James T Rutka

SickKids, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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Publications (466)1872.75 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Although telomeres are maintained in most cancers by telomerase activation, a subset of tumors utilize alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) to sustain self-renewal capacity. In order to study the prevalence and significance of ALT in childhood brain tumors we screened 517 pediatric brain tumors using the novel C-circle assay. We examined the association of ALT with alterations in genes found to segregate with specific histological phenotypes and with clinical outcome. ALT was detected almost exclusively in malignant tumors (p = 0.001). ALT was highly enriched in primitive neuroectodermal tumors (12 %), choroid plexus carcinomas (23 %) and high-grade gliomas (22 %). Furthermore, in contrast to adult gliomas, pediatric low grade gliomas which progressed to high-grade tumors did not exhibit the ALT phenotype. Somatic but not germline TP53 mutations were highly associated with ALT (p = 1.01 × 10−8). Of the other alterations examined, only ATRX point mutations and reduced expression were associated with the ALT phenotype (p = 0.0005). Interestingly, ALT attenuated the poor outcome conferred by TP53 mutations in specific pediatric brain tumors. Due to very poor prognosis, one year overall survival was quantified in malignant gliomas, while in children with choroid plexus carcinoma, five year overall survival was investigated. For children with TP53 mutant malignant gliomas, one year overall survival was 63 ± 12 and 23 ± 10 % for ALT positive and negative tumors, respectively (p = 0.03), while for children with TP53 mutant choroid plexus carcinomas, 5 years overall survival was 67 ± 19 and 27 ± 13 % for ALT positive and negative tumors, respectively (p = 0.07). These observations suggest that the presence of ALT is limited to a specific group of childhood brain cancers which harbor somatic TP53 mutations and may influence the outcome of these patients. Analysis of ALT may contribute to risk stratification and targeted therapies to improve outcome for these children.
    Acta Neuropathologica 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00401-014-1348-1 · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rhabdoid brain tumours, also called atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumours, are lethal childhood cancers with characteristic genetic alterations of SMARCB1/hSNF5. Lack of biological understanding of the substantial clinical heterogeneity of these tumours restricts therapeutic advances. We integrated genomic and clinicopathological analyses of a cohort of patients with atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumours to find out the molecular basis for clinical heterogeneity in these tumours. We obtained 259 rhabdoid tumours from 37 international institutions and assessed transcriptional profiles in 43 primary tumours and copy number profiles in 38 primary tumours to discover molecular subgroups of atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumours. We used gene and pathway enrichment analyses to discover group-specific molecular markers and did immunohistochemical analyses on 125 primary tumours to evaluate clinicopathological significance of molecular subgroup and ASCL1-NOTCH signalling. Transcriptional analyses identified two atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumour subgroups with differential enrichment of genetic pathways, and distinct clinicopathological and survival features. Expression of ASCL1, a regulator of NOTCH signalling, correlated with supratentorial location (p=0·004) and superior 5-year overall survival (35%, 95% CI 13-57, and 20%, 6-34, for ASCL1-positive and ASCL1-negative tumours, respectively; p=0·033) in 70 patients who received multimodal treatment. ASCL1 expression also correlated with superior 5-year overall survival (34%, 7-61, and 9%, 0-21, for ASCL1-positive and ASCL1-negative tumours, respectively; p=0·001) in 39 patients who received only chemotherapy without radiation. Cox hazard ratios for overall survival in patients with differential ASCL1 enrichment treated with chemotherapy with or without radiation were 2·02 (95% CI 1·04-3·85; p=0·038) and 3·98 (1·71-9·26; p=0·001). Integrated analyses of molecular subgroupings with clinical prognostic factors showed three distinct clinical risk groups of tumours with different therapeutic outcomes. An integration of clinical risk factors and tumour molecular groups can be used to identify patients who are likely to have improved long-term radiation-free survival and might help therapeutic stratification of patients with atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumours. C17 Research Network, Genome Canada, b.r.a.i.n.child, Mitchell Duckman, Tal Doron and Suri Boon foundations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    The Lancet Oncology 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/S1470-2045(15)70114-2 · 24.