[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteosarcoma is a recalcitrant bone malignancy with poor responsiveness to treatments; therefore, new chemotherapeutic compounds are needed. Sulforaphane (SFN) has been considered a promising chemotherapeutic compound for several types of tumors by inducing apoptosis and cytostasis, but its effects (e.g., genotoxicity) in osteosarcoma cells remains exploratory. In this work, the MG-63 osteosarcoma cell line was exposed to SFN up to 20 μM for 24 and 48 h. SFN induced G2/M phase arrest and decreased nuclear division index, associated with disruption of cytoskeletal organization. Noteworthy, SFN induced a transcriptome response supportive of G2/M phase arrest, namely a decrease in Chk1- and Cdc25C-encoding transcripts, and an increase in Cdk1-encoding transcripts. After 48-h exposure, SFN at a dietary concentration (5 μM) contributed to genomic instability in the MG-63 cells as confirmed by increased number of DNA breaks, clastogenicity, and nuclear and mitotic abnormalities. The increased formation of nucleoplasmic bridges, micronuclei, and apoptotic cells positively correlated with loss of viability. These results suggest that genotoxic damage is an important step for SFN-induced cytotoxicity in MG-63 cells. In conclusion, SFN shows potential to induce genotoxic damage at low concentrations and such potential deserves further investigation in other tumor cell types.
Nutrition and Cancer 01/2014; · 2.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper describes a proton high resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomic study of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) leaves to characterise metabolic adaptations during leaf growth and exposure to mancozeb. Metabolite variations were identified through multivariate analysis and checked through spectral integration. Lettuce growth was accompanied by activation of energetic metabolism, preferential glucose use and changes in amino acids, phospholipids, ascorbate, nucleotides and nicotinate/nicotinamide. Phenylalanine and polyphenolic variations suggested higher oxidative stress at later growth stages. Exposure to mancozeb induced changes in amino acids, fumarate and malate, suggesting Krebs cycle up-regulation. In tandem disturbances in sugar, phospholipid, nucleotide and nicotinate/nicotinamide metabolism were noted. Additional changes in phenylalanine, dehydroascorbate, tartrate and formate were consistent with a higher demand for anti-oxidant defence mechanisms. Overall, lettuce exposure to mancozeb was shown to have a significant impact on plant metabolism, with mature leaves tending to be more extensively affected than younger leaves.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hormonal conditioning of plants in order to increase photosynthetic performance and reduce oxidative stress may improve plants’ tolerance to stress. This study aims to elucidate the effects of ABA pretreatment on the photosynthetic apparatus and antioxidant battery of Ulmus minor plants under well watered (WW) and drought stress (DS) conditions. Leaves were sprayed with ABA (50 and 100 μM). After 25 days of treatment DS was initiated by withholding water for 6 days. Water deficit decreased the RWC, induced stomatal closure and impaired net CO2 assimilation rate (A). However, independently of the water regime, ABA pretreatment increased plant DW accumulation, A, carotenoids and Chl a contents and reduced water loss. DS induced oxidative stress, but ABA application increased DS tolerance by the enhancement of the antioxidant system. Under WW conditions, the benefits of ABA application in reducing the cell membrane damages were noticeable. ABA pretreatment and DS induced changes in U. minor cell cycle of leaf cells, with a delay in S phase and an increase of FPCV coefficient. We propose that ABA pretreatment improves plant performance by increasing plant DW accumulation and augmenting the antioxidant system of U. minor plants, not only under DS conditions, but also under WW conditions. The use of ABA as pretreatment to alleviate the negative effects of DS seems to be a promising strategy to reduce plant's loss and improve plant productivity in drought prone habitats.
Environmental and Experimental Botany 01/2014; · 2.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cork oak (Quercus suber L.) is a research priority in the Mediterranean area and because of cork oaks’ distribution these stands are experiencing daily stress. Based on projections of intensifying climate change and considering the key role of exploring the recovery abilities, cork oak seedlings were subjected to a cumulative temperature increase from 25 °C to 55 °C and subsequent recovery. CO2 assimilation rate, chlorophyll fluorescence, anthocyanins, proline and lipid peroxidation were used to evaluate plant performance, while the relative abundance of seven genes encoding for proteins of cork oak with a putative role in thermal/stress regulation (POX1, POX2, HSP10.4, HSP17a.22, CHS, MTL and RBC) was analyzed by qPCR (quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction). A temperature change to 35 °C showed abundance alterations in the tested genes; at 45 °C, the molecular changes were associated with an antioxidant response, possibly modulated by anthocyanins. At 55 °C, HSP17a.22, MTL and proline accumulation were evident. After recovery, physiological balance was restored, whereas POX1, HSP10.4 and MTL abundances were suggested to be involved in increased thermotolerance. The data presented here are expected to pinpoint some pathways changes occurring during such stress and further recovery in this particular Mediterranean species.
