Cécile Talbotec

Université Paris Descartes, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (45)87.83 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Early-onset inflammatory bowel disease starting within the first months of life could be due to a particular genetic defect. We set up the GENetically determined ImmUne-mediated enteropathieS (GENIUS) network and collected infants with a proven defect of the IL10 axis for accurate phenotyping of disease presentation and evolution. Ten patients with early-onset inflammatory bowel disease with confirmed mutations in IL10, IL10RA, or IL10RB genes were characterized on clinical, endoscopic-histological, immunobiological, and radiological findings. Functional assays to confirm defective responses to IL10 were performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. A functional defect in IL10 signaling was confirmed in all IL10R patients tested. Disease started with severe diarrhea within the first 12 weeks in all patients. All infants showed Crohn's disease-like ulcerations limited to the colon with marked perianal inflammation (fissures, abscess, and fistula); disease progression to the small bowel occurred in only 1 patient. Four of the 10 patients had granulomata on histology, and all patients showed Crohn's disease-like mesenteric infiltration on imaging. Disease pattern was indistinguishable between IL10R alpha or beta chain or IL10 defects; autoimmunity was not observed. Mutations in IL10 were more frequently associated with bacterial and viral infections. Patients responded partially to treatment with steroids or anti-tumor necrosis factor drugs, whereas hematopoietic stem cell transplantation proved efficacious. The importance of the IL10 pathway within the colonic mucosa is highlighted by the development of severe colitis within a few weeks in infants with mutations in IL10, IL10RA, or IL10RB. Immunosuppression failed to correct the defect in this pathway, which seems to be a key to controlling inflammation in the colon.
    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 11/2013; · 5.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Congenital tufting enteropathy (CTE) is a rare and severe enteropathy recently ascribed to mutations in the epcam gene. Here we establish SPINT2, previously ascribed to congenital sodium diarrhea, as a second gene associated with CTE and report molecular and immunohistochemistry data in 57 CTE patients. Inclusion criteria were early onset diarrhea and intestinal insufficiency with the typical histological CTE abnormalities. The clinical phenotype was registered, the entire coding regions of epcam and SPINT2 sequenced, and immunostaining of EpCAM and SPINT2 performed on intestinal biopsies. An epcam mutation was involved in 41 patients (73 %) who mainly displayed isolated digestive symptoms. Mutations severely affected gene expression since the EpCAM signal on intestinal tissues was either undetectable or low and irregular. Twelve other patients (21 %) carried mutations in SPINT2, and were phenotypically characterized by systematic association with keratitis (p < 10(-4)) and, for half of them, with choanal atresia (p < 10(-4)). Dependency on parenteral nutrition (PN) was comparable in patients with epcam or SPINT2 mutations, but the frequent epcam mutation c.556-14A>G (abnormal splicing) was significantly associated with a better outcome (p = 0.032) with milder PN dependency to weaning in some cases. Finally, four patients (7 %) with isolated digestive symptoms had no detectable epcam or SPINT2 mutation. Two candidate genes, Elf3 and Claudin7, were excluded from this population. Our study allows us to separate CTE patients into at least three genetic classes, each with specific phenotypes. The genetics approach raises the question of the distinction between two congenital enteropathies. Our findings should help improve the diagnosis of CTE, guide toward strategies of long-term PN management, and limit indications for intestinal transplantation to life-threatening PN complications.
    Human Genetics 10/2013; · 4.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mucormycosis, an emerging fungal infection in solid organ transplant patients, is mostly located in rhino-orbito-cerebral, pulmonary, and cutaneous areas, or disseminated with poor prognosis. A 4-year-old girl with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction syndrome underwent a modified multivisceral transplantation, including half of the stomach, the duodeno-pancreas, the small bowel, and the right colon. On postoperative day 5, a digestive perforation was suspected. Surgical exploration found a small necrotic area on the native stomach, which was externally drained. The next day, massive gastric bleeding occurred. During the emergency laparotomy, 2 hemorrhagic ulcers were found and resected from the transplanted stomach. Pathology and fungal culture showed mucormycosis caused by Lichtheimia (formerly Absidia) ramosa in both the transplanted and native stomach. High-dose intravenous liposomal amphotericin B was immediately started. No other site of fungal infection was found. The child recovered, and 3 years after transplantation, is alive and well, off parenteral nutrition. The originality of this case is the very early presentation after transplantation, the unusual site, and the complete recovery after rapid medico-surgical management. The origin of the fungus and treatment are discussed.
