Jonathan P Reid

University of Bristol, Bristol, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (76)309.62 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The equilibrium position of an aerosol droplet trapped in a counter-propagating Bessel beam and gas flow is studied both experimentally and theoretically. This provides an aerosol analogue to the separation of particles of differing size and refractive index in counter-propagating laser beam and liquid flow, referred to as optical chromatography. Using the model system of a pure glycerol droplet it is found that, as evaporation takes place and the size of the droplet decreases, the size-dependent equilibrium position does not change in a simple monotonic fashion. Instead, the position of the droplet is greatly affected by the excitation of whispering gallery modes. This leads to sharp peaks in the equilibrium position curve, not unlike those that occur in single particle spectroscopy. The conditions necessary to excite whispering gallery modes are thoroughly investigated.
    01/2014; 16(2).
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    ABSTRACT: The size of aerosol particles prior to, and during, inhalation influences the site of deposition within the lung. As such, a detailed understanding of the hygroscopic growth of an aerosol during inhalation is necessary to accurately model the deposited dose. In the first part of this study, it is demonstrated that the aerosol produced by a nebulizer, depending on the airflows rates, may experience a (predictable) wide range of relative humidity prior to inhalation and undergo dramatic changes in both size and solute concentration. A series of sensitive single aerosol analysis techniques are then used to make measurements of the relative humidity dependent thermodynamic equilibrium properties of aerosol generated from four common nebulizer formulations. Measurements are also reported of the kinetics of mass transport during the evaporation or condensation of water from the aerosol. Combined, these measurements allow accurate prediction of the temporal response of the aerosol size prior to and during inhalation. Specifically, we compare aerosol composed of pure saline (150mM sodium chloride solution in ultrapure water) with two commercially available nebulizer products containing relatively low compound doses: Breath(®), consisting of a simple salbutamol sulfate solution (5mg/2.5mL; 1.7mM) in saline, and Flixotide(®) Nebules, consisting of a more complex stabilized fluticasone propionate suspension (0.25mg/mL; 0.5mM in saline. A mimic of the commercial product Tobi(©) (60mg/mL tobramycin and 2.25mg/mL NaCl, pH 5.5-6.5) is also studied, which was prepared in house. In all cases, the presence of the pharmaceutical was shown to have a profound effect on the magnitude, and in some cases the rate, of the mass flux of water to and from the aerosol as compared to saline. These findings provide physical chemical evidence supporting observations from human inhalation studies, and suggest that using the growth dynamics of a pure saline aerosol in a lung inhalation model to represent nebulizer formulations may not be representative of the actual behavior of the aerosolized drug solutions.
    International journal of pharmaceutics 01/2014; · 2.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A single horizontally-propagating zeroth order Bessel laser beam with a counter-propagating gas flow was used to confine single fine-mode aerosol particles over extended periods of time, during which process measurements were performed. Particle sizes were measured by the analysis of the angular variation of light scattered at 532 nm by a particle in the Bessel beam, using either a probe beam at 405 nm or 633 nm. The vapour pressures of glycerol and 1,2,6-hexanetriol particles were determined to be 7.5 ± 2.6 mPa and 0.20 ± 0.02 mPa respectively. The lower volatility of hexanetriol allowed better definition of the trapping environment relative humidity profile over the measurement time period, thus higher precision measurements were obtained compared to those for glycerol. The size evolution of a hexanetriol particle, as well as its refractive index at wavelengths 532 nm and 405 nm, were determined by modelling its position along the Bessel beam propagation length while collecting phase functions with the 405 nm probe beam. Measurements of the hygroscopic growth of sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate have been performed on particles as small as 350 nm in radius, with growth curves well described by widely used equilibrium state models. These are the smallest particles for which single-particle hygroscopicity has been measured and represent the first measurements of hygroscopicity on fine mode and near-accumulation mode aerosols, the size regimes bearing the most atmospheric relevance in terms of loading, light extinction and scattering. Finally, the technique is contrasted with other single particle and ensemble methods, and limitations are assessed.
    Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 12/2013; · 3.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Evaporation studies of single aqueous sucrose aerosol particles as a function of relative humidity (RH) are presented for coarse and fine mode particles down into the submicron size range (600 nm < r < 3.0 μm). These sucrose particles serve as a proxy for biogenic secondary organic aerosols that have been shown to exist, under ambient conditions, in an ultraviscous glassy state, which can affect the kinetics of water mass transport within the bulk phase and hinder particle response to changes in the gas phase water content. A counter-propagating Bessel beams (CPBBs) optical trapping setup is employed to monitor the real-time change in the particle radius with RH decreasing from 75% to 5%. The slow-down of the size change upon each RH step and the deviation from the theoretical equilibrium hygroscopic growth curve indicate the onset of glassy behavior in the RH range of 10-40%. Size-dependent effects were not observed within the uncertainty of the measurements. The influence of the drying time below the glass transition RH on the timescale of subsequent water condensation and re-equilibration for sucrose particles is explored by optical tweezers measurements of micron-sized particles (3 μm < r < 6 μm). The timescale for water condensation and re-equilibration is shown to increase with increasing drying time, i.e. the time over which a viscous particle is dried below 5% RH. These studies demonstrate the importance of the history of the particle conditioning on subsequent water condensation and re-equilibration dynamics of ultraviscous and glassy aerosol particles.
    Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 12/2013; · 3.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Uncertainties in quantifying the kinetics of evaporation and condensation of water from atmospheric aerosol are a significant contributor to the uncertainty in predicting cloud droplet number and the indirect effect of aerosols on climate. The influence of aerosol particle surface composition, particularly the impact of surface active organic films, on the condensation and evaporation coefficients remains ambiguous. Here, we report measurements of the influence of organic films on the evaporation and condensation of water from aerosol particles. Significant reductions in the evaporation coefficient are shown to result when condensed films are formed by monolayers of long-chain alcohols [CnH(2n+1)OH], with the value decreasing from 2.4 × 10(-3) to 1.7 × 10(-5) as n increases from 12 to 17. Temperature-dependent measurements confirm that a condensed film of long-range order must be formed to suppress the evaporation coefficient below 0.05. The condensation of water on a droplet coated in a condensed film is shown to be fast, with strong coherence of the long-chain alcohol molecules leading to islanding as the water droplet grows, opening up broad areas of uncoated surface on which water can condense rapidly. We conclude that multicomponent composition of organic films on the surface of atmospheric aerosol particles is likely to preclude the formation of condensed films and that the kinetics of water condensation during the activation of aerosol to form cloud droplets is likely to remain rapid.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2013; · 9.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The hygroscopic properties of an aerosol originating from a nebulizer solutioncan affect the extent of peripheral deposition within the respiratory tract, which in turns affects drug efficacy of drugs delivered to the lungs. Thus, the ability to tailor the degree and rate of hygroscopic growth of an aerosol produced by a nebulizer through modification of the formulation would serve to improve drug efficacy through targeted lung deposition. In this study, the kinetic and thermodynamic hygroscopic properties of sodium chloride aerosol mixed with commercially available Pluronic polymers, specifically F77 and F127, are reported using three complimentary single aerosol analysis techniques, specifically aerosol optical tweezers, a double ring electrodynamic balance and a concentric cylinder electrodynamic balance. The F77 polymer is shown to have a predictable effect on the hygroscopic properties of the aerosol: the ability of the droplet to uptake water from the airdepends on the solute weight percent of sodium chloride present in a linear dose dependant manner. Unlike the smaller F77, a non-linear relationship was observed for the larger molecular weight F127 polymer, with significant suppression of hygroscopic growth (>50% by mass) for solution aerosol containing even only 1wt % of the polymer and 99wt % sodium chloride. The suppression of growth is shown to be consistent with the formation of mixed phase aerosol particles containing hydrophilic inorganic rich domains and hydrophobic polymer rich domains that sequester some of the inorganic component, with the two phases responding to changes in relative humidity independently. This independence of coupling with the gas phase is apparent in both the equilibrium state and the kinetics of water evaporation/condensation. By starting with a saline nebulizer solution with a concentration of F127 ∼10(-2) mM, a 12% reduction in the radius of all aerosol produced at a relative humidity (RH) of 84% is possible. The difference in diameter is RHdependent, and may be much greater at higher humidities. These findings suggest that the addition of μM concentrations of larger Pluronic polymers to nebulizer formulations may greatly reduce the size of aerosols produced.
