[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are many orphan G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for which ligands have not yet been identified. One such GPCR is the bombesin receptor subtype 3 (BRS-3). BRS-3 plays a role in the onset of diabetes and obesity. GPCRs in invertebrates are similar to those in vertebrates. Two Drosophila GPCRs (CG30106 and CG14593) belong to the BRS-3 phylogenetic subgroup. Here, we succeeded to biochemically purify the endogenous ligands of Drosophila CG30106 and CG14593 from whole Drosophila homogenates using functional assays with the reverse pharmacological technique, and identified their primary amino acid sequences. The purified ligands had been termed CCHamide-1 and CCHamide-2, although structurally identical to the peptides recently predicted from the genomic sequence searching. In addition, our biochemical characterization demonstrated two N-terminal extended forms of CCHamide-2. When administered to blowflies, CCHamide-2 increased their feeding motivation. Our results demonstrated these peptides actually present as the major components to activate these receptors in living Drosophila. Studies on the effects of CCHamides will facilitate the search for BRS-3 ligands.
Frontiers in Endocrinology 12/2012; 3:177. DOI:10.3389/fendo.2012.00177
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest family of cell-surface receptors. These proteins play a crucial role in physiology by facilitating cell communication through recognition of diverse ligands, including bioactive peptides, amines, nucleosides, and lipids. The human genome sequencing project identified more than 100 orphan GPCRs, whose ligands had not yet been discovered. We subsequently identified ghrelin, neuromedin U, and neuromedin S as endogenous ligands of various orphan GPCRs and have proposed various mechanisms through which these peptides regulate physiological functions through their cognate GPCRs. In this chapter, we review methods for identifying novel peptide ligands of orphan GPCRs.
Methods in enzymology 09/2012; 514:33-44. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-381272-8.00002-7 · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of bioactive peptides are involved in regulating a wide range of animal behaviors, including food consumption. Vertebrate neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a potent stimulator of appetitive behavior. Recently, Drosophila neuropeptide F (dNPF) and short NPF (sNPF), the Drosophila homologs of the vertebrate NPY, were identified to characterize the functions of NPFs in the feeding behaviors of this insect. Dm-NPFR1 and NPFR76F are the receptors for dNPF and sNPF, respectively; both receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Another GPCR (CG5811; NepYR) was indentified in Drosophila as a neuropeptide Y-like receptor. Here, we identified 2 ligands of CG5811, dRYamide-1 and dRYamide-2. Both peptides are derived from the same precursor (CG40733) and have no significant structural similarities to known bioactive peptides. The C-terminal sequence RYamide of dRYamides is identical to that of NPY family peptides; on the other hand, dNPF and sNPF have C-terminal RFamide. When administered to blowflies, dRYamide-1 suppressed feeding motivation. We propose that dRYamides are related to the NPY family in vertebrates, similar to dNPF and sNPF.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 06/2011; 410(4):872-7. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2011.06.081 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-27 and PACAP-38 are neuropeptides performing a variety of physiological functions. The PACAP-specific receptor PAC1 has several variants that result mainly from alternative splicing in the mRNA region encoding the first extracellular (EC1) domain and the third intracellular cytoplasmic (IC3) loop. To characterize the molecular forms of alternative splicing variants of PAC1, we examined the binding affinity and activation of two major second messenger pathways (cAMP production and changes in [Ca(2+)]( i )) by PACAP-27. Activation of cAMP was influenced by the variant in both of the EC1 domain and IC3 loops. In the N form in the EC1 domain, the suppressive effect of the HOP1 form in the IC3 loop was enhanced. Regarding the intracellular calcium mobilization assay, the rank order of the potency of PACAP-27 for the different PAC1 isoforms was S/HOP1>N/R~S/R>N/HOP1. In particular, PACAP-27 exhibited remarkable potency of calcium mobilization in the S/HOP1-expressing cells at sub-picomolar concentrations even though the affinities of PACAP-27 to the four PAC1 isoforms were not significantly different. This suggests the specific functions of PACAP-27 due to PACAP-27 preferring PAC1 activation, and leads in clarification of the pleiotoropic function of PACAP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), a pleiotropic neuropeptide, performs a variety of physiological functions. The PACAP-specific receptor PAC1 has several variants that result mainly from alternative splicing in the mRNA regions encoding the first extracellular (EC1) domain and the third intracellular cytoplasmic (IC3) loop. The effects on downstream signaling produced by combinations of alternative splicing events in the EC1 domain and IC3 loop have not yet been clarified. In this study, we have used semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to examine the tissue distributions of four PAC1 isoforms in mice. We then established cell lines constitutively expressing each of the PAC1 isoforms and characterized the binding properties of each isoform to PACAP-38, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), and the PAC1-specific agonist maxadilan, as well as the resulting effects on two major intracellular signaling pathways: cAMP production and changes in the intracellular calcium concentration. The results demonstrate that the variants of the IC3 loop affect the binding affinity of the ligands for the receptor, whereas the variants of the EC1 domain primarily affect the intracellular signaling downstream of PAC1. Accordingly, this study indicates that the combination of alternative splicing events in the EC1 domain and the IC3 loop create a variety of PAC1 isoforms, which in turn may contribute to the functional pleiotropism of PACAP. This study not only contributes to the understanding of the multiple functions of PACAP but also helps to elucidate the relationship between the structures and functions of G-protein-coupled receptors.