    Transplant Infectious Disease 09/2013; · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Small bowel transplantation has now become a recognized treatment of irreversible, permanent, and subtotal intestinal failure. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess intestinal absorption at the time of weaning from parenteral nutrition in a series of children after intestinal transplantation. DESIGN: Twenty-four children (age range: 14-115 mo) received intestinal transplantation, together with the liver in 6 children and the colon in 16 children. Parenteral nutrition was slowly tapered while increasing enteral tube feeding. The absorption rate was measured from a 3-d stool balance analysis performed a few days after the child had weaned from parenteral nutrition to exclusive enteral tube feeding. Results were analyzed according to the resting energy expenditure (REE; Schofield formula).Results: All children were weaned from parenteral nutrition between 31 and 85 d posttransplantation. Median intakes were as follows: energy, 107 kcal ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1) (range: 79-168 kcal ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1)); lipids, 39 kcal ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1) (range: 20-70 kcal ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1)); and nitrogen, 17 kcal ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1) (range: 11-27 kcal ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1)). Median daily stool output was 998 mL/d (range: 220-2025 mL/d). Median absorption rates were 88% (range: 75-96%) for energy, 82% (range: 55-98%) for lipids, and 77% (range: 61-88%) for nitrogen. The ratios for ingested energy to REE and absorbed energy to REE were 2.2 (range: 1.6-3.6) and 1.8 (range: 1.3-3.3), respectively.Conclusion: These data indicate a suboptimal intestinal graft absorption capacity with fat malabsorption, which necessitates energy intakes of at least twice the REE.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 02/2013; · 6.50 Impact Factor
  • Cahiers de Nutrition et de Diététique 01/2013; 48:S37.
  • Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 02/2012; 54(5):699. · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is multifactorial, with some patients presenting additional autoimmune symptoms. Inflammatory colitis associated with autoimmune (AI) liver disease appears to have clinical features different from those of "classical" ulcerative colitis (CUC). The aim of this study was to describe these features, in order to differentiate a subgroup of colitis associated with autoimmunity (CAI) from CUC. Twenty-eight consecutive children with inflammatory colitis associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), celiac disease, or AI hepatitis were compared with a matched control group of 27 children with isolated UC. Clinical course, histology, as well as inflammatory profile in the colonic mucosa based on real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were analyzed. In CAI the main digestive symptoms at disease onset were abdominal pain (12/28) and bloody strings in the stool (12/28), along with a high prevalence of autoimmune diseases in relatives, as compared with bloody diarrhea in the CUC group (26/27). At diagnosis, pancolitis was seen in 18/28 CAI patients compared with 8/27 in UC. In CAI, the pathological findings were different from CUC: 1) major lesions predominantly located in the right colon; 2) pseudo-villous appearance of the mucosa, and strong infiltration with eosinophils; 3) mild glandular lesions; and 4) differing inflammatory infiltrate with reduced FOXP3, interleukin (IL)-2, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) levels. Evolution in CAI was less aggressive, requiring less corticosteroids/immunomodulators. Precise clinical, histological, and molecular analyses reveal marked differences between patients with CUC and those with associated AI phenomena, supporting the hypothesis of a distinct AI presentation of IBD. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2012).
    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 01/2012; 18(10):1809-17. · 5.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thiopurines are considered first-line immunomodulators for the prevention of relapse in moderate to severe pediatric Crohn's disease (CD). Early introduction of thiopurines was shown in a pediatric trial to maintain steroid-free remission in 90% of patients for 18 months. In the present study we analyzed the tolerance and efficacy of azathioprine (AZA) to maintain remission in a homogenous single-center observational cohort of children with CD. In all, 105 pediatric CD patients (male/female 68/37) were retrospectively evaluated for the efficacy of AZA (doses 1.4-4 mg/kg) to maintain remission at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of follow-up. Overall, 93 children were included with active disease (pediatric Crohn's disease activity index [PCDAI] >30), steroid/enteral-nutrition dependency, or postileocecal resection. Remission was defined as PCDAI ≤10 without steroids. Patients requiring antitumor necrosis factor (TNF) medication, other immunomodulators, or surgery were considered to experience a relapse. Based on PCDAI, steroid-free remission was achieved in 56/93 (60.2%), 37/93 (39.8%), 31/93 (33.3%), and 29/93 (31.2%) at visits month (M)6, M12, M18, and M24, respectively. Within the first 4 weeks, AZA was stopped in 10/93 patients due to adverse reactions (pancreatitis, nausea, vomiting, skin reactions, general weakness), or not introduced due to low thiopurine methyl transferase (TPMT) activity (n = 3). No neutropenia occurred in patients with normal TPMT activity. Three infectious episodes were documented requiring temporary AZA suspension. AZA is efficacious in maintaining remission in pediatric CD patients, but to a lesser extent than previously suggested. The majority of patients who are in steroid-free remission at 12 months remained in prolonged remission. Overall tolerance of AZA was excellent.
