A C Palmenberg

University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States

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Publications (91)461.66 Total impact

  • Holly A Basta, Ann C Palmenberg
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    ABSTRACT: Cardioviruses of the Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) and Theilovirus species encode small, amino-terminal proteins called Leaders (L). Phosphorylation of the EMCV L (LE) at two distinct sites by CK2 and Syk kinases is important for virus-induced Nup phosphorylation and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking inhibition. Despite similar biological activities, the LE phosphorylation sites are not conserved in the Theiloviruses, Saffold virus (LS, SafV) or Theiler׳s murine encephalitis virus (LT, TMEV) sequences even though these proteins also become phosphorylated in cells and cell-free extracts. Site prediction algorithms, combined with panels of site-specific protein mutations now identify analogous, but not homologous phosphorylation sites in the Ser/Thr and Theilo protein domains of LT and LS, respectively. In both cases, recombinant AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) was reactive with the proteins at these sites, and also with LE, modifying the same residue recognized by CK2.
    Virology. 07/2014; 462-463C:236-240.
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    ABSTRACT: Human rhinoviruses of the RV-C species are recently discovered pathogens with greater clinical significance than isolates in the RV-A+B species. The RV-C cannot be propagated in typical culture systems; so much of the virology is necessarily derivative, relying on comparative genomics, relative to the better studied RV-A+B. We developed a bioinformatics-based structural model for a C15 isolate. The model showed the VP1-3 capsid proteins retain their fundamental cores relative to the RV-A+B, but conserved, internal RV-C residues affect the shape and charge of the VP1 hydrophobic pocket that confers antiviral drug susceptibility. When predictions of the model were tested in organ cultures or ALI systems with recombinant C15 virus, there was a resistance to capsid-binding drugs, including pleconaril, BTA-188, WIN56291, WIN52035 and WIN52084. Unique to all RV-C, the model predicts conserved amino acids within the pocket and capsid surface pore leading to the pocket may correlate with this activity.
    Virology 01/2014; 448C:82-90. · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nearly full-length RNA genome sequences for 39 rhinovirus B isolates (RV-B), representing 13 different genotypes, were resolved as part of ongoing studies at the University of Wisconsin that attempt to link rhinovirus (RV) diversity and respiratory disease in infants.
    Genome announcements. 01/2014; 2(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Human rhinovirus (RV) isolates from the RV-C species are recently discovered infectious agents that are closely linked to asthma and wheezing etiologies in infants. Clinical study samples collected at the University of Wisconsin-Madison describe 41 nearly complete genome sequences representing 21 RV-C genotypes.
    Genome announcements. 01/2014; 2(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Human rhinovirus strains differ greatly in their virulence, and this has been correlated with the differing substrate specificity of the respective 2A protease (2Apro). Rhinoviruses use their 2Apro to cleave a spectrum of cellular proteins important to virus replication and anti-host activities. These enzymes share a chymotrypsin-like fold stabilized by a tetra-coordinated zinc ion. The catalytic triad consists of conserved Cys (C105), His (H34), and Asp (D18) residues. We used a semi-automated NMR protocol developed at NMRFAM to determine the solution structure of 2Apro (C105A variant) from an isolate of the clinically important rhinovirus C species (RV-C). The backbone of C2 2Apro superimposed closely (1.41-1.81 Å rmsd) with those of orthologs from RV-A2, coxsackie B4 (CB4), and enterovirus 71 (EV71) having sequence identities between 40% and 60%. Comparison of the structures suggest that the differential functional properties of C2 2Apro stem from its unique surface charge, high proportion of surface aromatics, and sequence surrounding the di-tyrosine flap.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(6):e97198. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    Holly A. Basta, Jean-Yves Sgro, Ann C. Palmenberg
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    ABSTRACT: Features of human rhinovirus (RV)-C virions that allow them to use novel cell receptors and evade immune responses are unknown. Unlike the RV-A+B, these isolates cannot be propagated in typical culture systems or grown for structure studies. Comparative sequencing, I-TASSER, MODELLER, ROBETTA, and refined alignment techniques led to a structural approximation for C15 virions, based on the extensive, resolved RV-A+B datasets. The model predicts that all RV-C VP1 proteins are shorter by 21 residues relative to the RV-A, and 35 residues relative to the RV-B, effectively shaving the RV 5-fold plateau from the particle. There are major alterations in VP1 neutralizing epitopes and the structural determinants for ICAM-1 and LDLR receptors. The VP2 and VP3 elements are similar among all RV, but the loss of sequence “words” contributing Nim1ab has increased the apparent selective pressure among the RV-C to fix mutations elsewhere in the VP1, creating a possible compensatory epitope.
    Virology 01/2014; 448:176–184. · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Full-length or nearly full-length RNA genome sequences for 98 rhinovirus (RV) A isolates (from the Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family), representing 43 different genotypes, were resolved as part of ongoing studies to define RV genetic diversity and its potential link to respiratory disease.