Journal of plant physiology 01/2014; 171(6):399–406. · 2.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sulforaphane (SFN) is a naturally-occurring isothiocyanate best known for its role as an indirect antioxidant. Notwithstanding, in different cancer cell lines, SFN may promote the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cause cell death e.g. by apoptosis. Osteosarcoma often becomes chemoresistant, and new molecular targets to prevent drug resistance are needed. Here, we aimed to determine the effect of SFN on ROS levels and to identify key biomarkers leading to ROS unbalance and apoptosis in the p53-null MG-63 osteosarcoma cell line. MG-63 cells were exposed to SFN for up to 48 h. At 10 μM concentration or higher, SFN decreased cell viability, increased the%early apoptotic cells and increased caspase 3 activity. At these higher doses, SFN increased ROS levels, which correlated with apoptotic endpoints and cell viability decline. In exposed cells, gene expression analysis revealed only partial induction of phase-2 detoxification genes. More importantly, SFN inhibited ROS-scavenging enzymes and impaired glutathione recycling, as evidenced by inhibition of glutathione reductase (GR) activity and combined inhibition of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) gene expression and enzyme activity. In conclusion, SFN induced oxidative stress and apoptosis via a p53-independent mechanism. GPx expression and activity were found associated with ROS accumulation in MG-63 cells and are potential biomarkers for the efficacy of ROS-inducing agents e.g. as co-adjuvant drugs in osteosarcoma.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e92980. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cork oak is an economically important forest species showing a great tolerance to high temperatures and shortage of water. However, the mechanisms underlying this plasticity are still poorly understood. Among the stress regulators, transcription factors (TFs) are especially important since they can control a wide range of stress-inducible genes, which make them powerful targets for genetic engineering of stress tolerance. Here we evaluated the influence of increasing temperatures (up to 55 °C) or drought (18% field capacity, FC) on the expression profile of an R2R3-MYB transcription factor of cork oak, the QsMYB1. QsMYB1 was previously identified as being preferentially expressed in cork tissues and as having an associated alternative splicing mechanism, which results in two different transcripts (QsMYB1.1 and QsMYB1.2). Expression analysis by reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed that increasing temperatures led to a gradual down-regulation of QsMYB1 transcripts with more effect on QsMYB1.1 abundance. On the other hand, under drought condition, expression of QsMYB1 variants, mainly the QsMYB1.2, was transiently up-regulated shortly after the stress imposition. Recovery from each stress has also resulted in a differential response by both QsMYB1 transcripts. Several physiological and biochemical parameters (plant water status, chlorophyll fluorescence, lipid peroxidation and proline content) were determined in order to monitor the plant performance under stress and recovery. In conclusion, this report provides the first evidence that QsMYB1 TF may have a putative function in the regulatory network of cork oak response to heat and drought stresses and during plant recovery.
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 10/2013; 73C:274-281. · 2.78 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eucalyptus plantations are among the most productive forest stands in Portugal and Spain, being mostly used for pulp production and, more recently, as an energy crop. However, the region's Mediterranean climate, with characteristic severe summer drought, negatively affects eucalypt growth and increases mortality. Although the physiological response to water shortage is well characterized for this species, evidence about the plants' recovery ability remains scarce. In order to assess the physiological and biochemical response of E. globulus during the recovery phase, two genotypes (AL-18 and AL-10) were submitted to a three-week water stress period at two different intensities (18% and 25% of field capacity), followed by one week of rewatering. Recovery was assessed one day and one week after rehydration. Drought reduced height, biomass, water potential, NPQ and gas exchange in both genotypes. Contrarily, the levels of pigments, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fv /Fm and ɸPSII ), MDA and ABA increased. During recovery, the physiological and biochemical profile of stressed plants showed a similar trend: they experienced reversion of altered traits (MDA, ABA, E, gs , pigments), while other parameters did not recover (ɸPSII , NPQ). Furthermore, an overcompensation of CO2 assimilation was achieved one week after rehydration, which was accompanied by greater growth and re-establishment of oxidative balance. Both genotypes were tolerant to the tested conditions, although clonal differences were found. AL-10 was more productive and showed a more rapid and dynamic response to rehydration (namely in carotenoid content, ɸPSII and NPQ) compared to clone AL-18.