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECT Intravenous fluorescein sodium has been used during resection of high-grade gliomas to help the surgeon visualize tumor margins. Several studies have reported improved rates of gross-total resection (GTR) using high doses of fluorescein sodium under white light. The recent introduction of a fluorescein-specific camera that allows for high-quality intraoperative imaging and use of very low dose fluorescein has drawn new attention to this fluorophore. However, the ability of fluorescein to specifically stain glioma cells is not yet well understood. METHODS The authors designed an in vitro model to assess fluorescein uptake in normal human astrocytes and U251 malignant glioma cells. An in vivo experiment was also subsequently designed to study fluorescein uptake by intracranial U87 malignant glioma xenografts in male nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice. A genetically induced mouse glioma model was used to adjust for the possible confounding effect of an inflammatory response in the xenograft model. To assess the intraoperative application of this technology, the authors prospectively enrolled 12 patients who underwent fluorescein-guided resection of their high-grade gliomas using low-dose intravenous fluorescein and a microscope-integrated fluorescence module. Intraoperative fluorescent and nonfluorescent specimens at the tumor margins were randomly analyzed for histopathological correlation. RESULTS The in vitro and in vivo models suggest that fluorescein demarcation of glioma-invaded brain is the result of distribution of fluorescein into the extracellular space, most likely as a result of an abnormal blood-brain barrier. Glioblastoma tumor cell-specific uptake of fluorescein was not observed, and tumor cells appeared to mostly exclude fluorescein. For the 12 patients who underwent resection of their high-grade gliomas, the histopathological analysis of the resected specimens at the tumor margin confirmed the intraoperative fluorescent findings. Fluorescein fluorescence was highly specific (up to 90.9%) while its sensitivity was 82.2%. False negatives occurred due to lack of fluorescence in areas of diffuse, low-density cellular infiltration. Margins of contrast enhancement based on intraoperative MRI-guided StealthStation neuronavigation correlated well with fluorescent tumor margins. GTR of the contrast-enhancing area as guided by the fluorescent signal was achieved in 100% of cases based on postoperative MRI. CONCLUSIONS Fluorescein sodium does not appear to selectively accumulate in astrocytoma cells but in extracellular tumor cell-rich locations, suggesting that fluorescein is a marker for areas of compromised blood-brain barrier within high-grade astrocytoma. Fluorescein fluorescence appears to correlate intraoperatively with the areas of MR enhancement, thus representing a practical tool to help the surgeon achieve GTR of the enhancing tumor regions.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 04/2015; DOI:10.3171/2015.2.JNS132507 · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Medulloblastoma comprises four distinct molecular variants with distinct genetics, transcriptomes, and outcomes. Subgroup affiliation has been previously shown to remain stable at the time of recurrence, which likely reflects their distinct cells of origin. However, a therapeutically relevant question that remains unanswered is subgroup stability in the metastatic compartment. We assembled a cohort of 12-paired primary-metastatic tumors collected in the MAGIC consortium, and established their molecular subgroup affiliation by performing integrative gene expression and DNA methylation analysis. Frozen tissues were collected and profiled using Affymetrix gene expression arrays and Illumina methylation arrays. Class prediction and hierarchical clustering were performed using existing published datasets. Our molecular analysis, using consensus integrative genomic data, establishes the unequivocal maintenance of molecular subgroup affiliation in metastatic medulloblastoma. We further validated these findings by interrogating a non-overlapping cohort of 19 pairs of primary-metastatic tumors from the Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute using an orthogonal technique of immunohistochemical staining. This investigation represents the largest reported primary-metastatic paired cohort profiled to date and provides a unique opportunity to evaluate subgroup-specific molecular aberrations within the metastatic compartment. Our findings further support the hypothesis that medulloblastoma subgroups arise from distinct cells of origin, which are carried forward from ontogeny to oncology.
