[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metatarsophalangeal joint deformity is associated with skin breakdown and amputation. The aims of this study were to compare intrinsic foot muscle deterioration ratios (ratio of adipose to muscle volume), and physical performance in subjects with diabetic neuropathy to controls, and determine their associations with 1) metatarsophalangeal joint angle and 2) history of foot ulcer.
23 diabetic, neuropathic subjects [59 (SD 10) years] and 12 age-matched controls [57 (SD 14) years] were studied. Radiographs and MRI were used to measure metatarsophalangeal joint angle and intrinsic foot muscle deterioration through tissue segmentation by image signal intensity. The Foot and Ankle Ability Measure evaluated physical performance.
The diabetic, neuropathic group had a higher muscle deterioration ratio [1.6 (SD 1.2) vs. 0.3 (SD 0.2), P<0.001], and lower Foot and Ankle Ability Measure scores [65.1 (SD 24.4) vs. 98.3 (SD 3.3) %, P<0.01]. The correlation between muscle deterioration ratio and metatarsophalangeal joint angle was r=-0.51 (P=0.01) for all diabetic, neuropathic subjects, but increased to r=-0.81 (P<0.01) when only subjects with muscle deterioration ratios >1.0 were included. Muscle deterioration ratios in individuals with diabetic neuropathy were higher for those with a history of ulcers.
Individuals with diabetic neuropathy had increased intrinsic foot muscle deterioration, which was associated with second metatarsophalangeal joint angle and history of ulceration. Additional research is required to understand how foot muscle deterioration interacts with other impairments leading to forefoot deformity and skin breakdown.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reusable, publicly available data is a pillar of open science. The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA) is an open image archive service supporting cancer research. TCIA collects, de-identifies, curates and manages rich collections of oncology image data. Image data sets have been contributed by 28 institutions and additional image collections are underway. Since June of 2011, more than 2,000 users have registered to search and access data from this freely available resource. TCIA encourages and supports cancer-related open science communities by hosting and managing the image archive, providing project wiki space and searchable metadata repositories. The success of TCIA is measured by the number of active research projects it enables (>40) and the number of scientific publications and presentations that are produced using data from TCIA collections (39).
Conference proceedings: ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference 07/2013; 2013:1282-1285.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the capacity of bone quantity and bone geometric strength indices to predict ultimate force in the human second metatarsal (Met2) and third metatarsal (Met3). Intact lower extremity cadaver samples were measured using clinical, volumetric quantitative computed tomography (vQCT) with positioning and parameters applicable to in vivo scanning. During processing, raw voxel data (0.4mm isotropic voxels) were converted from Hounsfield units to apparent bone mineral density (BMD) using hydroxyapatite calibration phantoms to allow direct volumetric assessment of whole-bone and subregional metatarsal BMD. Voxel data were realigned to produce cross-sectional slices perpendicular to the longitudinal axes of the metatarsals. Average mid-diaphyseal BMD, bone thickness, and buckling ratio were measured using an optimized threshold to distinguish bone from non-bone material. Minimum and maximum moments of inertia and section moduli were measured in the mid-diaphysis region using both a binary threshold for areal, unit-density measures and a novel technique for density-weighted measures. BMD and geometric strength indices were strongly correlated to ultimate force measured by ex vivo 3-point bending. Geometric indices were more highly correlated to ultimate force than was BMD; bone thickness and density-weighted minimum section modulus had the highest individual correlations to ultimate force. Density-weighted geometric indices explained more variance than their binary analogs. Multiple regression analyses defined models that predicted 85-89% of variance in ultimate force in Met2 and Met3 using bone thickness and minimum section modulus in the mid-diaphysis. These results have implications for future in vivo imaging to non-invasively assess bone strength and metatarsal fracture risk.