Physiologia Plantarum 10/2013; · 3.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This experimental work aimed to develop a simple, fast, economic and environmental friendly process for the extraction of lycopene from tomato and incorporate this lycopene-rich-extract in ultradeformable vesicular nanocarriers suitable for topical application. The lycopene extraction was carried out without a co-solvent for 30 min. The extracts were analyzed and incorporated in transfersomes and ethosomes. These formulations were characterized and the cellular uptake was observed by confocal microscopy. Dermal delivery of lycopene formulations was tested in vitro and in vivo conditions. Lycopene extraction proved to be quite safe and selective. The vesicular formulation was uptaken by the cells being more concentrated around the nucleus. Lycopene formulations epicutaneous application decreased anthralin-induced ear swelling by 97% and 87%, in a non-statistically different manner from the positive control. These results support that the lycopene-rich extract may be a good alternative to the expensive commercial lycopene to be incorporated in advanced topical delivery systems.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 07/2013; · 2.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Forest tree improvement programs benefit from the emergence of new biotechnological strategies that complement plant developmental biology and discovery of genes associated with complex multigenic traits. Recently, significant progress has been made in the area of plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis (SE) for economically important tree species (e.g. pines). These advances have opened up new scenarios for deployment of new high-performance clonally replicated planting stock to forest plantations and may also be a valuable tool for the development of efficient gene transfer techniques. Although high rates of plant propagation from axillary shoot proliferation can be achieved easily in many Eucalyptus species, even higher multiplication rates through SE have been recorded in other tree species. If the clonal propagation of Eucalyptus through SE proves to be an effective propagation method, it has the potential to meet the increasing industrial demands for high-quality uniform materials and to rapidly capture the benefits of breeding programs. Since 2002 a reproducible protocol for SE induction from mature zygotic embryos of E. globulus has been available. However, for SE to be useful in E. globulus improvement programs, the frequency of SE initiation, maturation, germination and acclimatisation needs to be improved and controlled. If this technology could be extended to elite germplasm, it would become an economically feasible tool for large-scale production and delivery of improved planting stock. This is one of the greatest current challenges in Eucalyptus tissue culture. In this review we update the most important aspects of SE in Eucalyptus with particular emphasis on E. globulus. We highlight both genetic control and the influence of different environmental factors in the SE process (e.g. medium composition, antioxidants, light and plant growth regulators), from induction to plant acclimatisation in both primary and secondary SE.
Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science 05/2013; 75(2):59-69. · 0.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calendula L. (Asteraceae) is a taxonomically and cytologically complex genus due to its high morpho-logical and karyological variation. To gather consistent cytological information aiming to consolidate the existing knowledge, sustain the taxonomic revision of the genus and explore the evolutionary relationships among species, the genome size and chromosome number of the Iberian Pen-insula representatives of this genus were assessed. The study included 11 taxa that occur in the Iberian Peninsula, one in Madeira and two from Morocco. Chromosome counts were made using the squash technique in root tips and flower buds, while nuclear DNA contents were asses-sed using propidium iodide flow cytometry. The following chromosome numbers are reported: 2n = 44 for C. arv-ensis, 2n = 30 for C. tripterocarpa, and 2n = 32 for the remaining Iberian taxa. The genome size of Calendula species was assessed for the first time and ranged from 1.75 pg/2C in C. maroccana to 5.41 pg/2C in C. arvensis. Within the complex formed by C. incana and C. suffruti-cosa, a gradient of genome size values was obtained. Intraspecific variation in genome size was detected in some taxa. The obtained genome size values and their variation are discussed in the light of the theories proposed for the speciation of the genus, with events of hybridization, genome duplication and dysploidy being hypothesized to play a major role in the evolution of this genus.