    Acta Neuropathologica 03/2015; 129(3):449-57. DOI:10.1007/s00401-015-1389-0 · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Medulloblastoma comprises four molecular subgroups of which Group 3 medulloblastoma is characterized by MYC amplification and MYC overexpression. Lymphoma cells expressing high levels of MYC are susceptible to apoptosis following treatment with inhibitors of mitosis. One of the key regulatory kinases involved in multiple stages of mitosis is Aurora kinase B. We hypothesized that medulloblastoma cells that overexpress MYC would be uniquely sensitized to the apoptotic effects of Aurora B inhibition. The specific inhibition of Aurora kinase B was achieved in MYC- overexpressing medulloblastoma cells with AZD1152-HQPA. MYC overexpression sensitized medulloblastoma cells to cell death upon Aurora B inhibition. This process was found to be independent of endoreplication. Using both flank and intracranial cerebellar xenografts we demonstrate that tumors formed from MYC-overexpressing medulloblastoma cells show a response to Aurora B inhibition including growth impairment and apoptosis induction. Lastly, we show the distribution of AZD1152-HQPA within the mouse brain and the ability to inhibit intracranial tumor growth and prolong survival in mice bearing tumors formed from MYC-overexpressing medulloblastoma cells. Our results suggest the potential for therapeutic application of Aurora kinase B inhibitors in the treatment of Group 3 medulloblastoma.
    Oncotarget 02/2015; 6(5):3359-74. · 6.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To uncover the genetic events leading to transformation of pediatric low-grade glioma (PLGG) to secondary high-grade glioma (sHGG). We retrospectively identified patients with sHGG from a population-based cohort of 886 patients with PLGG with long clinical follow-up. Exome sequencing and array CGH were performed on available samples followed by detailed genetic analysis of the entire sHGG cohort. Clinical and outcome data of genetically distinct subgroups were obtained. sHGG was observed in 2.9% of PLGGs (26 of 886 patients). Patients with sHGG had a high frequency of nonsilent somatic mutations compared with patients with primary pediatric high-grade glioma (HGG; median, 25 mutations per exome; P = .0042). Alterations in chromatin modifying genes and telomere-maintenance pathways were commonly observed, whereas no sHGG harbored the BRAF-KIAA1549 fusion. The most recurrent alterations were BRAF V600E and CDKN2A deletion in 39% and 57% of sHGGs, respectively. Importantly, all BRAF V600E and 80% of CDKN2A alterations could be traced back to their PLGG counterparts. BRAF V600E distinguished sHGG from primary HGG (P = .0023), whereas BRAF and CDKN2A alterations were less commonly observed in PLGG that did not transform (P <.001 and P < .001 respectively). PLGGs with BRAF mutations had longer latency to transformation than wild-type PLGG (median, 6.65 years [range, 3.5 to 20.3 years] v 1.59 years [range, 0.32 to 15.9 years], respectively; P = .0389). Furthermore, 5-year overall survival was 75% ± 15% and 29% ± 12% for children with BRAF mutant and wild-type tumors, respectively (P = .024). BRAF V600E mutations and CDKN2A deletions constitute a clinically distinct subtype of sHGG. The prolonged course to transformation for BRAF V600E PLGGs provides an opportunity for surgical interventions, surveillance, and targeted therapies to mitigate the outcome of sHGG.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 02/2015; DOI:10.1200/JCO.2014.58.3922 · 17.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The general principle of epilepsy surgery is to achieve seizure freedom without causing any neurological deficit that would outweigh the clinical benefit. To achieve this, the epileptogenic zone, which is the part of the brain responsible for seizure generation, as well as the anatomic location of the eloquent cortex must be precisely identified in order to spare those functions during excision of the epileptogenic tissue. Major technical advances over the last decade have continuously contributed to increase our ability to map the brain and identify these critical areas. These technologies and innovations that can be routinely used today include non--invasive studies such as magnetoencephalography (MEG), functional MRI (fMRI), simultaneous EEG-fMRI, and nuclear medicine based methods like PET and SPECT as well as invasive studies through chronically implanted electrodes. Electrodes can be either placed subdurally via burr holes and craniotomies or via frame--based and frameless stereotactic methods within the brain. Apart from a continuous change in these insertion techniques, the most valuable advances here include recordings on high frequency bandwidth (100-600 Hz EEG) that are capable to delineate high--frequency oscillations (HFOs). These HFOs have been recognized as a biomarker for epileptogenic tissue. All of these technical advances have made epilepsy surgery a truly multidisciplinary field and surgeons have to be able to understand and interpret all of the gathered data. Moreover, this development has influenced surgical approaches and techniques and epilepsy surgery today includes a wide variety of procedures. These can be subdivided into resective, disconnective and neuromodulation procedures and vary from a small, targeted lesionectomy to disconnection/resection of one hemisphere. This review will give an overview of the available surgical techniques today and will focus on how the technical advances enable us to map the brain and delineate the critical areas.
