ failure is present. However, the severity of organ failure, including respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, was associated with an increased mortality after chemotherapy during an ICU stay.
Supportive Care in Cancer 03/2010; 19(4):491-5. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deglutition syncope is a situational syncope that is diagnosed only by a detailed history. We report deglutition syncope in a 62-year-old man, who had permanent atrial fibrillation. The patient had no structural or functional abnormalities of the esophagus. During syncopal attacks, his electrocardiography showed ventricular asystole that was sustained for 12 seconds. The patient was successfully treated by implantation of a permanent pacemaker.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bronchoscopic resection of endobronchial hamartomas has been reported to have a favourable outcome. This study describes the bronchoscopic features of endobronchial hamartoma and reports the clinical outcome of bronchoscopic intervention.
A retrospective analysis was conducted of patients with histologically proven endobronchial hamartomas, diagnosed in the 10-year period 1999-2009 to elucidate the clinical, radiological and bronchoscopic features of hamartoma and to describe the clinical outcomes.
Seventeen of the 135 patients with pulmonary hamartomas were diagnosed as having endobronchial hamartomas. CXR was abnormal in 11 of the 17 patients. On chest CT (n = 16), the median diameter of the lesion was 15.6 mm. Calcification and areas of focal fat in the lesion, the diagnostic CT findings of pulmonary hamartoma, were found in two of 16 (12.5%) patients. At bronchoscopy (n = 16), all tumours had a mass appearance and most were smooth surfaced round masses (50.0%) with 18.8% having a 'stalk'. Bronchoscopic forceps biopsies were performed in 13 patients, which resulted in five patients (38.5%) being diagnosed with endobronchial hamartoma. Fifteen patients were treated with rigid or flexible bronchoscopic resection, one had lobectomy, and one had no intervention. No procedure-related mortalities or late complications developed.
Bronchoscopic intervention appears to be a safe and effective method to resect endobronchial hamartomas.