[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperargininemia is a very rare progressive neurometabolic disorder caused by deficiency of hepatic cytosolic arginase I, resulting from mutations in the ARG1 gene. Until now, some mutations were reported worldwide and none of them were of Southeast Asian origins. Furthermore, most reported mutations were point mutations and a few others deletions or insertions.
This study aims at identifying the disease-causing mutation in the ARG1 gene of Malaysian patients with hyperargininemia.
We employed a series of PCR amplifications and direct sequencing in order to identify the mutation. We subsequently used quantitative real-time PCR to determine the copy number of the exons flanking the mutation. We blasted our sequencing data with that of the reference sequence in the NCBI in order to obtain positional insights of the mutation.
We found a novel complex re-arrangement involving insertion, inversion and gross deletion of ARG1 (designated g.insIVS1+1899GTTTTATCAT;g.invIVS1+1933_+1953;g.delIVS1+1954_IVS2+914;c.del116_188;p.Pro20SerfsX4) commonly shared by 5 patients with hyperargininemia, each originating from different family. None of the affected families share known relationship with each other, although four of the five patients were known to have first-cousin consanguineous parents.
This is the first report of complex re-arrangement in the ARG1. Further analyses showing that the patients have shared the same geographic origin within the northeastern part of Malaysia prompted us to suggest a simple molecular screening of hyperargininemia within related ethnicities using a long-range PCR.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIM: To identify genes associated with gastric precancerous lesions in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-susceptible ethnic Malays.
METHODS: Twenty-three Malay subjects with H. pylori infection and gastric precancerous lesions identified during endoscopy were included as “cases”. Thirty-seven Malay subjects who were H. pylori negative and had no precancerous lesions were included as “controls”. Venous blood was collected for genotyping with Affymetrix 50K Xba1 kit. Genotypes with call rates < 90% for autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were excluded. For each precancerous lesion, associated SNPs were identified from Manhattan plots, and only SNPs with a χ2 P value < 0.05 and Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium P value > 0.5 was considered as significant markers.
RESULTS: Of the 23 H. pylori-positive subjects recruited, one sample was excluded from further analysis due to a low genotyping call rate. Of the 22 H. pylori-positive samples, atrophic gastritis only was present in 50.0%, complete intestinal metaplasia was present in 18.25%, both incomplete intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia was present in 22.7%, and dysplasia only was present in 9.1%. SNPs rs9315542 (UFM1 gene), rs6878265 (THBS4 gene), rs1042194 (CYP2C19 gene) and rs10505799 (MGST1 gene) were significantly associated with atrophic gastritis, complete intestinal metaplasia, incomplete metaplasia with foci of dysplasia and dysplasia, respectively. Allele frequencies in “cases” vs “controls” for rs9315542, rs6878265, rs1042194 and rs10505799 were 0.4 vs 0.06, 0.6 vs 0.01, 0.6 vs 0.01 and 0.5 vs 0.02, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Genetic variants possibly related to gastric precancerous lesions in ethnic Malays susceptible to H. pylori infection were identified for testing in subsequent trials.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 07/2013; 19(23):3615-22. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Familial ligand-defective apolipoprotein B-100 is characterized by elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein levels and premature heart disease. This study aims to determine apolipoprotein B gene mutations among Malaysians with clinical diagnoses of familial hypercholesterolemia and to compare the phenotype of patients with apolipoprotein B gene mutations to those with a low-density lipoprotein receptor gene mutation. A group of 164 patients with a clinical diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolemia was analyzed. Amplicons in exon 26 and exon 29 of the apolipoprotein B gene were screened for genetic variants using denaturing gradient high-performance liquid chromatography; 10 variants were identified. Five novel mutations were detected (p.Gln2485Arg, p.Thr3526Ala, p.Glu3666Lys, p.Tyr4343CysfsX221, and p.Arg4297His). Those with familial defective apolipoprotein had a less severe phenotype than those with familial hypercholesterolemia. An apolipoprotein gene defect is present among Malaysian familial hypercholesterolemics. Those with both mutations show a more severe phenotype than those with one gene defect.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We undertook the clinical feature examination and dystrophin analysis using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and direct DNA sequencing of selected exons in a cohort of 35 Malaysian Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD) patients. We found 27 patients with deletions of one or more exons, 2 patients with one exon duplication, 2 patients with nucleotide deletion, and 4 patients with nonsense mutations (including 1 patient with two nonsense mutations in the same exon). Although most cases showed compliance to the reading frame rule, we found two unrelated DMD patients with an in-frame deletion of the gene. Two novel mutations have been detected in the Dystrophin gene and our results were compatible with other studies where the majority of the mutations (62.8%) are located in the distal hotspot. However, the frequency of the mutations in our patient varied as compared with those found in other populations.