    Journal of neurosurgical sciences 02/2015; · 0.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epilepsy is associated with disruption of integration in distributed networks, together with altered localization for functions such as expressive language. The relation between atypical network connectivity and altered localization is unknown. In the current study we tested whether atypical expressive language laterality was associated with the alteration of large-scale network integration in children with medically-intractable localization-related epilepsy (LRE). Twenty-three right-handed children (age range 8-17) with medically-intractable LRE performed a verb generation task in fMRI. Language network activation was identified and the Laterality index (LI) was calculated within the pars triangularis and pars opercularis. Resting-state data from the same cohort were subjected to independent component analysis. Dual regression was used to identify associations between resting-state integration and LI values. Higher positive values of the LI, indicating typical language localization were associated with stronger functional integration of various networks including the default mode network (DMN). The normally symmetric resting-state networks showed a pattern of lateralized connectivity mirroring that of language function. The association between atypical language localization and network integration implies a widespread disruption of neural network development. These findings may inform the interpretation of localization studies by providing novel insights into reorganization of neural networks in epilepsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Cortex 01/2015; 65C:83-88. DOI:10.1016/j.cortex.2014.12.016 · 6.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECT While medulloblastoma was initially thought to comprise a single homogeneous entity, it is now accepted that it in fact comprises 4 discrete subgroups, each with its own distinct demographics, clinical presentation, transcriptomics, genetics, and outcome. Hydrocephalus is a common complication of medulloblastoma and not infrequently requires CSF diversion. The authors report the incidence of CSF diversion surgery in each of the subgroups of medulloblastoma (Wnt, Shh, Group 3, and Group 4). METHODS The medical and imaging records for patients who underwent surgery for medulloblastoma at The Hospital for Sick Children were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome was the requirement for CSF diversion surgery either before or within 60 days of tumor resection. The modified Canadian Preoperative Prediction Rule for Hydrocephalus (mCPPRH) was compared among subgroups. RESULTS Of 143 medulloblastoma patients, treated from 1991 to 2013, sufficient data were available for 130 patients (15 with Wnt, 30 with Shh, 30 with Group 3, and 55 with Group 4 medulloblastomas). Of these, 28 patients (22%) ultimately underwent CSF diversion surgery: 0% with Wnt, 29% with Shh, 29% with Group 3, and 43% with Group 4 tumors. Patients in the Wnt subgroup had a lower incidence of CSF diversion than all other patients combined (p = 0.04). Wnt patients had a lower mCPPRH score (lower risk of CSF diversion, p = 0.045), were older, had smaller ventricles at diagnosis, and had no leptomeningeal metastases. CONCLUSIONS The overall rate of CSF diversion surgery for Shh, Group 3, and Group 4 medulloblastomas is around 30%, but no patients in the present series with a Wnt medulloblastoma required shunting. The low incidence of hydrocephalus in patients with Wnt medulloblastoma likely reflects both host factors (age) and disease factors (lack of metastases). The absence of hydrocephalus in patients with Wnt medulloblastomas likely contributes to their excellent rate of survival and may also contribute to a higher quality of life than for patients in other subgroups.
