[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Glioblastoma (GBM) genomes feature recurrent genetic alterations that dysregulate core intracellular signaling pathways, including the G1/S cell cycle checkpoint and the MAPK and PI3K effector arms of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling. Elucidation of the phenotypic consequences of activated RTK effectors is required for the design of effective therapeutic and diagnostic strategies.Methods
Genetically defined, G1/S checkpoint-defective cortical murine astrocytes with constitutively active Kras and/or Pten deletion mutations were used to systematically investigate the individual and combined roles of these 2 RTK signaling effectors in phenotypic hallmarks of glioblastoma pathogenesis, including growth, migration, and invasion in vitro. A novel syngeneic orthotopic allograft model system was used to examine in vivo tumorigenesis.ResultsConstitutively active Kras and/or Pten deletion mutations activated both MAPK and PI3K signaling. Their combination led to maximal growth, migration, and invasion of G1/S-defective astrocytes in vitro and produced progenitor-like transcriptomal profiles that mimic human proneural GBM. Activation of both RTK effector arms was required for in vivo tumorigenesis and produced highly invasive, proneural-like GBM.Conclusions
These results suggest that cortical astrocytes can be transformed into GBM and that combined dysregulation of MAPK and PI3K signaling revert G1/S-defective astrocytes to a primitive gene expression state. This genetically-defined, immunocompetent model of proneural GBM will be useful for preclinical development of MAPK/PI3K-targeted, subtype-specific therapies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Astrocytomas, the most common intracranial malignancies, are a morphologically and molecularly heterogeneous group of brain
tumors with potentially dismal patient outcomes for which few effective drugs are available. Genetically engineered mouse
(GEM) models of astrocytoma represent a powerful technique for defining the molecular and genetic abnormalities that contribute
to tumorigenesis. Based on the genetic aberrations observed in human astrocytomas, we have generated a series of conditional,
inducible GEM models of astrocytomas that recapitulate the spectrum of morphological phenotypes of human astrocytomas. However,
the extent to which any given GEM model recapitulates the molecular alterations in human tumors must be determined to validate
its usefulness in preclinical studies. We are currently pursuing comparative evaluation of primary astrocytomas as formed
in GEM and in patients to (1) examine the signaling pathway abnormalities caused by defined genetic lesions in GEM astrocytomas
and (2) identify protein biomarkers that can define human astrocytomas that most closely resemble their murine counterparts.
To utilize these GEM for combined preclinical evaluation of targeted therapeutic agents and biomarkers predictive of response,
we have developed a panel of cell-based assays (CBA) and an orthotopic allograft model of high-grade astrocytomas using primary
astrocytes derived from GEM. These tools should prove useful for preclinical drug development studies and provide a link between
preclinical drug development in GEM astrocytoma models and rational design of human clinical trials involving only those patients
with tumors having similar signaling pathway abnormalities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Induction of cell death in HeLa cells with TNF and cycloheximide (CHX) required an adequate ATP supply and was accompanied by decrease in intracellular pH, translocation of Bax, perinuclear clustering of the mitochondria, and cytochrome c release. The chloride channel inhibitor furosemide prevented the intracellular acidification, the translocation of Bax and the cell death. Cyclosporin A (CyA) or bongkrekic acid (BK) inhibited the induction of the MPT, the release of cytochrome c and the cell death without affecting the perinuclear clustering of the mitochondria or the translocation of Bax. Energy depletion with the ATP synthase inhibitor oligomycin or the uncoupler FCCP in the presence of 2-deoxy-glucose prevented the perinuclear clustering of the mitochondria and the cell killing. However, mitochondrial translocation of Bax was still observed. By contrast, cytochrome c was released in the oligomycin-treated cells but not in the same cells treated with FCCP. The data demonstrate that apoptosis in HeLa cells is ATP dependent and requires the translocation of Bax. The movement of Bax to the mitochondria occurs before and during the perinuclear clustering of these organelles and does not require the presence of ATP. The release of cytochrome c depends on the induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition but not ATP content.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclosporin A (CyA) and bongkrekic acid (BK) prevented Fas-induced apoptosis in two type I cell lines (H9 and SKW6.4) and two type II cell lines (Jurkat and CEM). CyA and BK inhibited the release of cytochrome c in all four cell lines. In type I cells and in CEM cells, CyA and BK did not prevent the translocation of Bax to the mitochondria. In these same cells, full-length Bid decreased in the mitochondria and cytosol. The cleavage product of Bid, tBid, appeared in the cytosol and to a lesser extent in the mitochondria. In Jurkat cells, Bid also decreased in the cytosol, but increased in the mitochondria. Similar to the other cells, tBid appeared in the mitochondria and cytosol. In the type I H9 and SKW6.4 cells and type II Jurkat cells, the caspase-8 inhibitor Z-Ile-Glu(OMe)-Thr-Asp(OMe)-CH2F (IETD) prevented the cell killing. In the type I cells, IETD prevented the translocation of Bax, the degradation of Bid and the accumulation of tBid. By contrast, IETD only marginally protected the type II CEM cells. In these cells in the presence of IETD, Bax translocated to the mitochondria, in the absence of any degradation of Bid or accumulation of tBid. In the type I H9 cells, IETD produced a depletion of ATP, an effect that did not occur in the type II CEM cells. It is concluded that in type I cells the extrinsic signaling pathway is mitochondrial dependent to the same extent as is the intrinsic pathway in type II cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Jurkat T-lymphocytes lack p53 and Bax but contain p73 and Bid and are killed by etoposide (ETO). With ETO c-abl is phosphorylated and phosphorylated p73 increased. Translocation of full-length Bid to mitochondria follows, with induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) and release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. Pronounced swelling of mitochondria was evident ultrastructurally, and the MPT inhibitor cyclosporin A prevented the release of cytochrome c. Overexpression of Bcl-2 prevented the translocation of Bid, the release of cytochrome c, and cell death. The pan-caspase inhibitor ZVAD-FMK prevented the cell killing, but not the initial release of cytochrome c. An accumulation of tBid occurred at later times in association with Bid degradation. A sequence is proposed that couples DNA damage to Bid translocation via activation of c-abl and p73. Bid translocation induces the MPT, the event that causes release of cytochrome c, activation of caspases, and cell death.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Induction of apoptosis in HeLa cells with staurosporine produced a rise in the intracellular pH (pH(i)). Intracellular alkalinization was accompanied by translocation of Bax to the mitochondria, cytochrome c release, and cell death. The chloride channel inhibitor furosemide prevented intracellular alkalinization, Bax translocation, cytochrome c release, and cell death. Translocation of full-length Bid to the mitochondria was also prevented by furosemide. The cleavage product of Bid degradation (truncated Bid, tBid) was not detectable in the mitochondria. Its accumulation in the cytosol was prevented by furosemide. Apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) lowered pH(i), an effect also accompanied by Bax translocation, cytochrome c release, and cell killing. Furosemide prevented all of these events. TNF induced a depletion of full-length Bid from the mitochondria and the cytosol but induced an accumulation of mitochondrial tBid. Furosemide only delayed full-length Bid depletion and tBid accumulation. The caspase 8 inhibitor IETD did not prevent the translocation of Bax. Although IETD did inhibit the cleavage of Bid and the accumulation of tBid, cell killing was reduced only slightly. It is concluded that with either staurosporine or TNF a furosemide-sensitive change in pH(i) is linked to Bax translocation, cytochrome c release, and cell killing. With TNF Bax translocation occurs as Bid is depleted and can be dissociated from the accumulation of tBid. With staurosporine a role for full-length Bid in Bax translocation cannot be excluded but is not necessary as evidenced by the data with TNF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment of L929 fibroblasts by the topoisomerase II inhibitor etoposide killed 50% of the cells within 72 h. The cell killing was preceded by the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. Simultaneous treatment of the cells with wortmannin, cycloheximide, furosemide, cyclosporin A, or decylubiquinone prevented the release of cytochrome c and significantly reduced the loss of viability. Etoposide caused the phosphorylation of p53 within 6 h, an effect prevented by wortmannin, an inhibitor of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). The activation of p53 by etoposide resulted in the up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax, a result that was prevented by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. The increase in the content of Bax was followed by the translocation of this protein from the cytosol to the mitochondria, an event that was inhibited by furosemide, a chloride channel inhibitor. Stably transfected L929 fibroblasts that overexpress Akt were resistant to etoposide and did not translocate Bax to the mitochondria or release cytochrome c. Bax levels in these transfected cells were comparable with the wild-type cells. The release of cytochrome c upon translocation of Bax has been attributed to induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). Cyclosporin A and decylubiquinone, inhibitors of MPT, prevented the release of cytochrome c without affecting Bax translocation. These data define a sequence of biochemical events that mediates the apoptosis induced by etoposide. This cascade proceeds by coupling DNA damage to p53 phosphorylation through the action of DNA-PK. The activation of p53 increases Bax synthesis. The translocation of Bax to the mitochondria induces the MPT, the event that releases cytochrome c and culminates in the death of the cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Jurkat cells Bid was cleaved upon activation of the Fas receptor with an anti-Fas antibody. The caspase-8 inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Ile-Glu(OMe)-Thr-Asp(OMe)-CH(2)F (IETD) prevented the cleavage of Bid and the loss of viability. The nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) was also cleaved upon the activation of caspases, and IETD similarly prevented PARP cleavage. The PARP inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB) restored the cell killing in the presence of IETD, an effect that occurred without restoration of the cleavage of Bid or PARP. In the presence of 3-AB and IETD, translocation occurred of full-length Bid to the mitochondria. The induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) was documented by the cyclosporin A (CyA) sensitivity of the release of cytochrome c, the release of malate dehydrogenase from the mitochondrial matrix, the loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and the pronounced swelling of these organelles, as assessed by electron microscopy. In addition to preventing all evidence of the MPT, CyA prevented the loss of cell viability, without effect on the cleavage of either Bid or PARP. The prevention of PARP cleavage by inhibition of caspase-3 resulted in a 10-fold activation of the enzyme and a resultant depletion of NAD and ATP. The PARP inhibitor 3-AB prevented the loss of NAD and ATP. Depletion of ATP by metabolic inhibitors similarly prevented the cell killing. It is concluded that the cleaving of PARP in Fas-mediated apoptosis allowed expression of an energy-dependent cell death program that included the translocation of full-length Bid to the mitochondria with induction of the MPT.