Journal of neurogenetics 02/2013; · 0.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-syndromic oral clefts share the main clinical features of Van der Woude Syndrome (VWS), with the exception of the lower lip pit. Thus, about 15% of VWS cases are indistinguishable from cases with non-syndromic oral clefts. IRF6 mutations are the major cause of VWS; however, variants in this gene show strong association with non-syndromic oral clefts, with a higher increased risk among cases with cleft lip only (CLO). A total of 39 individuals, including 16 patients with CLO and 23 patients with a family history of cleft, were examined for IRF6 mutations in the present study. Seven variants, including five known (c.-75-4 A>; G, c.-73T>; C, c.459G>; T 5, c.820G>; A, and c.1060 + 37C>; T) and two novel (c.-75-23G>; C and c.1380G>; T), were found. Both novel variants were inherited from non-affected parents and we did not find also in the 120 control chromosomes. In silico analysis revealed that both c.1380G>; T and c.-75-23G>; C variants may disrupts a putative exonic splicing enhancer and intronic splicing binding site for SC35, respectively. Taken together, the presence of deleterious IRF6 variants in patients with non-syndromic oral clefts could be most likely an evidence for VWS. While, IRF6 variants could, at best, contribute to clefting as part of a complex inheritance pattern, with both additional genes and environmental factors having a role.
European journal of medical genetics 03/2012; 55(6-7):389-93. · 1.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several studies have shown evidence for the contribution of interferon regulatory factor 6 (IRF6) variants to the risk of nonsyndromic oral clefts in Asians; however, this has not included the Malay population. The current study attempts to address this research gap using allele and haplotype transmission disequilibrium analyses. The results showed a strong transmission distortion for multiple haplotypes to patients with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Haplotypes carrying the 243 bp allele of D1S2136 and common alleles at the rs861019 and rs2235371 were over-transmitted to patients. By contrast, haplotypes consisting of the 251 bp allele of D1S2136 and the rare allele at rs2235371 were more under-transmitted. Furthermore, several variants and haplotypes showed excess maternal transmission, but none of them attained statistical significance in maternal relative risk analyses. In contrast, a significant child genotype effect was observed for several haplotypes, indicating fetal genotype could be the major genetic contribution rather than maternal genotype. The present study therefore further supports a role for IRF6 variants in clefting in this Southeast Asian population. Overall, Asian genetic backgrounds are most likely more susceptible to the haploinsufficiency of IRF6 variants. These variants may contribute to the condition either themselves, or they may be in linkage disequilibrium with other casual variants.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 09/2011; 155A(9):2302-7. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oral clefts are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders that are influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The present family-based association study investigated the role of the MSX1 and TGFB3 genes in the etiology of non-syndromic oral cleft in a Malay population. No transmission distortion was found in the transmission disequilibrium analysis for either MSX1-CA or TGFB3-CA intragenic markers, whereas TGFB3-CA exhibited a trend to excess maternal transmission. In sequencing the MSX1 coding regions in 124 patients with oral cleft, five variants were found, including three known variants (A34G, G110G and P147Q) and two novel variants (M37L and G267A). The P147Q and M37L variants were not observed in 200 control chromosomes, whereas G267A was found in one control sample, indicating a very rare polymorphic variant. Furthermore, the G110G variant displayed a significant association between patients with non-syndromic cleft lip, with or without cleft palate, and normal controls (P=0.001, odds ratio=2.241, 95% confidence interval, 1.357-3.700). Therefore, these genetic variants may contribute, along with other genetic and environmental factors, to this condition.
Journal of Human Genetics 08/2011; 56(11):755-8. · 2.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), identification of one nonsense mutation in the DMD gene has been considered an endpoint of genetic diagnosis. Here, we identified two closely spaced nonsense mutations in the DMD gene. In a Malaysian DMD patient two nonsense mutations (p.234S>X and p.249Q>X, respectively) were identified within exon 8. The proband's mother carried both mutations on one allele. Multiple mutations may explain the occasional discrepancies between genotype and phenotype in dystrophinopathy.
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 07/2011; 103(3):303-4. · 2.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors suggest a simplification for the current molecular genetic testing of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Deletion analysis of SMN1 exon 7 alone may be necessary and sufficient for the diagnosis of SMA. It is based on sole contribution of survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) exon 7 to SMA pathogenesis.
