[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported that neutrophil elastase (NE) stimulated MUC1 gene expression in A549 lung epithelial cells through binding of Sp1 to the MUC1 promoter element. The current study was undertaken to elucidate the complete signaling pathway leading to Sp1 activation. Using a combination of pharmacologic inhibitors, dominant-negative mutant, RNA interference, and soluble receptor blocking techniques, we identified a protein kinase Cdelta (PKCdelta) --> dual oxidase 1 (Duox1) --> reactive oxygen species (ROS) --> TNF-alpha-converting enzyme (TACE) --> TNF-alpha --> TNF receptor (TNFR)1 --> extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 --> Sp1 pathway as responsible for NE-activated MUC1 transcription. This cascade was identical up to the point of TACE with the signaling pathway previously reported for NE-stimulated MUC5AC production. However, unlike the MUC5AC pathway, TNF-alpha, TNFR1, ERK1/2, and Sp1 were unique components of the MUC1 pathway. Given the anti-inflammatory role of MUC1 during airway bacterial infection, up-regulation of MUC1 by inflammatory mediators such as NE and TNF-alpha suggests a crucial role for MUC1 in the control of excessive inflammation during airway bacterial infection.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 01/2008; 37(6):691-8. · 4.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current study was conducted to elucidate the mechanism through which TNF-alpha stimulates expression of MUC1, a membrane-tethered mucin. A549 human lung alveolar cells treated with TNF-alpha exhibited significantly higher MUC1 protein levels in detergent lysates compared with cells treated with vehicle alone. Increased MUC1 protein levels were correlated with significantly higher levels of MUC1 mRNA in TNF-alpha-treated cells compared with controls. However, TNF-alpha did not alter MUC1 transcript stability, implying increased de novo transcription induced by the cytokine. TNF-alpha increased MUC1 gene promoter activity in A549 cells transfected with a promoter-luciferase reporter plasmid. Both U0126, an inhibitor of MEK1/2, and dominant negative ERK1 prevented TNF-alpha-induced MUC1 promoter activation, and anti-TNFR1 antibody blocked TNF-alpha-stimulated ERK1/2 activation. MUC1 promoter activation by TNF-alpha also was blocked by mithramycin A, an inhibitor of Sp1, as well as either deletion or mutation of a putative Sp1 binding site in the MUC1 promoter located between nucleotides -99 and -90. TNF-alpha-stimulated binding of Sp1 to the MUC1 promoter in intact cells was demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. We conclude that TNF-alpha induces MUC1 gene transcription through a TNFR1 --> MEK1/2 --> ERK1 --> Sp1 pathway.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the regulation and mechanism of IL-8 expression by A549 human lung carcinoma cells treated with neutrophil elastase (NE). NE-treated cells exhibited significantly higher IL-8 protein levels in culture media compared with cells treated with vehicle alone. Blocking of gene transcription with actinomycin D suggested that NE stimulated IL-8 synthesis via increased mRNA expression, which was verified by real-time RT-PCR. NE activated the IL-8 promoter but did not alter the stability of its mRNA, confirming that the protease induced IL-8 synthesis through increased gene transcription. The results from the use of chemical inhibitors and mutant gene constructs against various signal transduction components seem to suggest the linear signaling pathway involving the activation of PKC-delta --> dual oxidase 1 --> reactive oxygen species --> TNF-alpha-converting enzyme --> EGF receptor --> p38 --> NF-kappaB for NE-activated IL-8 gene expression. A NF-kappaB potential binding site, located between nucleotides -82 and -69 of the IL-8 promoter, was identified as necessary for NE-induced IL-8 transcription. We conclude that NE increases IL-8 transcription through p38/NF-kappaB activation via EGFR transactivation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MUC1 (MUC1 in human and Muc1 in nonhumans) is a membrane-tethered mucin that interacts with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) through flagellin. In this study, we compared PA pulmonary clearance and proinflammatory responses by Muc1(-/-) mice with Muc1(+/+) littermates following intranasal instillation of PA or flagellin. Compared with Muc1(+/+) mice, Muc1(-/-) mice showed increased PA clearance, greater airway recruitment of neutrophils, higher levels of TNF-alpha and KC in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, higher levels of TNF-alpha in media of flagellin-stimulated alveolar macrophages, and higher levels of KC in media of tracheal epithelial cells. Knockdown of MUC1 enhanced flagellin-induced IL-8 production by primary human bronchial epithelial cells. Expression of MUC1 in HEK293T cells attenuated TLR5-dependent IL-8 release in response to flagellin, which was completely ablated when its cytoplasmic tail was deleted. We conclude that MUC1/Muc1 suppresses pulmonary innate immunity and speculate its anti-inflammatory activity may play an important modulatory role during microbial infection.
The Journal of Immunology 05/2006; 176(7):3890-4. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported MUC1 was a cell surface receptor for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and binding of bacteria to cells was significantly reduced by pretreatment with neutrophil elastase (NE) (Lillehoj EP, Hyun SW, Kim BT, Zhang XG, Lee DI, Rowland S, and Kim KC. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 280: L181-L187, 2001). The current study was conducted to ascertain NE effects on MUC1 gene transcription, and MUC1 protein synthesis and degradation. A549 human lung carcinoma cells treated with NE exhibited significantly higher MUC1 protein levels in detergent lysates compared with cells treated with vehicle alone. Also, MUC1 protein shed into cell-conditioned medium was rapidly and completely degraded by NE. Actinomycin D blocked NE-stimulated increase in MUC1 protein expression, suggesting a mechanism of increased gene transcription that was confirmed by measurement of quantitatively greater MUC1 mRNA levels in NE-treated cells compared with controls. However, NE did not alter MUC1 mRNA stability, implying increased de novo transcription induced by the protease. NE increased promoter activity in A549 cells transfected with MUC1 gene promoter-luciferase reporter plasmid. This effect of NE was completely blocked by mithramycin A, an inhibitor of Sp1, as well as mutation of one of the putative Sp1 binding sites in MUC1 promoter located at -99/-90 relative to transcription initiation site. EMSA revealed NE enhanced binding of Sp1 to this 10-bp segment in a time-dependent manner. These results indicate the increase in MUC1 gene transcription by NE is mediated through increase in Sp1 binding to -99/-90 segment of MUC1 promoter.