Jinchao Zhang

Hebei University, Pao-ting-shih, Hebei, China

Are you Jinchao Zhang?

Claim your profile

Publications (92)257.07 Total impact

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: With the wide applications of europium-doped Gd2O3 nanoparticles (Gd2O3:Eu(3+) NPs) in biomedical fields, it will inevitably increase the chance of human exposure. It was reported that Gd2O3:Eu(3+) NPs could accumulate in bone. However, there have been few reports about the potential effect of Gd2O3:Eu(3+) NPs on bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). In this study, the Gd2O3:Eu(3+) nanotubes were prepared and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) excitation and emission spectra, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The cytotoxicity of Gd2O3:Eu(3+) nanotubes on BMSCs and the associated mechanisms were further studied. The results indicated that they could be uptaken into BMSCs by an energy-dependent and macropinocytosis-mediated endocytosis process, and primarily localized in lysosome. Gd2O3:Eu(3+) nanotubes effectively inhibited the viability of BMSCs in concentration and time-dependent manners. A significant increase in the percentage of late apoptotic/necrotic cells, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and the number of PI-stained cells was found after BMSCs were treated by 10, 20, and 40μg/mL of Gd2O3:Eu(3+) nanotubes for 12h. No obvious DNA ladders were detected, but a dispersed band was observed. The above results revealed that Gd2O3:Eu(3+) nanotubes could trigger cell death by necrosis instead of apoptosis. Two mechanisms were involved in Gd2O3:Eu(3+) nanotube-induced BMSCs necrosis: lysosomal rupture and release of cathepsins B; and the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) injury to the mitochondria and DNA. The study provides novel evidence to elucidate the toxicity mechanisms and may be beneficial to more rational applications of these nanomaterials in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry 05/2015; 146. DOI:10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2015.02.006 · 3.27 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: One of the main target organs for the lanthanides (Ln) is bone. Previous studies revealed that ytterbium (Yb) produced damage to the skeletal system in vivo. But the effects of Yb3+ on bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in vitro had not been reported. In this paper, cell viability, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured in order to study the effects of Yb3+ on BMSCs. The results indicated that Yb3+ displayed a slight positive effect on the BMSCs viability at concentrations of 1×10−6, 1×10−5, and 1×10−4 mol/L, but turned to decrease the viability of BMSCs at the highest concentration of 1×10−3 mol/L for 24, 48 and 72 h. Yb3+ at 1×10−3 mol/L promoted apoptosis of BMSCs, increased the levels of ROS and LDH, and decreased MMP in BMSCs. It suggested that the precipitate of YbPO4 might decrease the viability of BMSCs. Yb3+ induced the apoptosis of BMSCs via mitochondrial pathway. The results might be useful for more rational application of Yb-based compounds in the future.
    Journal of Rare Earths 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/S1002-0721(14)60439-7 · 1.34 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: As an intensely studied computed tomography (CT) contrast agent, gold nanoparticle has been suggested to be combined with fluorescence imaging modality to offset the low sensitivity of CT. However, the strong quenching of gold nanoparticle on fluorescent dyes requires complicated design and shielding to overcome. Herein, we report a unique nanoprobe (M-NPAPF-Au) co-loading an aggregation-induced emission (AIE) red dye and gold nanoparticles into DSPE-PEG2000 micelles for dual-modal fluorescence/CT imaging. The nanoprobe was prepared based on a facile method of “one-pot ultrasonic emulsification”. Surprisingly, in the micelles system, fluorescence dye (NPAPF) efficiently overcame the strong fluorescence quenching of shielding-free gold nanoparticles and retained the crucial AIE feature. In vivo studies demonstrated the nanoprobe had superior tumor-targeting ability, excellent fluorescence and CT imaging effects. The totality of present studies clearly indicates the significant potential application of M-NPAPF-Au as a dual-modal non-invasive fluorescence/X-ray CT nanoprobe for in vivo tumor-targeted imaging and diagnosis.