Journal of neurogenetics 02/2011; 25(1-2):15-6. · 0.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patterns of modern human population structure are helpful in understanding the history of human migration and admixture. We conducted a study on genetic structure of the Malay population in Malaysia, using 54,794 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism genotype data generated in four Malay sub-ethnic groups in peninsular Malaysia (Melayu Kelantan, Melayu Minang, Melayu Jawa and Melayu Bugis). To the best of our knowledge this is the first study conducted on these four Malay sub-ethnic groups and the analysis of genotype data of these four groups were compiled together with 11 other populations' genotype data from Indonesia, China, India, Africa and indigenous populations in Peninsular Malaysia obtained from the Pan-Asian SNP database. The phylogeny of populations showed that all of the four Malay sub-ethnic groups are separated into at least three different clusters. The Melayu Jawa, Melayu Bugis and Melayu Minang have a very close genetic relationship with Indonesian populations indicating a common ancestral history, while the Melayu Kelantan formed a distinct group on the tree indicating that they are genetically different from the other Malay sub-ethnic groups. We have detected genetic structuring among the Malay populations and this could possibly be accounted for by their different historical origins. Our results provide information of the genetic differentiation between these populations and a valuable insight into the origins of the Malay sub-ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(4):e18312. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patterns of modern human population structure are helpful in understanding the history of human migration and
admixture. We conducted a study on genetic structure of the Malay population in Malaysia, using 54,794 genome-wide
single nucleotide polymorphism genotype data generated in four Malay sub-ethnic groups in peninsular Malaysia (Melayu
Kelantan, Melayu Minang, Melayu Jawa and Melayu Bugis). To the best of our knowledge this is the first study conducted on
these four Malay sub-ethnic groups and the analysis of genotype data of these four groups were compiled together with 11
other populations’ genotype data from Indonesia, China, India, Africa and indigenous populations in Peninsular Malaysia
obtained from the Pan-Asian SNP database. The phylogeny of populations showed that all of the four Malay sub-ethnic
groups are separated into at least three different clusters. The Melayu Jawa, Melayu Bugis and Melayu Minang have a very
close genetic relationship with Indonesian populations indicating a common ancestral history, while the Melayu Kelantan
formed a distinct group on the tree indicating that they are genetically different from the other Malay sub-ethnic groups.
We have detected genetic structuring among the Malay populations and this could possibly be accounted for by their
different historical origins. Our results provide information of the genetic differentiation between these populations and a
valuable insight into the origins of the Malay sub-ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(4):e18312. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The importance of serum lipids as cardiovascular risk factors is well recognized. However, most published studies have focused on western countries. The present study aimed to describe and analyze the lipid profile parameters in Malaysian dyslipidemic patients, and to identify concomitant clinical problems and risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) among such patients.
A retrospective record review was carried out at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. The records were reviewed for 890 dyslipidemic patients who attended the hospital in 2007. Data were collected for age at time of presentation, sex, ethnicity, smoking status, pre-treatment lipid levels, and presence of associated illnesses. The study sample was classified according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III risk groups.
The mean (SD) values for total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were 6.4 (1.3), 4.1 (1.3), 1.4 (0.5) and 1.9 (1.2) mmol/l, respectively. Less than half of study sample (43.1%) had coronary heart disease and coronary heart diseases equivalents, 24.3% were at moderate risk, and 32.6% were at low risk. Hypertension was present in 79.9% of the study sample, while 27.5% were diabetics. Cardiovascular disease was reported among 17.9%. Logistic regression revealed that family history of premature cardiovascular disease, higher age risk group; ethnicity and total cholesterol were predictors for the development of cardiovascular disease.
The present review showed that dyslipidemic patients had high total cholesterol levels, according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. They were clinically diagnosed at middle age. Hypertension and diabetes were the commonest associated clinical problems. A large proportion of the patients were within the coronary heart disease or coronary heart disease risk equivalent group. Family history of premature cardiovascular disease, age, ethnicity, and total cholesterol are important risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease in Malaysian dyslipidemic patients.
The Kobe journal of medical sciences 01/2011; 57(2):E38-48.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe a chromosome 6 uniparental disomy (UPD6) in a boy, discovered during a screening for the genetic cause of cleft lip and palate. In the medical literature, almost all documented cases of UPD6 are paternal in origin, and only four were maternal. We present here a report of complete maternal chromosome 6 uniparental heterodisomy. Haplotype analysis was performed using highly polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) markers that span both arms of chromosome 6. Analysis of these markers revealed the presence of two maternal alleles but no paternal allele, indicating an instance of maternal uniparental heterodisomy. Chromosome analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes confirmed a normal male karyotype. Advanced maternal age at the time of the infant's birth and heterodisomy of markers around the centromere favors a meiosis-I error. No specific phenotype has been reported for maternal UPD6. Therefore, the cleft lip and palate in the present case probably occurred due to other risk factors. This report provides further evidence that maternal UPD6 has no specific clinical consequences and adds to the collective knowledge of this rare chromosomal finding.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 07/2010; 152A(7):1818-21. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ring chromosome 6, especially if it is de novo, is a rare occurrence. The phenotype of patients with ring chromosome 6 can be highly variable ranging from almost normal to severe malformations and mental retardation. The size and structure of the ring chromosome as well as the level of mosaicism are important factors in determining the clinical phenotype. Here we report an eight month-old child, a product of a non consanguineous marriage, who presented with developmental retardation, hypertelorism, microcephaly, flat occiput, broad nasal bridge, large ears, micrognathia, wide spaced nipples, protruding umbilicus, short stubby fingers, clinodactyly, single palmar crease, short neck with no obvious webbing, and congenital heart defect. Conventional karyotyping and Whole Chromosome Paint of the peripheral leukocytes showed 46,XY,r(6)(p25q27) karyotype with plausible breakpoints at p25 and q27 end. Conventional karyotyping of both parents showed normal karyotype. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a Malay individual with ring chromosome 6, and this report adds to the collective knowledge of this rare chromosome abnormality.