Plant Systematics and Evolution 05/2013; 299:853-864. · 1.31 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aluminium (Al) toxicity decreases plant growth. Secale cereale L. is among the most Al-tolerant crop species. In order to study the response to Al-long term exposure, two rye genotypes with different Al sensitivity ('D. Zlote' and 'Riodeva') were exposed to 1.11 and 1.85mM Al and the antioxidant responses were followed for 2 and 3 weeks in roots and leaves. Al toxicity signals, such as a severe decrease in root growth, occurred sooner in 'Riodeva.' The antioxidant response was dependent on the genotype, the organ, Al concentration and the exposure period. Al-exposed roots of 'D. Zlote' showed earlier enhancements of APX, SOD and G-POX activities than those of 'Riodeva.' 'D. Zlote' roots showed stimulation of the AsA-GSH cycle after the second week (when root growth inhibition was less severe), while later (when severe root growth inhibition was observed), oxidation of AsA and GSH pools was observed. In leaves of both genotypes, CAT, SOD and G-POX activities increased with Al exposure. In these leaves, the effect of AsA-GSH was time dependent, with maximum oxidation at the second week, followed by recovery. We confirmed that the oxidation state of AsA and GSH pools is involved in the detoxification of Al-induced oxidative stress. Moreover, our data demonstrate that the production of ROS does not correlate with the Al-induced root growth decrease. Finally, the differences observed over time indicate that long term exposure may provide additional information on rye sensitivity to Al, and contribute to a better understanding of this species' mechanisms of Al tolerance.
Journal of plant physiology 03/2013; · 2.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ploidy levels of short-term (1 and 2 years) and long-term (7 and 10 years) embryogenic cultures as well as of regenerated plantlets of tamarillo were analyzed by flow cytometry and chromosome counts. Embryogenic cultures were induced from expanding leaves cultured in the presence of Picloram or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and monthly subcultured on the same media. Embryo develop-ment and plantlets were obtained following subculture of the embryogenic tissue in auxin free medium containing gib-berellic acid (GA 3). Seedlings and rooted shoots from axil-lary shoot proliferation were used as controls. The results showed that in long-term embryogenic cultures the ability to develop somatic embryos and plantlets was reduced. Embryogenic tissues maintained for 10 years were mostly aneuploids of the tetraploid (2n = 4x = 48) level whereas those kept in culture for 7 years or less were also mostly aneuploids but of the diploid (2n = 2x = 24) level. The results obtained by flow cytometry were, in general, consis-tent with those obtained by chromosome counts. The chro-mosome alteration observed in the embryogenic tissues was already present after 1 year of culture and increased with culture age, hence impairing the maintenance of these tissues for long periods without affecting chromosome stability of the regenerated plantlets. However, the occurrence of triploids and tetraploids as well as aneuploids can be useful for breeding purposes. A value around 23 pg/2C was found for the genome size of tamarillo largely exceeding the value previously published (15.50 pg/2C).
Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 03/2013; 114:149-159. · 3.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Site-specific risk assessment of contaminated areas indicates prior areas for intervention, and provides helpful information for risk managers. This study was conducted in the Ervedosa mine area (Bragança, Portugal), where both underground and open pit exploration of tin and arsenic minerals were performed for about one century (1857 - 1969). We aimed at obtaining ecotoxicological information with terrestrial and aquatic plant species to integrate in the risk assessment of this mine area. Further we also intended to evaluate if the assessment of other parameters, in standard assays with terrestrial plants, can improve the identification of phytotoxic soils. For this purpose, soil samples were collected on 16 sampling sites distributed along four transects, defined within the mine area, and in one reference site. General soil physical and chemical parameters, total and extractable metal contents were analyzed. Assays were performed for soil elutriates and for the whole soil matrix following standard guidelines for growth inhibition assay with Lemna minor and emergence and seedling growth assay with Zea mays. At the end of the Z. mays assay, relative water content, membrane permeability, leaf area, content of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids), malondialdehyde levels, proline content, and chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm and ΦPSII) parameters were evaluated. In general, the soils near the exploration area revealed high levels of Al, Mn, Fe and Cu. Almost all the soils from transepts C, D and F presented total concentrations of arsenic well above soils screening benchmark values available. Elutriates of several soils from sampling sites near the exploration and ore treatment areas were toxic to L. minor, suggesting that the retention function of these soils was seriously compromised. In Z. mays assay, plant performance parameters (other than those recommended by standard protocols), allowed the identification of more phytotoxic soils. The results suggest that these parameters could improve the sensitivity of the standard assays.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(4):e59748. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trees necessarily experience changes in temperature, requiring efficient short-term strategies that become crucial in environmental change adaptability. DNA methylation and histone posttranslational modifications have been shown to play a key role in both epigenetic control and plant functional status under stress by controlling the functional state of chromatin and gene expression. Cork oak (Quercus suber L.) is a key stone of the Mediterranean region, growing at temperatures of 45°C. This species was subjected to a cumulative temperature increase from 25°C to 55°C under laboratory conditions in order to test the hypothesis that epigenetic code is related to heat stress tolerance. Electrolyte leakage increased after 35°C, but all plants survived to 55°C. DNA methylation and acetylated histone H3 (AcH3) levels were monitored by HPCE (high performance capillary electrophoresis), MS-RAPD (methylation-sensitive random-amplified polymorphic DNA) and Protein Gel Blot analysis and the spatial distribution of the modifications was assessed using a confocal microscope. DNA methylation analysed by HPCE revealed an increase at 55°C, while MS-RAPD results pointed to dynamic methylation-demethylation patterns over stress. Protein Gel Blot showed the abundance index of AcH3 decreasing from 25°C to 45°C. The immunohistochemical detection of 5-mC (5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine) and AcH3 came upon the previous results. These results indicate that epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone H3 acetylation have opposite and particular dynamics that can be crucial for the stepwise establishment of this species into such high stress (55°C), allowing its acclimation and survival. This is the first report that assesses epigenetic regulation in order to investigate heat tolerance in forest trees.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e53543. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Candidate species for reforestation of areas prone to drought must combine water stress (WS) tolerance and economic or medicinal interest. Melia azedarach produces high quality timber and has insecticidal and medicinal properties. However, the impact of WS on M. azedarach has not yet been studied. Two-month old M. azedarach plants were exposed to WS during 20 days. After this period, plant’s growth, water potential, photosynthetic performance and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. WS did not affect plants’ growth, but induced stomatal closure, reduced net CO2 assimilation rate (A) and the intercellular CO2 availability in mesophyll (Ci). WS also reduced the photosynthetic efficiency of PSII but not the pigment levels. WS up-regulated the antioxidant enzymes and stimulated the production of antioxidant metabolites, preventing lipid peroxidation. Therefore, despite some repression of photosynthetic parameters by WS, they did not compromise plant growth, and plants increased their antioxidant capacity. Our data demonstrate that M. azedarach juvenile plants have the potential to acclimate to water shortage conditions, opening new perspectives to the use of this species in reforestation/afforestation programs of drought prone areas.
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 01/2013; · 2.78 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The molecular processes associated with cork development in Quercus suber L. are poorly understood. A previous molecular approach identified a list of genes potentially important for cork formation and differentiation, providing a new basis for further molecular studies. This report is the first molecular characterization of one of these candidate genes, QsMYB1, coding for an R2R3-MYB transcription factor. The R2R3-MYB gene sub-family has been described as being involved in the phenylpropanoid and lignin pathways, both involved in cork biosynthesis. The results showed that the expression of QsMYB1 is putatively mediated by an alternative splicing (AS) mechanism that originates two different transcripts (QsMYB1.1 and QsMYB1.2), differing only in the 5'-untranslated region, due to retention of the first intron in one of the variants. Moreover, within the retained intron, a simple sequence repeat (SSR) was identified. The upstream regulatory region of QsMYB1 was extended by a genome walking approach, which allowed the identification of the putative gene promoter region. The relative expression pattern of QsMYB1 transcripts determined by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) revealed that both transcripts were up-regulated in cork tissues; the detected expression was several times higher in newly formed cork harvested from trees producing virgin, second or reproduction cork when compared with wood. Moreover, the expression analysis of QsMYB1 in several Q. suber organs showed very low expression in young branches and roots, whereas in leaves, immature acorns or male flowers, no expression was detected. These preliminary results suggest that QsMYB1 may be related to secondary growth and, in particular, with the cork biosynthesis process with a possible alternative splicing mechanism associated with its regulatory function.
Journal of plant physiology 12/2012; · 2.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lead (Pb) is a toxic element, but its putative mutagenic effects in plant cells, using molecular markers, remain to unveil. To evaluate if Pb induces mutagenicity, Pisum sativum L. seedlings were exposed to Pb(2+) (up to 2000 mg L(-1)) for 28 days and the instability of microsatellites (or Simple Sequence Repeats, SSR) was analyzed in leaves and roots. The analysis of eight selected microsatellites (SSR1-SSR8) demonstrated that only at the highest dosage microsatellite instability (MSI) occurred, at a frequency of 4.2%. Changes were detected in one microsatellite (SSR6) that is inserted in the locus for glutamine synthetase. SSR6 products of roots exposed to the highest concentration of Pb were 3 bp larger than those of the control. Our data demonstrate that: (a) SSR technique is sensitive to detect Pb-induced mutagenicity in plants. MSI instability is Pb dose dependent and organ dependent (roots are more sensitive); (b) the Pb-sensitive SSR6 is inserted in the glutamine synthetase locus, with still unknown relation with functional changes of this enzyme; (c) Pb levels inducing MSI are much above the maximum admitted levels in some European Union countries for agricultural purpose waters. In conclusion, we propose here the potential use of SSR to evaluate Pb(2+)-induced mutagenicity, in combination with other genetic markers.