    International journal of pharmaceutics 01/2013; · 2.96 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Rachael E H Miles, Jonathan P Reid, Ilona Riipinen
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    ABSTRACT: We compare and contrast measurements of the mass accommodation coefficient of water on a water surface made using ensemble and single particle techniques under conditions of supersaturation and subsaturation, respectively. In particular, we consider measurements made using an expansion chamber, a continuous flow streamwise thermal gradient cloud condensation nuclei chamber, the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator, aerosol optical tweezers, and electrodynamic balances. Although this assessment is not intended to be comprehensive, these five techniques are complementary in their approach and give values that span the range from near 0.1 to 1.0 for the mass accommodation coefficient. We use the same semianalytical treatment to assess the sensitivities of the measurements made by the various techniques to thermophysical quantities (diffusion constants, thermal conductivities, saturation pressure of water, latent heat, and solution density) and experimental parameters (saturation value and temperature). This represents the first effort to assess and compare measurements made by different techniques to attempt to reduce the uncertainty in the value of the mass accommodation coefficient. Broadly, we show that the measurements are consistent within the uncertainties inherent to the thermophysical and experimental parameters and that the value of the mass accommodation coefficient should be considered to be larger than 0.5. Accurate control and measurement of the saturation ratio is shown to be critical for a successful investigation of the surface transport kinetics during condensation/evaporation. This invariably requires accurate knowledge of the partial pressure of water, the system temperature, the droplet curvature and the saturation pressure of water. Further, the importance of including and quantifying the transport of heat in interpreting droplet measurements is highlighted; the particular issues associated with interpreting measurements of condensation/evaporation rates with varying pressure are discussed, measurements that are important for resolving the relative importance of gas diffusional transport and surface kinetics.
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 10/2012; · 2.77 Impact Factor
  • Rory Power, David L. Bones, Jonathan P. Reid
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    ABSTRACT: Holographic aerosol optical tweezers can be used to trap arrays of aerosol particles allowing detailed studies of particle properties and processes at the single particle level. Recent observations have suggested that secondary organic aerosol may exist as ultra-viscous liquids or glassy states at low relative humidity, potentially a significant factor in influencing their role in the atmosphere and their activation to form cloud droplets. A decrease in relative humidity surrounding a particle leads to an increased concentration of solute in the droplet as the droplet returns to equilibrium and, thus, an increase in the bulk viscosity. We demonstrate that the timescales for condensation and evaporation processes correlate with particle viscosity, showing significant inhibition in mass transfer kinetics using ternary sucrose/sodium chloride/water droplets as a proxy to atmospheric multi-component aerosol. We go on to study the fundamental process of aerosol coagulation in aerosol particle arrays, observing the relaxation of non-spherical composite particles formed on coalescence. We demonstrate the use of bright-field imaging and elastic light scattering to make measurements of the timescale for the process of binary coalescence contrasting the rheological properties of aqueous sucrose and sodium chloride aerosol over a range of relative humidities.
    Proc SPIE 10/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Studies of the oxidative aging of single mixed component aerosol particles formed from oleic acid (OL) and sodium chloride over a range of relative humidities (RH) and ozone concentrations by aerosol optical tweezers are reported. The rate of loss of OL and changes in the organic phase volume are directly measured, comparing particles with effloresced and deliquesced inorganic seeds. The kinetics of the OL loss are analyzed and the value of the reactive uptake coefficient of ozone by OL is compared to previous studies. The reaction of OL is accompanied by a decrease in the particle volume, consistent with the evaporation of semivolatile products over a time scale of tens of thousands of seconds. Measurements of the change in the organic phase volume allow the branching ratio to involatile components to be estimated; between 50 and 85% of the initial organic volume remains involatile, depending on ozone concentration. The refractive index (RI) of the organic phase increases during and after evaporation of volatile products, consistent with aging followed by a slow restructuring in particle morphology. The hygroscopicity of the particle and kinetics of the response of the organic phase to changes in RH are investigated. Both size and RI of unoxidized and oxidized particles respond promptly to RH changes with values of the RI consistent with linear mixing rules. Such studies of the simultaneous changes in composition and size of mixed component aerosol provide valuable data for benchmarking kinetic models of heterogeneous atmospheric aging.