    Genome announcements. 01/2014; 2(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Encephalomyocarditis virus and Theilovirus are species in the Cardiovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family. For all cardioviruses, the viral polyprotein is initiated with a short Leader (L) protein unique to this genus. The NMR structure of LE from encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) has been determined. The protein has an NH2-proximal CHCC zinc-finger, central linker and a contiguous, highly acidic motif. The Theiloviruses encode the same domains, with one or two additional, COOH-proximal domains, characteristic of the human Saffold viruses (SafV), and Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis viruses (TMEV), respectively. The expression of a cardiovirus L, in recombinant form, or during infection/transfection, triggers an extensive, cell-dependent, anti-host phosphorylation cascade, targeting nucleoporins (Nups) that form the hydrophobic core of nuclear pore complexes (NPC). The consequent inhibition of active nucleocytoplasmic trafficking is potent, and prevents the host from mounting an effective anti-viral response. For this inhibition, the L proteins themselves must be phosphorylated. In cells, extracts or recombinant form, LE was shown to be phosphorylated at Thr47 and Tyr41. The first reaction (Thr47), by casein kinase 2 (CK2) is an obligatory precedent to the second event (Tyr41), catalyzed by spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk). Site mutations in LE, or kinase-specific inhibitors, prevented LE phosphorylation and subsequent Nup phosphorylation. Parallel experiments with LS (SafV-2) and LT (TMEV BeAn) proteins confirmed the general cardiovirus requirement for L phosphorylation, but CK2 was not the culpable kinase. It is likely LS and LT are both activated by alternative kinases in different cell types, probably reactive within the Theilo-specific domains.
    Journal of Virology 12/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Valjean R Bacot-Davis, Ann C Palmenberg
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    ABSTRACT: Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), a Cardiovirus, initiates its polyprotein with a short 67 amino acid Leader (L) sequence. The protein acts as a unique pathogenicity factor, with anti-host activities which include the triggering of nuclear pore complex hyperphosphorylation and direct binding inhibition of the active cellular transport protein, Ran GTPase. Chemical modifications and protein mutagenesis now map the Ran binding domain to the L hinge-linker region, and in particular, to amino acids 35-40. Large deletions affecting this region were shown previously to diminish Ran binding. New point mutations, especially K35Q, D37A and W40A, preserve the intact L structure, abolish Ran binding and are deficient for nucleoporin (Nup) hyperphosphorylation. Ran itself morphs through multiple configurations, but reacts most effectively with L when in the GDP format, preferably with an empty nucleotide binding pocket. Therefore, L:Ran binding, mediated by the linker-hinge, is a required step in L-induced nuclear transport inhibition.
    Virology 05/2013; · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    Ryan V Petty, Ann C Palmenberg
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    ABSTRACT: The Leader (L) protein of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) shuts off host cell nucleocytoplasmic trafficking (NCT) by inducing hyperphosphorylation of nuclear pore proteins. This dramatic effect by a non-enzymatic protein of 6 kDa is not well understood, but clearly involves L binding to cellular Ran GTPase, a critical factor of active NCT. Exogenous GDP and GTP are inhibitory to L-Ran binding, but guanine-nucleotide exchange factor, RCC1, can relieve this inhibition. In the presence of RCC1, L binds Ran with a KD of ∼3 nM and reaches saturation within 20 minutes. Fluorescent nucleotide experiments suggest that L-Ran interactions impact the nucleotide-binding pocket of Ran.
    Journal of Virology 03/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although picornavirus RNA genomes contain a 3'-terminal poly(A) tract that is critical for their replication, the impact of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) infection on the host poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) remains unknown. Here, we establish that EMCV infection stimulates site-specific PABP proteolysis, resulting in accumulation of a 45-kDa N-terminal PABP fragment in virus-infected cells. Expression of a functional EMCV 3C proteinase was necessary and sufficient to stimulate PABP cleavage in uninfected cells, and bacterially expressed 3C cleaved recombinant PABP in vitro in the absence of any virus-encoded or eukaryotic cellular cofactors. N-terminal sequencing of the resulting C-terminal PABP fragment identified a 3C(pro) cleavage site on PABP between amino acids Q437 and G438, severing the C-terminal protein-interacting domain from the N-terminal RNA binding fragment. Single amino acid substitution mutants with changes at Q437 were resistant to 3C(pro) cleavage in vitro and in vivo, validating that this is the sole detectable PABP cleavage site. Finally, while ongoing protein synthesis was not detectably altered in EMCV-infected cells expressing a cleavage-resistant PABP variant, viral RNA synthesis and infectious virus production were both reduced. Together, these results establish that the EMCV 3C proteinase mediates site-specific PABP cleavage and demonstrate that PABP cleavage by 3C regulates EMCV replication.