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 11/2012; 62C:19-22. · 2.78 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cadmium is a priority pollutant. Its mechanisms and effects within different plant organs remain unclear. Here, cyto-genotoxicity biomarkers were evaluated in roots and leaves after Cd exposure (0, 1, 10, and 50 μM) of the model crop Lactuca sativa L. (cv. "Reine de Mai"). Overall, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were stimulated in leaves, where Cd accumulation was lower in comparison to that in roots. In roots, SOD and peroxidase (POX, APX) activities were stimulated. Moreover, in both organs glutathione reductase (GR) was not affected by Cd. Overall, the H(2)O(2) content increased in both organs, while the total antioxidant capacity decreased in leaves and increased in roots with Cd concentrations. In both organs, lipid and protein oxidation rose with consequent increase of membrane permeability. Simultaneously, the comet assay showed that tail moment, tail length, and % tail DNA were maximum for 1 μM. For 10 μM, shorter tails were found suggesting induced Cd-DNA adducts that lead to DNA-DNA/DNA-protein cross-links, and/or formation of longer DNA fragments, and/or impairment of DNA repair mechanisms, while at 50 μM, nucleoids sensitivity to the technique was evident. This result was consistent with the maximum micronuclei frequency found for the 10 μM Cd dose in roots, suggesting that the surviving cells in this organ had an increase of mitotic catastrophe and that DNA repair systems for blocking cell cycle were dysfunctional. In lower Cd concentrations, root cells might have developed strategies to repair damaged DNA by blocking the cell cycle at specific checkpoints, thus avoiding mitotic catastrophe. Roots at 1 μM showed a cell cycle blockage trend at the G(2) checkpoint, while those at higher concentrations presented S phase delay. We finally discuss a general model of Cd-organ interaction covering these cyto- and genotoxic effects and the potential use of this cultivar in phytoremediation strategies.
Chemical Research in Toxicology 05/2012; 25(7):1423-34. · 3.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cadmium is a priority pollutant. Its mechanisms and effects within different plant organs remain unclear. Here, cyto−genotoxicity biomarkers were evaluated in roots and leaves after Cd exposure (0, 1, 10, and 50 μM) of the model crop Lactuca sativa L. (cv. “Reine de Mai”). Overall, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were stimulated in leaves, where Cd accumulation was lower in comparison to that in roots. In roots, SOD and peroxidase (POX, APX) activities were stimulated. Moreover, in both organs glutathione reductase (GR) was not affected by Cd. Overall, the H2O2 content increased in both organs, while the total antioxidant capacity decreased in leaves and increased in roots with Cd concentrations. In both organs, lipid and protein oxidation rose with consequent increase of membrane permeability. Simultaneously, the comet assay showed that tail moment, tail length, and % tail DNA were maximum for 1 μM. For 10 μM, shorter tails were found suggesting induced Cd-DNA adducts that lead to DNA−DNA/DNA−protein cross-links, and/or formation of longer DNA fragments, and/or impairment of DNA repair mechanisms, while at 50 μM, nucleoids sensitivity to the technique was evident. This result was consistent with the maximum micronuclei frequency found for the 10 μM Cd dose in roots, suggesting that the surviving cells in this organ had an increase of mitotic catastrophe and that DNA repair systems for blocking cell cycle were dysfunctional. In lower Cd concentrations, root cells might have developed strategies to repair damaged DNA by blocking the cell cycle at specific checkpoints, thus avoiding mitotic catastrophe. Roots at 1 μM showed a cell cycle blockage trend at the G2 checkpoint, while those at higher concentrations presented S phase delay. We finally discuss a general model of Cd−organ interaction covering these cyto- and genotoxic effects and the potential use of this cultivar in phytoremediation strategies.
Chemical Research in Toxicology 05/2012; · 3.67 Impact Factor