Journal of biomechanics 12/2012; · 2.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN), an inflammatory condition characterized by rapid and progressive destruction of pedal bones and joints, often leads to deformity and ulceration in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM) and peripheral neuropathy (PN). Repetitive, unperceived joint trauma may trigger initial CN damage, causing a proinflammatory cascade that can result in osteolysis and contribute to subsequent neuropathic fracture. We aimed to characterize osteolytic changes related to development and progression of CN by measuring bone mineral density (BMD) and geometric strength indices using volumetric quantitative computed tomography. Twenty individuals with DM+PN were compared to twenty age-, sex-, and race-matched individuals with DM+PN and acute CN. We hypothesized that individuals with acute CN would have decreased BMD and decreased total area, cortical area, minimum section modulus, and cortical thickness in the diaphysis of the second and fifth metatarsals. Results showed BMD was lower in both involved and uninvolved feet of CN participants compared to DM+PN participants, with greater reductions in involved CN feet compared to uninvolved CN feet. There was a non-significant increase in total area and cortical area in the CN metatarsals, which helps explain the finding of similar minimum section modulus in DM+PN and CN subjects despite the CN group's significantly lower BMD. Larger cortical area and section modulus are typically considered signs of greater bone strength due to higher resistance to compressive and bending loads, respectively. In CN metatarsals, however, these findings may reflect periosteal woven bone apposition, i.e., a hypertrophic response to injury rather than increased fracture resistance. Future research using these techniques will aid further understanding of the inflammation-mediated bony changes associated with development and progression of CN and other diseases.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present an atlas-based registration method for bones segmented from quantitative computed tomography (QCT) scans, with the goal of mapping their interior bone mineral densities (BMDs) volumetrically. We introduce a new type of deformable atlas, called subdivision-embedded atlas, which consists of a control grid represented as a tetrahedral subdivision mesh and a template bone surface embedded within the grid. Compared to a typical lattice-based deformation grid, the subdivision control grid possesses a relatively small degree of freedom tailored to the shape of the bone, which allows efficient fitting onto subjects. Compared with previous subdivision atlases, the novelty of our atlas lies in the addition of the embedded template surface, which further increases the accuracy of the fitting. Using this new atlas representation, we developed an efficient and fully automated pipeline for registering atlases of 12 tarsal and metatarsal bones to a segmented QCT scan of a human foot. Our evaluation shows that the mapping of BMD enabled by the registration is consistent for bones in repeated scans, and the regional BMD automatically computed from the mapping is not significantly different from expert annotations. The results suggest that our improved subdivision-based registration method is a reliable, efficient way to replace manual labor for measuring regional BMD in foot bones in QCT scans.
Journal of Digital Imaging 10/2012; · 1.10 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe a new semiautomated method for segmenting and measuring the volume of the muscle, bone, and adipose (subcutaneous and intermuscular) tissue in calf muscle compartments using magnetic resonance (MR) images and determine the intrarater and interrater reproducibility of the measures.
Proton-density weighted MR images were acquired from the right calf of 21 subjects. Three raters segmented and measured the volumes of bones, adipose tissue, and five individual muscle compartments. Two raters repeated the segmentations. The intra- and interrater reproducibility of the measures (intraclass correlation coefficients; ICC) were determined using generalizability theory.
All ICC values were greater than 0.96. The average standard error of the mean (SEM) of all measures was 1.21 cm(3) and none were greater than 2.3 cm(3) . Essentially all variation (≥97% for all measures) was due to subject differences, indicating low error in the measurements.
The volumetric measurements for the bones, adipose tissue, and muscle in each of the compartments using MRI were highly reproducible. MRI can provide quantitative, reproducible volumetric measures of bone, adipose tissue, and individual muscle compartments in the calf. We believe these methods can be used to quantify specific muscle or adipose volumetric measures for other clinical or research purposes.
Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 09/2011; 34(6):1285-94. · 2.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetic foot diseases, such as ulcerations, infections, and neuropathic (Charcot's) arthropathy, are major complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) and peripheral neuropathy (PN) and may cause osteolysis (bone loss) in foot bones. The purposes of our study were to make computed tomography (CT) measurements of foot-bone volumes and densities and to determine measurement precision (percent coefficients of variation for root-mean-square standard deviations) and least significant changes (LSCs) in these percentages that could be considered biologically real with 95% confidence. Volumetric quantitative CT scans were performed and repeated on 10 young healthy subjects and 13 subjects with DM and PN. Two raters used the original- and repeat-scan data sets to make measurements of volumes and bone mineral densities (BMDs) of the tarsal and metatarsal bones of the 2 feet (24 bones). Precisions for the bones ranged from 0.1% to 0.9% for volume measurements and from 0.6% to 1.9% for BMD measurements. The LSCs ranged from 0.4% to 2.5% for volume measurements and from 1.5% to 5.4% for BMD measurements. Volumetric quantitative CT provides precise measurements of volume and BMD for metatarsal and tarsal bones, where diabetic foot diseases commonly occur.