    Journal of Neurosurgery Pediatrics 12/2014; DOI:10.3171/2014.9.PEDS14280 · 1.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We analyzed the spatial distribution and concordance of fast (>10Hz) and slow (<5Hz) electroencephalogram (EEG) components of ictal activities and interictal epileptiform discharges (IIED) recorded by intracranial video EEG (IVEEG) in children with epileptic spasms (ES). We studied eight children with ES, who underwent IVEEG before resective surgery for epilepsy. We quantified the root-mean-square (RMS) amplitude of the fast and slow components of ictal activities during ES and IIED. We compared the concordance between the spatial distributions of the fast and slow components of ES and IIED. There was a larger concordance between the spatial distributions of the fast and slow components in IIED than in ES (p=0.0206 and 0.0401). The spatial concordance between the fast and slow EEG components was significantly different between ES and IIED. The mechanisms underlying the generation of slow EEG components may differ between ES and IIED. The slow EEG components of ES might indicate an extensive epileptic network involving remote symptomatic zones for ES in either the cortical or subcortical areas. The high spatial concordance between the fast and slow components of IIED suggests the involvement of a local inhibitory process within the epileptic cortex. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Clinical neurophysiology: official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.clinph.2014.12.005 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor, with metastases present at diagnosis conferring a poor prognosis. Mechanisms of dissemination are poorly understood and metastatic lesions are genetically divergent from the matched primary tumor. Effective and less toxic therapies that target both compartments have yet to be identified. Here we report that the analysis of several large non-overlapping cohorts of medulloblastoma patients reveal MET kinase as a marker of sonic hedgehog (SHH) driven medulloblastoma. Immunohistochemical analysis of phosphorylated, active MET kinase in an independent patient cohort confirmed its correlation with increased tumor relapse and poor survival, suggesting that SHH medulloblastoma patients may benefit from MET-targeted therapy. In support of this hypothesis, we found that the approved MET inhibitor foretinib could suppress MET activation, decrease tumor cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in SHH medulloblastomas in vitro and in vivo. Foretinib penetrated the blood-brain barrier and was effective in both the primary and metastatic tumor compartments. In established mouse xenograft or transgenic models of metastatic SHH medulloblastoma, foretinib administration reduced the growth of the primary tumor, decreased the incidence of metastases and increased host survival. Taken together, our results provide a strong rationale to clinically evaluate foretinib as an effective therapy for patients with SHH-driven medulloblastoma.
    Cancer Research 11/2014; 75(1). DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-13-3629 · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Typical childhood development is characterized by the emergence of intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) by way of internetwork segregation and intranetwork integration. The impact of childhood epilepsy on the maturation of ICNs is, however, poorly understood. The developmental trajectory of ICNs in 26 children (8-17 years) with localization-related epilepsy and 28 propensity-score matched controls was evaluated using graph theoretical analysis of whole brain connectomes from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Children with epilepsy demonstrated impaired development of regional hubs in nodes of the salience and default mode networks (DMN). Seed-based connectivity and hierarchical clustering analysis revealed significantly decreased intranetwork connections, and greater internetwork connectivity in children with epilepsy compared to controls. Significant interactions were identified between epilepsy duration and the expected developmental trajectory of ICNs, indicating that prolonged epilepsy may cause progressive alternations in large-scale networks throughout childhood. DMN integration was also associated with better working memory, whereas internetwork segregation was associated with higher full-scale intelligence quotient scores. Furthermore, subgroup analyses revealed the thalamus, hippocampus, and caudate were weaker hubs in children with secondarily generalized seizures, relative to other patient subgroups. Our findings underscore that epilepsy interferes with the developmental trajectory of brain networks underlying cognition, providing evidence supporting the early treatment of affected children. Hum Brain Mapp, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Human Brain Mapping 11/2014; 35(11). DOI:10.1002/hbm.22580 · 6.92 Impact Factor
  • James T Rutka
    Journal of Neurosurgery 10/2014; DOI:10.3171/2014.9.JNS142259 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fetal ovarian cysts are common congenital lesions encountered in the neonatal population. These cysts are typically benign and rarely require any invasive intervention. Abdominal pseudocyst formation as a result of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt is a relatively infrequent occurrence and is similarly an uncommon cause of shunt failure. The authors present the case of a 4-month-old girl with shunted hydrocephalus who presented with shunt failure from a suspected abdominal pseudocyst that was found to be a fetal ovarian cyst.