    Biomaterials 02/2015; 42. DOI:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2014.11.053 · 8.31 Impact Factor
  • Materials Science and Engineering C 02/2015; 49. DOI:10.1016/j.msec.2014.11.002 · 2.74 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It has been well-established that nanomaterials provide a robust framework into which two or more functional moieties can be integrated to offer multifunctional and synergetic applications. We report here the facile synthesis and systematical investigation of the luminomagnetic core–shell nanoparticles (NPs) with the magnetic Fe3O4 core coated with a silica shell incorporating fluorescent [Ru(bpy)3]2 +. The luminomagnetic NPs were monodisperse and spherical in shape with a diameter of 60 ± 10 nm. The luminomagnetic NPs possessed not only the desirable optical signature of Ru(bpy)32 + but also the distinctive magnetic profile of Fe3O4, where a strong red-orange emission and the super-paramagnetic characteristics with the saturation magnetization values ca. 10 emu/g were observed for the luminomagnetic NPs. As revealed by Alamar blue assay and flow cytometry analysis, the Fe3O4 NPs decrease the cell viability of HepG2 by ca. 10%, while an increase by ca. 10% on HepG2 cell proliferation was revealed after the silica shell was coated onto Fe3O4 NPs, suggesting that the silica shell serves as a protective layer to increase the biocompatibility of the luminomagnetic NPs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, transition electron microscopy and magnetic resonance (MR) images confirmed that the luminomagnetic NPs can enter into the interiors of HepG2 cells without damage, highlighting their capabilities for simultaneous optical fluorescence imaging and T2 MR imaging. Taking advantage of versatility of silica shell towards different surface modification protocols, the luminomagnetic NPs were successfully functionalized with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody for HepG2 cell recognition. All the results illustrated that the luminomagnetic NPs should be a potential candidate for future cancer diagnosis and therapy.
    Materials Science and Engineering C 01/2015; 46:32–40. DOI:10.1016/j.msec.2014.10.002 · 2.74 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Three defect-related luminescent hydroxyapatite (HAP) particles, S1, S2, and S3, with different morphologies (the samples S1 and S2 are nanorods with diameters of 25 nm and lengths of 30 and 100 nm, respectively; sample S3 is bur-like microspheres with diameters of 5-6 μm) were synthesized, and their biocompatibility was investigated by MTT, reactive oxygen species (ROS), interleukin-6 (IL-6), comet, and hemolysis assays. The results indicated that all samples were stable in cell culture medium and did not induce the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 or result in hemolysis. It was found that samples S1 and S3 inhibited osteoblast (OB) viability at concentrations of 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 μg/mL for 24, 48, and 72 h. Sample S2 had no effect on the viability of OB at all tested concentrations for 24 and 48 h, but the viability of OB was increased at concentrations of 20, 40, and 80 μg/mL for 72 h. Samples S1 and S3 could increase the level of cellular ROS; sample S2 had no effect on the level of cellular ROS at a concentration of 20 μg/mL for 48 h. Although samples S1 and S3 induced significant DNA damage, sample S2 could not cause significant DNA damage at a concentration of 20 μg/mL for 72 h. The results suggest that longer nanorod HAP can show excellent biocompatibility and therefore may find potential applications in biomedical fields.
    Biological Trace Element Research 10/2014; DOI:10.1007/s12011-014-0151-0 · 1.61 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ten novel palladium(II) complexes with dipyrido[3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline (Dpq)/dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c](6,7,8,9-tetrahydro)phenazine (Dpqc) and 4-toluensulfonyl-L-amino acid dianion, [Pd(Dpq)(TsvalNO)]·H2O (1a), [Pd(Dpq)(TsileNO)]·H2O (1b), [Pd(Dpq)(TsserNO)] (1c), [Pd(Dpq)(TsthrNO)]·1.5H2O (1d), [Pd(Dpq)(TsleuNO)]·0.5H2O (1e), [Pd(Dpq)(TspheNO)] (1f), [Pd(Dpqc)(TsvalNO)] (2a), [Pd(Dpqc)(TsileNO)] (2b), [Pd(Dpqc)(TsserNO)]·H2O (2c) and [Pd(Dpqc)(TsthrNO)]·0.5H2O (2d) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV, (1)H NMR and mass spectrometry techniques. Crystal structure of the complex 1f has been determined by X-ray diffraction. The cytotoxicity was tested by MTT assay. The results indicated that the complexes 1a and 2a showed better cytotoxicity than cisplatin against MCF-7. The complex 1e had higher cytotoxicity than cisplatin against K562. Both the N donating ligands and the amino acid have important effects on the cytotoxicity.