    Journal of Virology 07/2012; 86(19):10686-94. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infections with the picornavirus, human rhinovirus (HRV), are a major cause of wheezing illnesses and asthma exacerbations. In developing a murine model of picornaviral airway infection, we noted the absence of murine rhinoviruses and that mice are not natural hosts for HRV. The picornavirus, mengovirus, induces lethal systemic infections in its natural murine hosts, but small genetic differences can profoundly affect picornaviral tropism and virulence. We demonstrate that inhalation of a genetically attenuated mengovirus, vMC(0), induces lower respiratory tract infections in mice. After intranasal vMC(0) inoculation, lung viral titers increased, peaking at 24 h postinoculation with viral shedding persisting for 5 days, whereas HRV-A01a lung viral titers decreased and were undetectable 24 h after intranasal inoculation. Inhalation of vMC(0), but not vehicle or UV-inactivated vMC(0), induced an acute respiratory illness, with body weight loss and lower airway inflammation, characterized by increased numbers of airway neutrophils and lymphocytes and elevated pulmonary expression of neutrophil chemoattractant CXCR2 ligands (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL5) and interleukin-17A. Mice inoculated with vMC(0), compared with those inoculated with vehicle or UV-inactivated vMC(0), exhibited increased pulmonary expression of interferon (IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-λ), viral RNA sensors [toll-like receptor (TLR)3, TLR7, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 (NOD2)], and chemokines associated with HRV infection in humans (CXCL10, CCL2). Inhalation of vMC(0), but not vehicle or UV-inactivated vMC(0), was accompanied by increased airway fluid myeloperoxidase levels, an indicator of neutrophil activation, increased MUC5B gene expression, and lung edema, a sign of infection-related lung injury. Consistent with experimental HRV inoculations of nonallergic, nonasthmatic human subjects, there were no effects on airway hyperresponsiveness after inhalation of vMC(0) by healthy mice. This novel murine model of picornaviral airway infection and inflammation should be useful for defining mechanisms of HRV pathogenesis in humans.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(2):e32061. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    Kelly Watters, Ann C Palmenberg
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    ABSTRACT: Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) from the HRV-A, HRV-B, and HRV-C species use encoded proteases, 2A(pro) and 3C(pro), to process their polyproteins and shut off host cell activities detrimental to virus replication. Reactions attributed to 2A(pro) include cleavage of eIF4G-I and -II to inhibit cellular mRNA translation and cleavage of select nucleoporin proteins (Nups) within nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) to disrupt karyopherin-dependent nuclear-cytoplasmic transport and signaling. Sequence diversity among 2A(pro) proteases from different HRV clades, even within species, suggested individual viruses might carry out these processes with unique mechanistic signatures. Six different recombinant 2A(pro) proteases (A16, A89, B04, B14, Cw12, and Cw24) were compared for their relative substrate preferences and cleavage kinetics using eIF4G from cellular extracts and Nups presented in native (NPC) or recombinant formats. The enzyme panel attacked these substrates with different rates or processing profiles, mimicking the preferences observed during natural infection (A16 and B14). For eIF4G, all 2A(pro) proteases cleaved at similar sites, but the comparative rates were species specific (HRV-A > HRV-C ≫ HRV-B). For Nup substrates, 5 of the 6 enzymes had unique product profiles (order of Nup selection) or reacted at different sites within Nup62, Nup98, and Nup153. Only A16 and A89 behaved similarly in most assays. Since each type of karyopherin receptor prefers particular Nups or uses a limited cohort of binding motifs within those Nups, the consequences of individual 2A(pro) avidities could profoundly affect relative viral replication levels, intracellular signaling, or extracellular signaling, all of which are underlying triggers for different host immune responses.
    Journal of Virology 08/2011; 85(20):10874-83. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    S P Amineva, A G Aminev, J E Gern, A C Palmenberg
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    ABSTRACT: HeLa cells are used to study the life cycles of many different viruses, including the human rhinoviruses (HRV) in the family Picornaviridae. Although the natural targets of HRV are human bronchial epithelial cells (hBE), it is generally more difficult to obtain and maintain the relevant primary cell cultures, relative to HeLa cells. Given that the HRV are now identified as a major cause of human asthma exacerbations, it becomes important to document how much of the virus biology learned from HeLa cells is common also to natural primary cells. When compared directly in matched infections using A01a virus, the kinetics of RNA replication, the synthesis and processing of viral proteins and the general subcellular localization of key non-structural proteins were resembled in hBE and HeLa cells. Viral-induced shutoff of host cell processes (e.g. nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking) was also comparable.