Journal of Clinical Densitometry 06/2011; 14(3):313-20. · 1.71 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone mineral density (BMD) decreases rapidly with prolonged non-weight bearing. Maximizing the BMD response to reloading activities after NWB is critical to minimizing fracture risk.
for measuring individual tarsal and metatarsal BMD have not been available. This case report describes tarsal and metatarsal BMD with a reloading program, as revealed by quantitative computed tomography (QCT).
A 24-year-old woman was non-weight bearing for 6 weeks after right talocrural arthroscopy. Tarsal and metatarsal BMD were measured with QCT 9 weeks (before reloading) and 32 weeks (after reloading) after surgery. A 26-week progressive reloading program was completed. Change scores were calculated for BMD before reloading and BMD after reloading for the total foot (average of all tarsals and metatarsals), tarsals, metatarsals, bones of the medial column (calcaneus, navicular, cuneiforms 1 and 2, and metatarsal 1), and bones of the lateral column (calcaneus, cuboid, cuneiform 3, and metatarsals 2-5). The percent differences in BMD between the involved side and the uninvolved side were calculated.
Before reloading, BMD of the involved total foot was 9% lower than that on the uninvolved side. After reloading, BMD increased 22% and 21% for the total foot, 16% and 14% for the tarsals, 29% and 30% for the metatarsals, 14% and 15% for the medial column bones, and 28% and 26% for the lateral column bones on the involved and uninvolved sides, respectively. After reloading, BMD of the involved total foot remained 8% lower than that on the uninvolved side.
The increase in BMD with reloading was not uniform across all pedal bones; the metatarsals showed a greater increase than the tarsals, and the lateral column bones showed a greater increase than the medial column bones.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is evidence that appropriate footwear is an important factor in the prevention of foot pain in otherwise healthy people or foot ulcers in people with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy. A standard care for reducing forefoot plantar pressure is the utilization of orthotic devices such as total contact inserts (TCI) with therapeutic footwear. Most neuropathic ulcers occur under the metatarsal heads, and foot deformity combined with high localized plantar pressure, appear to be the most significant factors contributing to these ulcers. In this study, patient-specific finite element models of the second ray of the foot were developed to study the influence of TCI design on peak plantar pressure (PPP) under the metatarsal heads. A typical full contact insert was modified based on the results of finite element analyses, by inserting 4 mm diameter cylindrical plugs of softer material in the regions of high pressure. Validation of the numerical model was addressed by comparing the numerical results obtained by the finite element method with measured pressure distribution in the region of the metatarsal heads for a shoe and TCI condition. Two subjects, one with a history of forefoot pain and one with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy, were tested in the laboratory while wearing therapeutic shoes and customized inserts. The study showed that customized inserts with softer plugs distributed throughout the regions of high plantar pressure reduced the PPP over that of the TCI alone. This supports the outcome as predicted by the numerical model, without causing edge effects as reported by other investigators using different plug designs, and provides a greater degree of flexibility for customizing orthotic devices than current practice allows.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ground reaction forces from walking result in stress (pressure) and soft tissue strain at the plantar aspect of the foot. Excessive plantar pressure and tissue strain on the insensate foot may lead to ulceration. Our study investigated the effect of therapeutic footwear and custom-made orthotic inserts on pressure and tissue strain along the second ray of the plantar foot, and how these two variables are associated.