The Kobe journal of medical sciences 01/2010; 56(2):E79-84.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abortion has been largely avoided in Muslim communities. However, Islamic jurists have established rigorous parameters enabling abortion of fetuses with severe congenital abnormalities. This decision-making process has been hindered by an inability to predict the severity of such prenatally-diagnosed conditions, especially in genetic disorders with clinical heterogeneity, such as spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Heterogeneous phenotypes of SMA range from extremely severe type 1 to very mild type 4. Advances in molecular genetics have made it possible to perform prenatal diagnosis and to predict the types of SMA with its potential subsequent severity. Such techniques will make it possible for clinicians working in predominantly Muslim countries to counsel their patients accurately and in harmony with their religious beliefs. In this paper, we discuss and postulate that with our current knowledge of determining SMA types and severity with great accuracy, abortion is legally applicable for type 1 SMA.
Annals of Saudi medicine 01/2010; 30(6):427-31. · 1.10 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Asia harbors substantial cultural and linguistic diversity, but the geographic structure of genetic variation across the continent remains enigmatic. Here we report a large-scale survey of autosomal variation from a broad geographic sample of Asian human populations. Our results show that genetic ancestry is strongly correlated with linguistic affiliations as well as geography. Most populations show relatedness within ethnic/linguistic groups, despite prevalent gene flow among populations. More than 90% of East Asian (EA) haplotypes could be found in either Southeast Asian (SEA) or Central-South Asian (CSA) populations and show clinal structure with haplotype diversity decreasing from south to north. Furthermore, 50% of EA haplotypes were found in SEA only and 5% were found in CSA only, indicating that SEA was a major geographic source of EA populations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The majority of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) patients showed homozygous deletion or other mutations of SMN1. However, the genetic etiology of a significant number of SMA patients has not been clarified. Recently, mutation in the gene underlying cat SMA, limb expression 1 (LIX1), has been reported. Similarity in clinical and pathological features of cat and human SMA may give an insight into possible similarity of the genetic etiology.
In this study, we screened for a mutation in LIX1 using direct DNA sequencing in our SMA and/or SMA-like patients who retained SMN1. A total of 33 patients were enrolled in this study, of which 22 were Japanese and 11 were Malaysians. All these patients possessed at least two copies of SMN1.
We did not identify any pathogenic mutations in the coding regions or splice sites of LIX1 in the patients. In addition, we described a polymorphism within LIX1 intron 3, c.387+107A>T. We found that A-allele is significantly more frequent in SMA patients compared to normal individuals.
Molecular genetic analysis of our SMA and/or SMA-like patients suggests that LIX1 is not associated with the development of their disorders. However, the number of patients analyzed in this study was very limited, and a larger study with bigger sample size is needed to confirm this result.
Brain & development 09/2009; 32(5):385-9. · 1.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the frequency of the transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFalpha) Taq1 polymorphism in nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL+/-P) and cleft palate only (CP) in Kelantan, Malaysia.
The study was conducted at the Combined Cleft Clinic and at the Human Genome Centre in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia in Kelantan, Malaysia.
We examined the C2/Taq1 variant of the TGFalpha gene in 46 patients with nonsyndromic CL+/-P or CP only and in 33 controls. The TGFalpha genotype frequencies in patients were compared with those in controls using the chi-square or Fisher exact test. DNA samples were obtained from peripheral blood.
No association was found between TGFalphaTaq1 polymorphism and CL+/-P or CP in this case-control study. In addition, no homozygosity for the rare allele C2 was noted in CL+/-P, CP, or the controls.
No evidence of TGFalphaTaq1 polymorphism was observed in association with CL+/-P and CP in this study.
The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal 12/2008; 45(6):583-6. · 1.24 Impact Factor