    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 10/2011; 17(10):2138-43. · 5.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nutritional therapy has an established role as induction therapy in paediatric Crohn's disease. However, compliance is the main difficulty and may be greatly influenced by the administration route. To analyse the efficiency of exclusive nutrition to induce remission in children with Crohn's disease comparing fractionated oral vs. continuous enteral feeding. The medical records of 106 patients treated by exclusive nutritional therapy [Modulen IBD (R)] by either oral or continuous enteral route were reviewed retrospectively. Comparative analyses of remission rates, changes in anthropometry, Paediatric Crohn's disease Activity Index (PCDAI), laboratory indices and compliance rates were performed. On exclusive enteral nutrition, at 8 weeks, 34/45 patients achieved remission in the oral group (75% on intention-to-treat analysis) and 52/61 (85%) in the enteral nutrition group (P = 0.157). All patients showed a significant decrease in disease severity assessed by PCDAI (P < 0.0001) and significant improvements in anthropometric measures and inflammatory indices. No difference was observed whether Modulen IBD was administered orally or by continuous enteral feeding, apart from weight gain, which was greater in the enteral group (P = 0.041). In a subgroup of patients, mucosal healing was evidenced on follow-up endoscopies showing a clear correlation to remission. Compliance rates (87% and 90%) were similar. Nevertheless, noncompliant patients had lower mucosal healing and remission rates. These retrospective data suggest that the use of fractionated oral nutritional therapy might be as efficacious as continuous enteral administration to induce remission and mucosal healing in children with Crohn's disease. However, appropriate prospective clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings.
    Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 06/2011; 33(12):1332-9. · 4.55 Impact Factor
  • Olivier Goulet, Cécile Talbotec
    La Revue du praticien 05/2011; 61(5):648-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Microvillous inclusion disease (MVID) is a rare congenital enterocyte disorder causing severe diarrhea and intestinal failure. The objective of this study was to analyze clinical evolution and the most frequent complications of MVID in children receiving parenteral nutrition (PN) and after small-bowel transplantation (SBTx) with the aim to improve treatment strategies and prognosis. From 1995 to 2009, 24 patients (16 boys, median follow-up 4.7 years, range: from birth to 23.5 years) with MVID were admitted to our unit. The recorded parameters included growth, neurological development, liver and renal functions, bone disease, and outcome. Almost half of the children were from consanguineous families from the Mediterranean area. All of the patients completely depended on PN. Four children died of PN complications before 4 years of age. Before or without SBTx, growth failure was common (mean height -2.5 standard deviations [SD]), as was developmental delay (12/24), liver (20/22 with fibrosis) or kidney disease (3/23 with moderate renal insufficiency), and osteoporosis (6/24). Thirteen children underwent SBTx (9 isolated, 4 combined with liver Tx) at a median age of 3.5 years. Follow-up after SBTx was 0.4 to 14 years. Patient survival rates were 63% without SBTx and 77% with SBTx. After SBTx, 4 children experienced catch-up growth. PN in MVID is difficult to manage and requires expertise. Despite improved results in expert centers, the risk of death or irreversible sequelae is higher with PN than after Tx. SBTx, despite being complicated, remains the only hope to improve the quality of life and long-term prognosis of these children.
    Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 03/2011; 52(4):460-5. · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This prospective study aimed to establish the effect of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on intestinal function in children with short bowel syndrome (SBS). Eight children with neonatal SBS were included. All were dependent on parenteral nutrition (PN) for >3 years (range, 3.8-11.6 years), with PN providing >50% of recommended dietary allowance for age (range, 50%-65%). The subjects received rhGH (Humatrope) 0.13 mg/kg/d subcutaneously over a 12-week period. The follow-up was continued over a 12-month period after rhGH discontinuation. Clinical and biological assessments were performed at baseline, at the end of the treatment period, and 12 months after the end of treatment. No side effects related to rhGH were observed. PN requirements were decreased in all children during the course of rhGH treatment. Between baseline and the end of treatment, significant increases were observed in concentrations (mean ± standard deviation) of serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (103.1 ± 49.9 µg/L vs 153.5 ± 82.2 µg/L; P < .01), serum insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (1.7 ± 0.6 mg/L vs 2.5 ± 0.9 mg/L; P < .001), and plasma citrulline (16.5 ± 14.8 µmol/L vs 25.2 ± 18.3 µmol/L; P < .05). A median 54% increase in enteral intake (range, 10%-244%) was observed (P < .001) and net energy balance improved significantly (P < .002). It was necessary for 6 children to be maintained on PN or restarted after discontinuation of rhGH treatment, and they remained on PN until the end of the follow-up period. A 12-week high-dose rhGH treatment allowed patients to decrease PN, but only 2 patients could be definitively weaned from PN. Indications and cost-effectiveness of rhGH treatment for SBS pediatric patients need further evaluation.
    Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 09/2010; 34(5):513-20. · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: SMOFlipid 20% is an intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) containing soybean oil, medium-chain triglycerides, olive oil, and fish oil developed to provide energy, essential fatty acids (FAs), and long-chain ω-3 FAs as a mixed emulsion containing α-tocopherol. The aim was to assess the efficacy and safety of this new ILE in pediatric patients receiving home parenteral nutrition (HPN) compared with soybean oil emulsion (SOE). This single-center, randomized, double-blind study included 28 children on HPN allocated to receive either SMOFlipid 20% (n = 15) or a standard SOE (Intralipid 20%, n = 13). ILE was administered 4 to 5 times per week (goal dose, 2.0 g/kg/d) within a parenteral nutrition regimen. Assessments, including safety and efficacy parameters, were performed on day 0 and after the last study infusion (day 29). Lipid peroxidation was determined by measurement of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). There were no significant differences in laboratory safety parameters, including liver enzymes, between the groups on day 29. The mean ± standard deviation changes in the total bilirubin concentration between the initial and final values (day 29 to day 0) were significantly different between groups: SMOFlipid group -1.5 ± 2.4 µmol/L vs SOE group 2.3 ± 3.5 µmol/L, P < .01; 95% confidence interval [CI], -6.2 to -1.4). In plasma and red blood cell (RBC) phospholipids, the ω-3 FAs C20:5ω-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) and + C22:6ω-3 (docosahexaenoic acid) increased significantly in the SMOFlipid group on day 29. The ω-3:ω-6 FA ratio was significantly elevated with SMOFlipid 20% compared with SOE group (plasma, day 29: 0.15 ± 0.06 vs 0.07 ± 0.02, P < .01, 95% CI, 0.04-0.11; and RBC, day 29: 0.23 ± 0.07 vs 0.14 ± 0.04, P < .01, 95% CI, 0.04-0.13). Plasma α-tocopherol concentration increased significantly more with SMOFlipid 20% (15.7 ± 15.9 vs 5.4 ± 15.2 µmol/L, P < .05; 95% CI, -2.1 to 22.6). The low-density lipoprotein-TBARS concentrations were not significantly different between both groups, indicating that lipid peroxidation did not differ between groups. SMOFlipid 20%, which contains 15% fish oil, was safe and well tolerated, decreased plasma bilirubin, and increased ω-3 FA and α-tocopherol status without changing lipid peroxidation.
    Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 09/2010; 34(5):485-95. · 2.49 Impact Factor
  • Clinical Nutrition Supplements 01/2010; 5(2):187-187.
  • Clinical Nutrition Supplements 01/2010; 5(2):187-188.
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    ABSTRACT: Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) consensus criteria are defined in kidney and heart transplantation by histological changes, circulating donor-specific antibody (DSA), and C4d deposition in affected tissue. AMR consensus criteria are not yet identified in small bowel transplantation (SBTx). We investigated those three criteria in 12 children undergoing SBTx, including one retransplantation and four combined liver-SBTx (SBTx), with a follow-up of 12 days to 2 years. All biopsies (91) were evaluated with a standardized grading scheme for acute rejection (AR), vascular lesions and C4d expression. Sera were obtained at day 0 and during the follow-up. C4d was expressed in 37% of biopsies with or without AR, but in 50% of biopsies with severe vascular lesions. In addition, vascular lesions were always associated with AR and a poor outcome. All children with AR (grade 2 or 3) observed before the third month died or lost the graft. DSA were never found in any studied sera. We found no evidence that C4d deposition was of any clinical relevance to the outcome of SBTx. However, the grading of vascular lesions may constitute a useful marker to identify AR that is potentially resistant to standard treatment, and for which an alternative therapy should be considered.