    European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 10/2014; 87C:624-630. DOI:10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.10.002 · 3.43 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lanthanide-doped sodium yttrium fluoride (NaYF4) nanoparticles exhibit novel optical properties which make them be widely used in various fields. The extensive applications increase the chance of human exposure to these nanoparticles and thus raise deep concerns regarding their riskiness. In the present study, we have synthesized europium doped NaYF4 (NaYF4:Eu(3+)) nanoparticles with three diameters and used endothelial cells (ECs) as a cell model to explore the potential toxic effect. The cell viability, cytomembrane integrity, cellular uptake, intracellular localization, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), apoptosis detection, caspase-3 activity and expression of inflammatory gene were studied. The results indicated that these nanoparticles could be uptaken into ECs and decrease the cell viability, induce the intracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, increase the ROS level, and decrease the cell MMP in a size-dependent manner. Besides that, the cells were suffered to apoptosis with the caspase-3 activation, and the inflammation specific gene expressions (ICAM1 and VCAM1) were also increased. Our results suggest that the damage pathway may be related to the ROS generation and mitochondrial damage. The results provide novel evidence to elucidate their toxicity mechanisms and may be helpful for more rational applications of these compounds in the future.
    Materials Science and Engineering C 10/2014; 43:330–342. DOI:10.1016/j.msec.2014.07.029 · 2.74 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have shown great promise for a variety of applications, including chemistry, biology, and medicine. Recently, AuNPs have found promising applications in cartilage and bone repair. However, to realize the above promised applications, more work needs to be carried out to clarify the interactions between biological systems and AuNPs. In the present study, primary osteoblasts were used to evaluate the biocompatibility of 20-nm and 40-nm AuNPs, including morphology, proliferation, differentiation, gene and protein expression, and the underlying mechanisms. The results demonstrated that AuNPs were taken up by osteoblasts and aggregated in perinuclear compartment and vescular structures, but no morphological changes were observed. AuNPs could significantly promote the proliferation of osteoblasts, enhance the ALP activities, and increase the number of bone nodules and calcium content in vitro. In addition, the expression of BMP-2, Runx-2, OCN and Col-1 was remarkably up-regulated in the presence of AuNPs. It is noteworthy that 20-nm AuNPs are more potent than 40-nm AuNPs in regulating osteoblast activities. Besides, AuNPs increased the level of ERK phosphorylation/total ERK, suggesting the activation of ERK/MAPK pathway is involved in above activities. In conclusion, AuNPs exhibited great biocompatibility with osteoblasts, and have tremendous potential to be used as drug and/or gene delivery carrier for bone and tissue engineering in the future.
    Materials Science and Engineering C 09/2014; 42:70–77. DOI:10.1016/j.msec.2014.04.042 · 2.74 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) have been widely used in industries and biomedical fields due to its unique properties. Previous biodistribution studies of nanoceria in vivo have shown that they are accumulated in the bone of mice after intravenous administration, about 20 % of the total intake, however, the potential effect and the mechanism of nanoceria on bone metabolism are not well-understood. Our results showed that both 25 and 50 nm nanceria decreased the damage of cell viability induced by H 2 O 2 in a dose-dependent manner. The apoptosis ratio of pre-incubated group with nanoceria was lower than the H 2 O 2 group. The cellular uptake studies indicated that there was a dose-dependent accumulation of both two size nanoparticles in bone marrow stromal cells. Nanoceria could be uptaken by cells due to the synergistic effect of multiple endocytosis mechanisms, and then evenly distributed in the cytoplasm without entering the nucleus. Our results suggest that nanoceria could reduce intracellular ROS level induced by H 2 O 2 in a dose-dependent manner, moreover, maintain the normal function of mitochondria, suggesting nanoceria may have potent applications for preventing or treating osteoporosis.
    Journal of Nanoparticle Research 05/2014; 16:2697. DOI:10.1007/s11051-014-2697-3 · 2.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Formation of T-Hg(2+)-T complexes changes the configuration of a single-stranded DNA, leading to enhanced fluorescence of an anchored cyanine-based probe that displays restricted intramolecular rotation (RIR)-induced emission. This label-free system can be used as a sensor for mercury ions with a detection limit of 4 nM.
    The Analyst 05/2014; 139(13). DOI:10.1039/c4an00460d · 3.91 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the size-dependent penetration ability of gold nanoparticles and the potential application of ultra-small gold nanoparticle for intra-nucleus delivery and therapy. We synthesized gold nanoparticles with diameters of 2 nm, 6 nm, 10 nm and 16 nm and compared their intracellular distribution in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Nanoparticles smaller than 10 nm (2 nm and 6 nm) could enter the nucleus while larger ones (10 nm and 16 nm) were found only in the cytoplasm. We then investigated the possibility of using ultra-small 2 nm nanoparticles as carriers for nuclear delivery of a triplex forming oligonucleotide (TFO) that binds to the c-myc promoter. Compared to free TFO, the nanoparticle-conjugated TFO was more effective at reducing c-myc RNA and c-myc protein, which resulted in reduced cell viability. Our result demonstrated the entry of gold nanoparticles into the cell nucleus is critically dependent on the size of the nanoparticles. We developed a strategy for regulating gene expression, by directly delivering triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) into the nucleus using ultra-small gold nanoparticles. More importantly, guidelines were provided to choose appropriate nanocarriers for different bio-medical purposes.