Twenty subjects (mean age 57.3 [SD 9.3] years, 12 male, 8 female, body mass index 32.5 [SD 7.4] kg/m2) with diabetes mellitus, peripheral neuropathy, and a history of a plantar ulcer participated. Plantar pressure data were recorded during computed tomography scans for four conditions (barefoot, shoe, shoe+total contact insert, and shoe+total contact insert+metatarsal pad). For each condition tested, tissue strain and plantar pressure were determined at the second metatarsal head and at 15 other points along the second ray.
Differences were noted between the 4 conditions for pressure (P<0.004) and soft tissue strain (P<0.042) at the second metatarsal head. Correlation coefficients demonstrated an association between pressure and strain (Barefoot r=0.81, Shoe r=0.75, Shoe+total contact insert r=0.73, and Shoe+total contact insert+metatarsal pad r=0.44).
Footwear and orthotic devices tested in this study decreased pressure and soft tissue strain at the second ray of the foot, and these two variables were strongly related. A better understanding of the role tissue strain plays in distributing plantar forces may lead to improvements in the design of orthotic devices.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Standard prevention and treatment strategies to decrease peak plantar pressure include a total contact insert with a metatarsal pad, but no clear guidelines exist to determine optimal placement of the pad with respect to the metatarsal head. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of metatarsal pad location on peak plantar pressure in subjects with diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathy.
Twenty subjects with diabetes mellitus, peripheral neuropathy, and a history of forefoot plantar ulcers were studied (12 men and eight women, mean age=57+/-9 years). CT determined the position of the metatarsal pad relative to metatarsal head and peak plantar pressures were measured on subjects in three footwear conditions: extra-depth shoes and a 1) total contact insert, 2) total contact insert and a proximal metatarsal pad, and 3) total contact insert and a distal metatarsal pad. The change in peak plantar pressure between shoe conditions was plotted and compared to metatarsal pad position relative to the second metatarsal head.
Compared to the total contact insert, all metatarsal pad placements between 6.1 mm to 10.6 mm proximal to the metatarsal head line resulted in a pressure reduction (average reduction=32+/-16%). Metatarsal pad placements between 1.8 mm distal and 6.1 mm proximal and between 10.6 mm proximal and 16.8 mm proximal to the metatarsal head line resulted in variable peak plantar pressure reduction (average reduction=16+/-21%). Peak plantar pressure increased when the metatarsal pad was located more than 1.8 mm distal to the metatarsal head line.
Consistent peak plantar pressure reduction occurred when the metatarsal pad in this study was located between 6 to 11 mm proximal to the metatarsal head line. Pressure reduction lessened as the metatarsal pad moved outside of this range and actually increased if the pad was located too distal of this range. Computational models are needed to help predict optimal location of metatarsal pad with a variety of sizes, shapes, and material properties.
Foot & Ankle International 02/2007; 28(1):84-8. · 1.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The primary objective of conservative care for the diabetic foot is to protect the foot from excessive pressures. Pressure reduction and redistribution may be achieved by designing and fabricating orthotic devices based on foot structure, tissue mechanics, and external loads on the diabetic foot. The purpose of this paper is to describe the process used for the development of patient-specific mathematical models of the second and third rays of the foot, their solution by the finite element method, and their sensitivity to model parameters and assumptions. We hypothesized that the least complex model to capture the pressure distribution in the region of the metatarsal heads would include the bony structure segmented as toe, metatarsal and support, with cartilage between the bones, plantar fascia and soft tissue. To check the hypothesis, several models were constructed with different levels of details. The process of numerical simulation is comprised of three constituent parts: model definition, numerical solution and prediction. In this paper the main considerations relating model selection and computation of approximate solutions by the finite element method are considered. The fit of forefoot plantar pressures estimated using the FEA models and those explicitly tested were good as evidenced by high Pearson correlations (r=0.70-0.98) and small bias and dispersion. We concluded that incorporating bone support, metatarsal and toes with linear material properties, tendon and fascia with linear material properties, soft tissue with nonlinear material properties, is sufficient for the determination of the pressure distribution in the metatarsal head region in the push-off position, both barefoot and with shoe and total contact insert. Patient-specific examples are presented.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Total-contact inserts (TCIs) and metatarsal pads (MPs) frequently are prescribed to reduce excessive plantar stresses to help prevent skin breakdown in people with diabetes mellitus (DM) and peripheral neuropathy. The first purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a TCI and an MP on metatarsal head peak plantar pressures (PPP) and pressure-time integrals (PTI). The second purpose of this study was to determine a possible mechanism of pressure reduction by measuring contact area and loaded soft-tissue thickness (STT) under the metatarsal heads and second metatarsal shaft.