    Journal of Geophysical Research 10/2012; 117(D20):20204-. · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The most used instrument in single particle hygroscopic analysis over the past thirty years has been the electrodynamic balance (EDB). Two general assumptions are made in hygroscopic studies involving the EDB. First, it is assumed that the net charge on the droplet is invariant over the time scale required to record a hygroscopic growth cycle. Second, it is assumed that the composition of the droplet is constant (aside from the addition and removal of water). In this study, we demonstrate that these assumptions cannot always be made and may indeed prove incorrect. The presence of net charge in the humidified vapor phase reduces the total net charge retained by the droplet over prolonged levitation periods. The gradual reduction in charge limits the reproducibility of hygroscopicity measurements made on repeated RH cycles with a single particle, or prolonged experiments in which the particle is held at a high relative humidity. Further, two contrasting examples of the influence of changes in chemical composition changes are reported. In the first, simple acid-base chemistry in the droplet leads to the irreversible removal of gaseous ammonia from a droplet containing an ammonium salt on a time scale that is shorter than the hygroscopicity measurement. In the second example, the net charge on the droplet (<100 fC) is high enough to drive redox chemistry within the droplet. This is demonstrated by the reduction of iodic acid in a droplet made solely of iodic acid and water to form iodine and an iodate salt.
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 09/2012; 116(40):9941-53. · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atmospheric aerosol particles can exhibit liquid solution concentrations supersaturated with respect to the dissolved organic and inorganic species and supercooled with respect to ice. In this study, thermodynamic and optical properties of sub- and supersaturated aqueous solutions of atmospheric interest are presented. The density, refractive index, water activity, ice melting temperatures, and homogeneous ice freezing temperatures of binary aqueous solutions containing l(+)-tartaric acid, tannic acid, and levoglucosan and ternary aqueous solutions containing levoglucosan and one of the salts NH(4)HSO(4), (NH(4))(2)SO(4), and NH(4)NO(3) have been measured in the supersaturated concentration range for the first time. In addition, the density and refractive index of binary aqueous citric acid and raffinose solutions and the glass transition temperatures of binary aqueous l(+)-tartaric acid and levoglucosan solutions have been measured. The data presented here are derived from experiments on single levitated microdroplets and bulk solutions and should find application in thermodynamic and atmospheric aerosol models as well as in food science applications.
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 09/2012; 116(40):9954-68. · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ability of two techniques, aerosol cavity ring down spectroscopy (A-CRDS) and optical tweezers, to retrieve the refractive index of atmospherically relevant aerosol was compared through analysis of supersaturated sodium nitrate at a range of relative humidities. Accumulation mode particles in the diameter range 300-600 nm were probed using A-CRDS, with optical tweezer measurements performed on coarse mode particles several micrometers in diameter. A correction for doubly charged particles was applied in the A-CRDS measurements. Both techniques were found to retrieve refractive indices in good agreement with previously published results from Tang and Munkelwitz, with a precision of ±0.0012 for the optical tweezers and ±0.02 for the A-CRDS technique. The coarse mode optical tweezer measurements agreed most closely with refractive index predictions made using a mass-weighted linear mixing rule. The uncertainty in the refractive index retrieved by the A-CRDS technique prevented discrimination between predictions using both mass-weighted and volume-weighted linear mixing rules. No efflorescence or kinetic limitations on water transport between the particle and the gas phase were observed at relative humidities down to 14%. The magnitude of the uncertainty in refractive index retrieved using the A-CRDS technique reflects the challenges in determining particle optical properties in the accumulation mode, where the extinction efficiency varies steeply with particle size.