    Journal of Neurosurgery Pediatrics 10/2014; 15(1):1-3. DOI:10.3171/2014.9.PEDS149 · 1.37 Impact Factor
  • James T Rutka
    Journal of Neurosurgery 10/2014; DOI:10.3171/2014.9.JNS142251 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The indications for operating on lesions in or near areas of cortical eloquence balance the benefit of resection with the risk of permanent neurological deficit. In adults, awake craniotomy has become a versatile tool in tumor, epilepsy and functional neurosurgery, permitting intra-operative stimulation mapping particularly for language, sensory and motor cortical pathways. This allows for maximal tumor resection with considerable reduction in the risk of post-operative speech and motor deficits. We report our experience of awake craniotomy and cortical stimulation for epilepsy and supratentorial tumors located in and around eloquent areas in a pediatric population (n=10, five females). The presenting symptom was mainly seizures and all children had normal neurological examinations. Neuroimaging showed lesions in the left opercular (n=4) and precentral or peri-sylvian regions (n=6). Three right-sided and seven left-sided awake craniotomies were performed. Two patients had a history of prior craniotomy. All patients had intra-operative mapping for either speech or motor or both using cortical stimulation. The surgical goal for tumor patients was gross total resection, while for all epilepsy procedures, focal cortical resections were completed without any difficulty. None of the patients had permanent post-operative neurologic deficits. The patient with an epileptic focus over the speech area in the left frontal lobe had a mild word finding difficulty post-operatively but this improved progressively. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 27months. Pediatric awake craniotomy with intra-operative mapping is a precise, safe and reliable method allowing for resection of lesions in eloquent areas. Further validations on larger number of patients will be needed to verify the utility of this technique in the pediatric population.
    Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jocn.2014.07.013 · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Object Resective surgery is increasingly used in the management of pediatric epilepsy. Frequently, invasive monitoring with subdural electrodes is required to adequately map the epileptogenic focus. The risks of invasive monitoring include the need for 2 operations, infection, and CSF leak. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and outcomes of resective epilepsy surgery guided by magnetoencephalography (MEG) in children who would have otherwise been candidates for electrode implantation. Methods The authors reviewed the records of patients undergoing resective epilepsy surgery at the Hospital for Sick Children between 2001 and 2010. They identified cases in which resections were based on MEG data and no intracranial recordings were performed. Each patient's chart was reviewed for presentation, MRI findings, MEG findings, surgical procedure, pathology, and surgical outcome. Results Sixteen patients qualified for the study. All patients had localized spike clusters on MEG and most had abnormal findings on MRI. Resection was carried out in each case based on the MEG data linked to neuronavigation and supplemented with intraoperative neuromonitoring. Overall, 62.5% of patients were seizure free following surgery, and 20% of patients experienced an improvement in seizures without attaining seizure freedom. In 2 cases, additional surgery was performed subsequently with intracranial monitoring in attempts to obtain seizure control. Conclusions MEG is a viable alternative to invasive monitoring with intracranial electrodes for planning of resective surgery in carefully selected pediatric patients with localization-related epilepsy. Good candidates for this approach include patients who have a well-delineated, localized spike cluster on MEG that is concordant with findings of other preoperative evaluations and patients with prior brain pathologies that make the implantation of subdural and depth electrodes somewhat problematic.
    Journal of Neurosurgery Pediatrics 09/2014; 14(5):1-6. DOI:10.3171/2014.8.PEDS13640 · 1.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Advances in surgical procedures and improvements in patient outcomes have resulted from applications of new technologies in the operating room over the past three decades. All surgeons would be excited about the possibilities of improving their resections of tumors for patients with cancer if a new technology were introduced to facilitate this. In this issue of ACS Nano, Karabeber et al. use a hand-held Raman scanner to probe the completeness of resection of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most malignant brain cancer, in a genetically engineered mouse model. They show that the hand-held scanner could accurately detect gold-silica surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles embedded within the GBM, resulting in a complete tumor resection. In this Perspective, we review potential applications of nanotechnologies to neurosurgery and describe how new systems, such as the one described in this issue, may be brought closer to the operating room through modifications in nanoparticle size, overcoming the obstacles presented by the blood-brain barrier, and functionalizing nanoparticle conjugates so that they reach their target at highest concentrations possible. Finally, with adaptations of the actual hand-held Raman scanner device itself, one can envision the day when "nanosurgical" procedures will be a part of the surgeon's armamentarium.