Twenty subjects (12 men and 8 women; age [mean+/-SD]=57+/-9 years) with DM (duration [mean+/-SD]=16+/-11 years), peripheral neuropathy, and a history of plantar ulcers participated.
A repeated-measures research design was used, and outcome measures are reported for 3 footwear conditions: shoe, shoe with TCI, and shoe with TCI and MP. In-shoe plantar pressures were collected during walking and during spiral x-ray computed tomography (SXCT). The STT and identification of the pressure sensor and location of the MP in relationship to the metatarsal heads were determined by use of SXCT.
The PPP and the PTI were 16% to 24% lower at the metatarsal heads in the TCI condition than in the shoe condition. The PPP and the PTI decreased an additional 15% to 28% (for a total reduction of 29% to 47%) with the addition of the MP. The contact area increased 27% with the TCI but not with the MP. The STT did not increase under the metatarsal heads in the TCI condition (compared with the shoe condition) but did increase 8% to 22% at metatarsal heads 2 to 5 with the addition of the MP. The PPP increased substantially (308%) and the STT decreased 14% under the shaft of the second metatarsal with the addition of the MP to the TCI-plus-shoe condition.
The TCI and the MP caused substantial and additive reductions of pressures under the metatarsal heads. The TCI reduces excessive pressures at the metatarsal heads by increasing the contact area of weight-bearing forces. Conversely, the MP acts by compressing the soft tissues proximal to the metatarsal heads and relieving compression at the metatarsal heads. These findings can assist in the design of effective orthotic devices to relieve excessive plantar stresses that contribute to skin breakdown and subsequent amputation in people with DM and peripheral neuropathy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the reliability of identifying the location of each metatarsal head from spiral X-ray computed tomography on a matrix type pressure sensor recording.
Experimental; test-retest and within subject two-condition comparison.
Plantar pressure data quantify the amount of pressure and the general location of pressure. Specific anatomical structures associated with the site of pressure can only be determined by registering radiological data to the pressure sensor.
Eighteen subjects, nine individuals without diabetes mellitus and nine individuals with diabetes mellitus, peripheral neuropathy, and a history of plantar foot ulcers, participated in plantar pressure testing and spiral X-ray computed tomography scanning of their foot. A registration technique was developed to align spiral X-ray computed tomography data with pressure sensor data.
When mapping the metatarsal head locations to the pressure sensor 48 of 90 metatarsal head locations were identical between repeated test occasions (53.3%), 40 of 90 metatarsal head locations were one pixel (5.08 mm) different between repeated test occasions (44.4%), and 2 of 90 were two pixels different (2.2%). Ninety-eight percent of repeated measures replicated exactly or varied by one pixel.
Anatomical data from spiral X-ray computed tomography scanning can be reliably co-registered with pressure data.
The ability to match bony anatomy to pressure data allows better understanding of structural factors contributing to peak pressure, provides precise information for three-dimensional modeling of the foot, and can improve orthotic fabrication and modification aimed at reducing pressure on the bottom of the foot.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Various foot structures are thought to influence forefoot plantar pressures during walking. High peak plantar pressures (PPP) during walking in people with diabetes mellitus (DM) and peripheral neuropathy (PN) can cause skin breakdown. The question addressed by this study is "What are the primary forefoot structural factors that predict regional PPP during walking in groups of people with and without DM and PN?" Twenty people with DM and PN (mean age 55+/-9 years, 6 female, 14 male, BMI=33+/-8) and 20 people without DM, matched for gender, age, and BMI were tested. Measures of foot structure were taken from three-dimensional images constructed from spiral X-ray computed tomography. Peak plantar pressure data were recorded during walking. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to predict regional PPP at the great toe and five metatarsal heads from selected structural and walking variables. Metatarsal phalangeal joint angle (hammer toe deformity) was the most important variable predicting pressure, accounting for 19-45% of the PPP variance at five of the six locations in the DM group. Soft tissue thickness, hallux valgus, and forefoot arthropathy were the most important predictors of PPP in the control group. Combinations of structural and walking variables accounted for 47-71% of the variance in the DM group and 52-83% of the variance of PPP during walking in the control group. These structural variables, especially hammer toe deformity, should be considered in attempts to develop strategies to reduce excessive forefoot PPP that may contribute to skin breakdown or other injury.