    Journal of General Virology 07/2011; 92(Pt 11):2549-57. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A recently recognized human rhinovirus species C (HRV-C) is associated with up to half of HRV infections in young children. Here we propagated two HRV-C isolates ex vivo in organ culture of nasal epithelial cells, sequenced a new C15 isolate and developed the first, to our knowledge, reverse genetics system for HRV-C. Using contact points for the known HRV receptors, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), inter- and intraspecies footprint analyses predicted a unique cell attachment site for HRV-Cs. Antibodies directed to binding sites for HRV-A and -B failed to inhibit HRV-C attachment, consistent with the alternative receptor footprint. HRV-A and HRV-B infected HeLa and WisL cells but HRV-C did not. However, HRV-C RNA synthesized in vitro and transfected into both cell types resulted in cytopathic effect and recovery of functional virus, indicating that the viral attachment mechanism is a primary distinguishing feature of HRV-C.
    Nature medicine 05/2011; 17(5):627-32. · 27.14 Impact Factor
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    Rachel Groppo, Bradley A Brown, Ann C Palmenberg
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    ABSTRACT: Cardioviruses have a unique 2A protein (143 aa). During genome translation, the encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) 2A is released through a ribosome skipping event mitigated through C-terminal 2A sequences and by subsequent N-terminal reaction with viral 3C(pro). Although viral replication is cytoplasmic, mature 2A accumulates in nucleoli shortly after infection. Some protein also transiently associates with cytoplasmic 40S ribosomal subunits, an activity contributing to inhibition of cellular cap-dependent translation. Cardiovirus sequences predict an eIF4E binding site (aa 126-134) and a nuclear localization signal (NLS, aa 91-102), within 2A, both of which are functional during EMCV infection. Point mutations preventing eIF4E:2A interactions gave small-plaque phenotype viruses, but still inhibited cellular cap-dependent translation. Deletions within the NLS motif relocalized 2A to the cytoplasm and abrogated the inhibition of cap-dependent translation. A fusion protein linking the 2A NLS to eGFP was sufficient to redirect the reporter to the nucleus but not into nucleoli.
    Virology 02/2011; 410(1):257-67. · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    Rachel Groppo, Bradley A. Brown, Ann C. Palmenberg
    Virology. 01/2011; 421(1):85-85.
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    Frederick W Porter, Bradley Brown, Ann C Palmenberg
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    ABSTRACT: Cardioviruses disrupt nucleocytoplasmic transport through the activity of their leader (L) protein. We have shown that hyperphosphorylation of nuclear pore proteins (nucleoporins or Nups), including Nup62, Nup153, and Nup214, is central to this L protein function and requires one or more cytosolic kinases. In this study, potential cellular enzymes involved in encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) L-directed Nup phosphorylation were screened with a panel of specific, cell-permeating kinase inhibitors. Extracellular signal-regulated receptor kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors (U0126 and SB203580) were sufficient to block Nup hyperphosphorylation in EMCV-infected or L-expressing cells. Recombinant L alone, in the absence of infection, triggered activation of ERK and p38, independent of their upstream signaling cascades. Conserved residues within the L zinc finger (Cys(19)) and acidic domain (Asp(48),(51),(52),(55)) were essential for this activation and for the phosphorylation of Nups, suggesting that the phenomena are linked. Analysis of the hyperphosphorylated Nup species revealed only phosphoserine and phosphothreonine residues. The sizes of the tryptic phosphopeptides derived from Nup62 were compatible with sites in the Phe/Gly repeat domain which display common consensus sequences for ERK and p38 substrates. The results provide strong evidence that ERK and p38 are the probable effector kinases required for L-dependent inhibition of nuclear trafficking.
    Journal of Virology 09/2010; 84(24):12538-48. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    Ann C Palmenberg, Jennifer A Rathe, Stephen B Liggett
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    ABSTRACT: Human rhinovirus (HRV) infection is the cause of about one half of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations. With more than 100 serotypes in the HRV reference set, an effort was undertaken to sequence their complete genomes so as to understand the diversity, structural variation, and evolution of the virus. Analysis revealed conserved motifs, hypervariable regions, a potential fourth HRV species, within-serotype variation in field isolates, a nonscanning internal ribosome entry site, and evidence for HRV recombination. Techniques have now been developed using next-generation sequencing to generate complete genomes from patient isolates with high throughput, deep coverage, and low costs. Thus relationships can now be sought between obstructive lung phenotypes and variation in HRV genomes in infected patients and potential novel therapeutic strategies developed based on HRV sequence.
    The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 06/2010; 125(6):1190-9; quiz 1200-1. · 12.05 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
461.66 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1987–2014
    • University of Wisconsin–Madison
      • • Department of Biochemistry
      • • Institute for Molecular Virology
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • 2010
    • The Pirbright Institute
      Woking, England, United Kingdom
  • 2001
    • University of Minnesota Duluth
      Duluth, Minnesota, United States
  • 1988
    • Purdue University
      • Department of Biological Sciences
      West Lafayette, IN, United States