[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are many orphan G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for which ligands have not yet been identified. One such GPCR is the bombesin receptor subtype 3 (BRS-3). BRS-3 plays a role in the onset of diabetes and obesity. GPCRs in invertebrates are similar to those in vertebrates. Two Drosophila GPCRs (CG30106 and CG14593) belong to the BRS-3 phylogenetic subgroup. Here, we succeeded to biochemically purify the endogenous ligands of Drosophila CG30106 and CG14593 from whole Drosophila homogenates using functional assays with the reverse pharmacological technique, and identified their primary amino acid sequences. The purified ligands had been termed CCHamide-1 and CCHamide-2, although structurally identical to the peptides recently predicted from the genomic sequence searching. In addition, our biochemical characterization demonstrated two N-terminal extended forms of CCHamide-2. When administered to blowflies, CCHamide-2 increased their feeding motivation. Our results demonstrated these peptides actually present as the major components to activate these receptors in living Drosophila. Studies on the effects of CCHamides will facilitate the search for BRS-3 ligands.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest family of cell-surface receptors. These proteins play a crucial role in physiology by facilitating cell communication through recognition of diverse ligands, including bioactive peptides, amines, nucleosides, and lipids. The human genome sequencing project identified more than 100 orphan GPCRs, whose ligands had not yet been discovered. We subsequently identified ghrelin, neuromedin U, and neuromedin S as endogenous ligands of various orphan GPCRs and have proposed various mechanisms through which these peptides regulate physiological functions through their cognate GPCRs. In this chapter, we review methods for identifying novel peptide ligands of orphan GPCRs.
Methods in enzymology 01/2012; 514:33-44. · 1.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of bioactive peptides are involved in regulating a wide range of animal behaviors, including food consumption. Vertebrate neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a potent stimulator of appetitive behavior. Recently, Drosophila neuropeptide F (dNPF) and short NPF (sNPF), the Drosophila homologs of the vertebrate NPY, were identified to characterize the functions of NPFs in the feeding behaviors of this insect. Dm-NPFR1 and NPFR76F are the receptors for dNPF and sNPF, respectively; both receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Another GPCR (CG5811; NepYR) was indentified in Drosophila as a neuropeptide Y-like receptor. Here, we identified 2 ligands of CG5811, dRYamide-1 and dRYamide-2. Both peptides are derived from the same precursor (CG40733) and have no significant structural similarities to known bioactive peptides. The C-terminal sequence RYamide of dRYamides is identical to that of NPY family peptides; on the other hand, dNPF and sNPF have C-terminal RFamide. When administered to blowflies, dRYamide-1 suppressed feeding motivation. We propose that dRYamides are related to the NPY family in vertebrates, similar to dNPF and sNPF.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 06/2011; 410(4):872-7. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-27 and PACAP-38 are neuropeptides performing a variety of physiological functions. The PACAP-specific receptor PAC1 has several variants that result mainly from alternative splicing in the mRNA region encoding the first extracellular (EC1) domain and the third intracellular cytoplasmic (IC3) loop. To characterize the molecular forms of alternative splicing variants of PAC1, we examined the binding affinity and activation of two major second messenger pathways (cAMP production and changes in [Ca(2+)]( i )) by PACAP-27. Activation of cAMP was influenced by the variant in both of the EC1 domain and IC3 loops. In the N form in the EC1 domain, the suppressive effect of the HOP1 form in the IC3 loop was enhanced. Regarding the intracellular calcium mobilization assay, the rank order of the potency of PACAP-27 for the different PAC1 isoforms was S/HOP1>N/R~S/R>N/HOP1. In particular, PACAP-27 exhibited remarkable potency of calcium mobilization in the S/HOP1-expressing cells at sub-picomolar concentrations even though the affinities of PACAP-27 to the four PAC1 isoforms were not significantly different. This suggests the specific functions of PACAP-27 due to PACAP-27 preferring PAC1 activation, and leads in clarification of the pleiotoropic function of PACAP.
Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 11/2010; 42(3):341-8. · 2.89 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitsugumin 53 (MG53) is a muscle-specific RBCC/TRIM family member predominantly localized on small vesicles underneath the plasma membrane. Upon cell-surface lesion MG53 recruits the vesicles to the repair site in an oxidation-dependent manner and MG53-knockout mice develop progressive myopathy associated with defective membrane repair. In this report, we focus on MG53-knockout cardiomyocytes showing abnormal action potential profile and a reduced K+ current density. In cDNA expression experiments using cultured cells, KV2.1-mediated currents were remarkably increased by MG53 without affecting the total and cell-surface levels of channel expression. In imaging analysis MG53 seemed to facilitate the mobility of KV2.1-containing endocytic vesicles with acidic pH. However, similar effects on the current density and vesicular mobility were not observed in the putative dominant-negative form of MG53. Our data suggest that MG53 is involved in a constitutive cycle of certain cell-surface proteins between the plasma membrane and endosome-like vesicles in striated muscle, and also imply that the vesicular dynamics are essential for the quality control of KV2.1 in cardiomyocytes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), a pleiotropic neuropeptide, performs a variety of physiological functions. The PACAP-specific receptor PAC1 has several variants that result mainly from alternative splicing in the mRNA regions encoding the first extracellular (EC1) domain and the third intracellular cytoplasmic (IC3) loop. The effects on downstream signaling produced by combinations of alternative splicing events in the EC1 domain and IC3 loop have not yet been clarified. In this study, we have used semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to examine the tissue distributions of four PAC1 isoforms in mice. We then established cell lines constitutively expressing each of the PAC1 isoforms and characterized the binding properties of each isoform to PACAP-38, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), and the PAC1-specific agonist maxadilan, as well as the resulting effects on two major intracellular signaling pathways: cAMP production and changes in the intracellular calcium concentration. The results demonstrate that the variants of the IC3 loop affect the binding affinity of the ligands for the receptor, whereas the variants of the EC1 domain primarily affect the intracellular signaling downstream of PAC1. Accordingly, this study indicates that the combination of alternative splicing events in the EC1 domain and the IC3 loop create a variety of PAC1 isoforms, which in turn may contribute to the functional pleiotropism of PACAP. This study not only contributes to the understanding of the multiple functions of PACAP but also helps to elucidate the relationship between the structures and functions of G-protein-coupled receptors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sarcalumenin is a Ca2+-binding protein located in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of striated muscle cells, the physiological function of which has not been fully determined yet. Using sarcalumenin knockout (sar(-/-)) mice, we showed that sar ablation altered store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) and enhanced muscle fatigue resistance. Sar(-/-) mice fatigued less with treadmill exercise, and intact isolated soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles from sar(-/-) mice were more resistant to intermittent fatiguing stimulation than those from wild-type mice. Enhanced SOCE was observed in the sar(-/-) muscles. Biochemical analysis revealed that sar(-/-) muscles contained significantly elevated expression of mitsugumin 29 (MG29), a synaptophysin-related membrane protein located in the triad junction of skeletal muscle. Because the ablation of mg29 has been shown to cause increased fatigability and dysfunction of SOCE, the enhanced SOCE activity seen in sar(-/-) muscle may be correlated with the increased expression of MG29. Our data suggest that systemic ablation of sarcalumenin caused enhanced resistance to muscle fatigue by compensatory changes in Ca2+ regulatory proteins that effect SOCE.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sarcalumenin (SAR), specifically expressed in striated muscle cells, is a Ca2+-binding protein localized in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of the intracellular Ca2+ store. By generating SAR-deficient mice, we herein examined its physiological role. The mutant mice were apparently normal in growth, health, and reproduction, indicating that SAR is not essential for fundamental muscle functions. SAR-deficient skeletal muscle carrying irregular SR ultrastructures retained normal force generation but showed slow relaxation phases after contractions. A weakened Ca2+ uptake activity was detected in the SR prepared from mutant muscle, indicating that SAR contributes to Ca2+ buffering in the SR lumen and also to the maintenance of Ca2+ pump proteins. Cardiac myocytes from SAR-deficient mice showed slow contraction and relaxation accompanied by impaired Ca2+ transients, and the mutant mice exhibited a number of impairments in cardiac performance as determined in electrocardiography, ventricular catheterization, and echocardiography. The results obtained demonstrate that SAR plays important roles in improving the Ca2+ handling functions of the SR in striated muscle.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2005; 280(5):3500-6. · 4.65 Impact Factor