Journal of Biomechanics 08/2003; 36(7):1009-17. · 2.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plantar ulcers produced by diabetic foot disease are devastating and costly. Better understanding of the ulcer-producing process is important to improve detection of feet that are at risk and to improve intervention. We identified and quantified soft-tissue and osseous structural changes in the forefoot of diabetic patients with a prior plantar ulcer.
Thirty-two individuals with a mean age (and standard deviation) of 57 +/- 11 years were studied; sixteen had diabetes (of a mean of 20 +/- 11 years' duration), peripheral neuropathy, and a prior plantar ulcer, and sixteen were matched controls. Computed tomography was used to evaluate forefoot structure, including the plantar soft-tissue (muscle) density, soft-tissue thickness beneath the metatarsal heads, metatarsophalangeal joint angle, metatarsal bone density, and metatarsophalangeal joint arthropathy.
Plantar soft-tissue (muscle) density was lower in the individuals with diabetes (mean, 1 HU [Hounsfield unit]) than it was in the controls (mean, 18 HU). There was no difference in the soft-tissue thickness beneath the metatarsal heads (mean, 10 mm) between the individuals with diabetes and the controls, but the soft-tissue thickness decreased with age. The individuals with diabetes had greater extension deformity of the first, second, and third metatarsophalangeal joints and greater arthropathy of the second, third, and fourth metatarsophalangeal joints. There were no significant differences in metatarsal bone density between the groups.
There were significant differences between the forefeet of individuals with diabetes and a previous plantar ulcer and those of controls: plantar muscle density was decreased, and metatarsophalangeal joint extension and arthropathy were increased. Interestingly, the soft-tissue thickness under the metatarsal heads in the controls was not greater than that in the diabetic patients.
This study demonstrated structural differences between the forefeet of patients with diabetes and a previous ulcer and those of normal age-matched controls. The information can serve to guide new interventions to prevent or treat foot ulcerations in this patient population.
The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 09/2002; 84-A(8):1395-404. · 3.23 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the reliability of using 3-dimensional (3D) spiral x-ray computed tomography (SXCT) imaging methods to measure anatomic foot structure and to test the validity of using a loading device to simulate walking pressures on the plantar foot during SXCT examination.
Nonrandomized control trial of consecutive patients with complete data compared with age-matched controls.
A clinical SXCT scanner and physical therapy laboratory in a local hospital.
Eight subjects with diabetes and a history of forefoot ulcers and 8 control subjects.
SXCT imaging and plantar pressure analysis were used to acquire 3D volumetric structure and pressure data of the foot during 4 foot positions, 2 weight bearing and 2 non-weight bearing.
Differences between repeated SXCT measures of foot structure. Comparisons of plantar foot pressure. Foot structure measurements. Methods for measuring the bony angles and soft-tissue thickness were developed and reliability tests were performed.
There was essentially no bias (<+/-0.5mm or +/-0.5 degrees ) and a high degree of reliability (81% of the measures had a reliability <2.0mm or 2 degrees ) when measuring foot structures. Correlations of pressure measures collected on the loading device compared with those collected during walking were (mean +/- standard deviation) r =.66 +/-.06. The percentage agreement between the pressures collected on the loading device and during walking was 91.1% +/- 4.7%.
Reliability of anatomic foot structure measurements and validity of plantar loading during visualization were good. These methods may be used to determine structural differences between diabetic and healthy feet and to evaluate how these differences relate to plantar pressures.
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 04/2002; 83(4):497-505. · 2.36 Impact Factor