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 08/2012; 116(33):8547-56. · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atmospheric models generally assume that aerosol particles are in equilibrium with the surrounding gas phase. However, recent observations that secondary organic aerosols can exist in a glassy state have highlighted the need to more fully understand the kinetic limitations that may control water partitioning in ambient particles. Here, we explore the influence of slow water diffusion in the condensed aerosol phase on the rates of both condensation and evaporation, demonstrating that significant inhibition in mass transfer occurs for ultraviscous aerosol, not just for glassy aerosol. Using coarse mode (3-4 um radius) ternary sucrose/sodium chloride/aqueous droplets as a proxy for multicomponent ambient aerosol, we demonstrate that the timescale for particle equilibration correlates with bulk viscosity and can be ≫10(3) s. Extrapolation of these timescales to particle sizes in the accumulation mode (e.g., approximately 100 nm) by applying the Stokes-Einstein equation suggests that the kinetic limitations imposed on mass transfer of water by slow bulk phase diffusion must be more fully investigated for atmospheric aerosol. Measurements have been made on particles covering a range in dynamic viscosity from < 0.1 to > 10(13) Pa s. We also retrieve the radial inhomogeneities apparent in particle composition during condensation and evaporation and contrast the dynamics of slow dissolution of a viscous core into a labile shell during condensation with the slow percolation of water during evaporation through a more homogeneous viscous particle bulk.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2012; 109(29):11613-8. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The complex interplay of processes that govern the size, composition, phase and morphology of aerosol particles in the atmosphere is challenging to understand and model. Measurements on single aerosol particles (2 to 100 μm in diameter) held in electrodynamic, optical and acoustic traps or deposited on a surface can allow the individual processes to be studied in isolation under controlled laboratory conditions. In particular, measurements can now be made of particle size with unprecedented accuracy (sub-nanometre) and over a wide range of timescales (spanning from milliseconds to many days). The physical state of a particle can be unambiguously identified and its composition and phase can be resolved with a high degree of spatial resolution. In this review, we describe the advances made in our understanding of aerosol properties and processes from measurements made of phase behaviour, hygroscopic growth, morphology, vapour pressure and the kinetics of water transport for single particles. We also show that studies of the oxidative aging of single particles, although limited in number, can allow the interplay of these properties to be investigated. We conclude by considering the contributions that single particle measurements can continue to make to our understanding of the properties and processes occurring in atmospheric aerosol.
    Chemical Society Reviews 06/2012; 41(19):6631-62. · 24.89 Impact Factor
  • James F. Davies, Allen E. Haddrell, Jonathan P. Reid
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    ABSTRACT: A strategy for examining the dynamic hygroscopic response of single aerosol particles is reported, allowing direct investigation of the interplay of thermodynamic and kinetic factors regulating the time dependence of particle size. In particular we investigate the rapid evaporation of water from water-glycerol droplets, measuring the evolving size with a time resolution of
    Aerosol Science and Technology 06/2012; 46(6):666-677. · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bessel beams were used to create a counter-propagating optical trap for capturing and manipulating aerosol particles. Aerosol droplets were characterized through measurement of the elastic scattered light at three wavelengths; the trapping wavelength of 532 nm was used in conjunction with two probe beams at 405 nm and 633 nm to reduce the uncertainty in estimating droplet radii of 1 μm or less. Control of the aerosol size distribution sampled by the counter-propagating trap was demonstrated by varying the trapping beam core diameters and intensities. Smaller droplet sizes were preferentially selected with a 1.7 μm core diameter compared to cores of 2.7 μm and 4.5 μm. Further, an increase in core intensity was shown to broaden the range in droplet sizes that were optically trapped. The possibility of using such an approach to isolate and analyze the properties of single accumulation mode aerosol particles is discussed.
    Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 04/2012; · 3.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cavity enhanced Raman scattering spectrum recorded from an aerosol droplet provides a unique fingerprint of droplet radius and refractive index, assuming that the droplet is homogeneous in composition. Aerosol optical tweezers are used in this study to capture a single droplet and a Raman fingerprint is recorded using the trapping laser as the source for the Raman excitation. We report here the retrieval of the real part of the refractive index with an uncertainty of ± 0.0012 (better than ± 0.11%), simultaneously measuring the size of the micrometre sized liquid droplet with a precision of better than 1 nm (< ± 0.05% error). In addition, the equilibrium size of the droplet is shown to depend on the laser irradiance due to optical absorption, which elevates the droplet temperature above that of the ambient gas phase. Modulation of the illuminating laser power leads to a modulation in droplet size as the temperature elevation is altered. By measuring induced size changes of <1 nm, we show that the imaginary part of the refractive index can be retrieved even when less than 10 × 10(-9) with an accuracy of better than ± 0.5 × 10(-9). The combination of these measurements allows the complex refractive index of a droplet to be retrieved with high accuracy, with the possibility of making extremely sensitive optical absorption measurements on aerosol samples and the testing of frequently used mixing rules for treating aerosol optical properties. More generally, this method provides an extremely sensitive approach for measuring refractive indices, particularly under solute supersaturation conditions that cannot be accessed by simple bulk-phase measurements.
    Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 02/2012; 14(9):3037-47. · 3.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aerosol optical tweezers are used to probe the phase, morphology, and hygroscopicity of single aerosol particles consisting of an inorganic component, sodium chloride, and a water insoluble organic component, oleic acid. Coagulation of oleic acid aerosol with an optically trapped aqueous sodium chloride droplet leads to formation of a phase-separated particle with two partially engulfed liquid phases. The dependence of the phase and morphology of the trapped particle with variation in relative humidity (RH) is investigated by cavity enhanced Raman spectroscopy over the RH range <5% to >95%. The efflorescence and deliquescence behavior of the inorganic component is shown to be unaffected by the presence of the organic phase. Whereas efflorescence occurs promptly (<1 s), the deliquescence process requires both dissolution of the inorganic component and the adoption of an equilibrium morphology for the resulting two phase particle, occurring on a time-scale of <20 s. Comparative measurements of the hygroscopicity of mixed aqueous sodium chloride/oleic acid droplets with undoped aqueous sodium chloride droplets show that the oleic acid does not impact on the equilibration partitioning of water between the inorganic component and the gas phase or the time response of evaporation/condensation. The oxidative aging of the particles through reaction with ozone is shown to increase the hygroscopicity of the organic component.
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 01/2012; 116(24):6159-68. · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: New techniques are required to explore directly the kinetics of water transport in aerosol between the gas and condensed phases, both at high relative humidity (RH) close to saturation and at low RH where the role of amorphous states must be considered. Here, we present micro-Raman measurements of the kinetics of water transport between the bulk of a particle and the surrounding gas phase by examining the rate of exchange of D(2)O by H(2)O in droplets initially composed of MgSO(4)/D(2)O. The formation of an amorphous gel inhibits the response of the droplet composition to changes in the ambient RH and leads to a substantial reduction of the mass transfer rate of water in the droplet bulk with an apparent diffusion constant of 10(-15) to 10(-14) m(2) s(-1). These measurements are consistent with the imposition of a kinetic limitation on the time response of the aerosol particle size to changes in RH.
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 12/2011; 115(49):14397-403. · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of cavity ring down spectroscopy to retrieve aerosol complex refractive index from optical property measurements has seen increasing popularity over the past few years. However, few studies have looked at the limit which sources of error and uncertainty inherent in the cavity ring down method place on the accuracy with which the refractive index can be retrieved. In this paper, we consider both experimental sources of error and those which compromise the theoretical models against which measurements are compared, both reviewing previously published work and presenting new data. Our results show that for absolute measurements made using single-cavity instruments, factors such as uncertainty in the length of the ring down cavity occupied by aerosol and the counting efficiency of the CPC can introduce an error of 2.5% into the real part of the refractive index retrieved from experiment. This is significantly higher than the typical 1% error quoted in previously published work. We note that due to the dependence of particle extinction efficiency on diameter, the effect of a given error on measurements for different particle sizes is not constant.
    Aerosol Science and Technology 11/2011; 45(11):1360-1375. · 2.78 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

340 Citations
80 Downloads
309.62 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2014
    • University of Bristol
      • School of Chemistry
      Bristol, England, United Kingdom
  • 2012
    • Stockholm University
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden
    • ETH Zurich
      • Institute of Atmosphere and Climate Science
      Zürich, ZH, Switzerland
  • 2010–2011
    • Beijing Institute Of Technology
      Peping, Beijing, China
    • Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2007
    • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
      • Chemical Sciences Division
      Berkeley, CA, United States
  • 2002–2006
    • University of Birmingham
      • School of Chemistry
      Birmingham, ENG, United Kingdom