    ACS Nano 09/2014; 8(10). DOI:10.1021/nn504854a · 12.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebellar tubers have been recognized as a feature of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), but the evolution of cerebellar tubers with brain maturation remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the evolution of MRI characteristics of cerebellar tubers in children with TSC longitudinally. The MRI features of cerebellar tubers including number, location, shape, enhancement, presence of hemorrhage, calcifications, retraction, and the longitudinal changes of these features were assessed in children with TSC. Cerebellar tubers were seen in 69/193 (35.8 %) cases. Cerebellar tubers were wedge shaped, nodular, or demonstrated folia distortion; 33/101 (32.7 %) cerebellar tubers showed enhancement, 29/101 (28.7 %) showed calcification, and 75/101 (74.3 %) had retraction abnormality. No lesion showed hemorrhage. One hundred fifty-two of our patients had more than one MRI examinations and were followed for a mean of 5.3 years from the time of their first MRI till their last study. Of those with follow-up MRI, 53 patients had cerebellar tubers; 15/53 (28.3 %) patients and 20/101 (19.8 %) of the cerebellar tubers demonstrated an increase in size, enhancement, or calcification longitudinally. The majority of the increase in size, enhancement, or calcification occurred in the first 8 years of life. None of the cerebellar tubers showed a reduction in size or enhancement. There was no new cerebellar tuber. We have found an increase in size, enhancement, and calcification of cerebellar tubers which occurred mainly in the first 8 years of life. Further study that correlates the genetics and clinical manifestation with more advanced imaging of the cerebellar tubers may help us understand the underlying neurobiology of the changes in cerebellar tubers.
    Child s Nervous System 09/2014; 31(1). DOI:10.1007/s00381-014-2542-0 · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Multiple tubers in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) often are responsible for drug-resistant epilepsy. The complexity of the epileptic network formed by multiple tubers complicates localization of the epileptogenic zone that is needed to design a surgical treatment strategy. High frequency oscillations (HFOs) on intracranial video-electroencephalography (IVEEG) may be a valuable surrogate marker for the localization of the epileptogenic zone. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that high occurrence rate (OR) of interictal HFOs can guide the localization of the epileptogenic zone.Methods We analyzed the OR of interictal HFOs at 80–200 Hz (ripples) and >200 Hz (fast ripples, FRs). We divided OR of interictal HFOs between high and low rates by thresholding. We analyzed the correlation between seizure outcomes using Engel classification and the resection ratio of the seizure onset zone (SOZ), and high-OR HFOs using ordinal logistic regression analysis.ResultsWe collected 10 patients. The seizure outcomes resulted in Engel classification I in three patients, II in four, III in one, and IV in two. High-OR ripples (5–57 [mean 29] channels, 1–4 [2.8] lobes) and high-OR FRs (9–66 [mean 27] channels, 1–4 [2.6] lobes) were widely distributed. The resection ratio of SOZ did not show statistically significant correlation with the seizure outcome. The resection ratio of high-OR ripples showed statistically significant correlation with the seizure outcome (p = 0.038). The resection ratio of high-OR FRs showed statistically significant correlation with the seizure outcome (p = 0.048).SignificanceThe multiple extensive zones with high-OR HFOs suggest a complex and widespread epileptic network in patients with TSC. In a subset of TSC patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, resection of cortex with both interictal high-OR FRs and ripples on IVEEG correlated with a good seizure outcome.
    Epilepsia 09/2014; 55(10). DOI:10.1111/epi.12761 · 4.58 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

11k Citations
1,872.75 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1990–2015
    • SickKids
      • • Division of Neurosurgery
      • • Department of Paediatric Laboratory Medicine (DPLM)
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1993–2014
    • University of Toronto
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Division of Neurosurgery
      • • Hospital for Sick Children
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2013
    • University of Florida Health Science Center-Jacksonville
      Jacksonville, Florida, United States
  • 2011–2012
    • Toronto Western Hospital
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • Nationwide Children's Hospital
      Columbus, Ohio, United States
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
    • University of Toyama
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Тояма, Toyama, Japan
  • 2008
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Houston, TX, United States
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
    • University of Tehran
      Teheran, Tehrān, Iran
  • 2006
    • Translational Genomics Research Institute
      • Division of Neurogenomics
      Phoenix, Arizona, United States
  • 2003
    • University of Manitoba
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  • 1995
    • The University of Calgary
      Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    • The Royal Children's Hospital
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 1992
    • University Medical Center Utrecht
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Utrecht, Provincie Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 1986–1990
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • • Department of Neurological Surgery
      • • Division of Hospital Medicine
      San Francisco, CA, United States
  • 1987–1988
    • CSU Mentor
      • Department of Medicine
      Long Beach, California, United States