    American Journal of Transplantation 07/2008; 8(6):1290-6. · 6.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Small bowel (SB) transplantation (Tx), long considered a rescue therapy for patients with intestinal failure, is now a well recognised alternative treatment strategy to parental nutrition (PN). In this retrospective study, we analysed graft functions in 31 children after SBTx with a follow-up of 2-18 years (median 7 years). Twelve children had isolated SBTx, 19 had combined liver-SBTx and 17 received an additional colon graft. Growth, nutritional markers, stool balance studies, endoscopy and graft histology were recorded every 2-3 years post-Tx. All children were weaned from PN after Tx and 26 children remained PN-free. Enteral nutrition was required for 14/31 (45%) patients at 2 years post-Tx. All children had high dietary energy intakes. The degree of steatorrhoea was fairly constant, with fat and energy absorption rates of 84-89%. Growth parameters revealed at transplantation a mean height Z-score of -1.17. After Tx, two-thirds of children had normal growth, whereas in one-third, Z-scores remained lower than -2, concomitant to a delayed puberty. Adult height was normal in 5/6. Endoscopy and histology analyses were normal in asymptomatic patients. Chronic rejection occurred only in non-compliant patients. Five intestinal grafts were removed 2.5-8 years post-Tx for acute or chronic rejection. This series indicates that long-term intestinal autonomy for up to 18 years is possible in the majority of patients after SBTx. Subnormal energy absorption and moderate steatorrhoea were often compensated for by hyperphagia, allowing normal growth and attainment of adult height. Long-term compliance is an important pre-requisite for long-term graft function.
    Gut 05/2008; 57(4):455-61. · 10.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infliximab (IFX) therapy is highly efficacious for the induction and maintenance of remission in pediatric Crohn disease (CD). However, to date it is unclear how long patients should be given IFX. Given the increasing safety concerns about the concomitant and prolonged use of IFX and azathioprine in CD, we wanted to address the clinical outcome in pediatric CD patients who responded to IFX medication, once IFX was stopped. Upon induction therapy with 3 IFX infusions, 36 of 38 patients with CD were in clinical remission at 3 months. These 36 responders were separated into 2 groups: 16 patients received no further IFX infusions, whereas 20 patients received scheduled maintenance therapy with IFX for 12 months. Among the 16 patients who received no further IFX infusions, 12 experienced relapse during the 12-month follow-up interval after IFX was stopped. In the group receiving maintenance therapy, 11 of 20 patients remained in clinical remission at 12 months of therapy, whereas 8 patients required adjustment of IFX doses or intervals. Among the 11 children who were in clinical remission and receiving maintenance therapy without dose adjustment, 8 experienced relapse within 12 months after IFX maintenance therapy was stopped. Overall, the relapse rates after IFX induction or maintenance therapy was stopped were 75% and 72%, respectively. These data indicate that IFX is efficacious in controlling severe pediatric CD; however, to induce and maintain clinical remission, repeated IFX infusions are required, with a need for dose adjustment in a substantial number of patients.
    Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 04/2008; 46(3):293-8. · 2.18 Impact Factor
  • Clinical Nutrition Supplements 01/2008; 3:8-9.
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    ABSTRACT: More information is needed regarding the prognosis of children receiving home parenteral nutrition (HPN). This article describes 20-year outcome data in children receiving HPN and provides separate profiles for the major pediatric diagnostic subgroups. This retrospective study included children who started receiving HPN between January 1, 1980, and December 31, 1999, in a single pediatric HPN center. A total of 302 children were recruited, 230 (76%) with primary digestive disorders and 72 (24%) with nonprimary digestive disorders. Median age at HPN onset was 1.5 years. Median duration of HPN was 1.3 years. By January 1, 2000, 54% had weaned from HPN, 26% were still receiving HPN, 16% had died, and 4% had undergone intestinal transplantation. The survival probabilities at 2, 5, 10, and 15 years were 97%, 89%, 81%, and 72%, respectively. The likelihood and cause of death depended on the underlying diagnosis. Nine percent of children with primary digestive disorders died, 24% from their primary disease and 48% from liver disease or sepsis. Children with intractable diarrhea of infancy had the highest mortality rate (25%) and the highest incidence of liver disease (48%; P = 0.0002). Thirty-eight percent of children with primary nondigestive diseases died, 94% from their primary disease and 6% from liver disease or sepsis. Outcome and survival of children receiving HPN are mainly determined by their underlying diagnosis. Nearly all children with primary digestive disease survive if referred early to an expert center.
    Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 04/2007; 44(3):347-53. · 2.18 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

299 Citations
87.83 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Université Paris Descartes
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2008–2012
    • Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2006–2010
    • Université René Descartes - Paris 5
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2007
    • Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Brussels, BRU, Belgium