    ACS Nano 05/2014; 8(6). DOI:10.1021/nn5008572 · 12.03 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An efficient synthetic method for 1,8-dioxo-decahydroacridines derivatives bearing the biologically active sulfonamide moiety is described. Aromatic aldehyde reacted with 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione and sulfanilamide, with molecular iodine as catalyst, to give 1,8-dioxo-decahydroacridines derivatives in high to excellent yield. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of elemental (C, H and N) and spectral analysis (1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS and FTIR). All the compounds were tested for their cytotoxic activity in vitro against three human tumor cell lines: human mammary cancer cells (MCF-7), human cervical carcinoma cells (Hela), and human lung cancer cells (A549) by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Most of them showed moderate to potent cytotoxic activity against the tested cell lines. Among them, the most active compound 4e exhibited more efficient activity (10.92 μM) against MCF-7 cells than cisplatin (11.06 μM).
    Research on Chemical Intermediates 05/2014; 40(5). DOI:10.1007/s11164-013-1105-4 · 1.54 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Platinum-based anti-cancer drugs such as cisplatin, oxaliplatin, and carboplatin are some of the most potent chemotherapeutic agents but have limited applications due to severe dose-limiting side effects, and a tendency for cancer cells to rapidly develop resistance. The therapeutic index can be improved through use of nanocarrier systems to target cancer cells efficiently. We developed a unique strategy to deliver Platinum(IV) drug to prostate cancer cells by constructing glutathione-stabilized (Au@GSH) gold nanoparticles. Glutathione (GSH) has well-known anti-oxidant properties, which lead to cancer regression. Here, we exploit the advantages of both the anti-oxidant properties and high surface-area-to-volume ratio of Au@GSH NPs to demonstrate their potential for delivery of Platinum(IV) drug by targeting the neuropilin-1 receptor (Nrp-1). A lethal dose of Platinum(IV) drug functionalized with the Nrp-1-targeting peptide (CRGDK) was delivered specifically to prostate cancer cells in vitro. Targeted peptide ensures specific binding to Nrp-1 receptor, leading to enhanced cellular uptake level and cell toxicity. The nanocarriers were themselves non-toxic, but exhibited high cytotoxicity and increased efficacy when functionalized with targeting peptide and drug. The uptake of drug-loaded nanocarriers is dependent on the interaction with Nrp-1 in cell lines expressing high (PC-3) and low (DU-145) levels of Nrp-1 as confirmed through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and confocal microscopy. The nanocarriers have effective anti-cancer activity, through upregulation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) protein (p50 and p65) expression and activation of NF-κB-DNA-binding activity. Our preliminary investigations with Platinum(IV) functionalized gold nanoparticles along with a targeting peptide, holds significant promise for future cancer treatment.
    ACS Nano 04/2014; 8(5). DOI:10.1021/nn500152u · 12.03 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A series of novel N-arylpyrazole derivatives, 5a–5i, were achieved from substituted phenylacetic acid via Vilsmeier–Haack reaction, hydrolysis, condensation, and aromatic substitution reaction. Their chemical structures were confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, FTIR, HRMS, and elemental analysis. The newly synthesized compounds were tested for their in vitro cytotoxic activity against Bel-7402, KB, HL-60, and BGC-823 cell lines and found to possess moderate activity.
    Research on Chemical Intermediates 04/2014; 40(4). DOI:10.1007/s11164-013-1051-1 · 1.54 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Monodisperse barium tungstate (BaWO4) hierarchical ellipsoidal particles have been prepared via a simple citrate-assisted hydrothermal method. The as-synthesized particles are non-aggregated with narrow size distribution and are composed of closely packed nanoparticles. The possible formation process of the BaWO4 ellipsoids were investigated by time-dependent experiments. During the hydrothermal process, the chelating agent trisodium citrate plays a crucial role for the formation of BaWO4 hierarchical ellipsoidal particles. The as-synthesized BaWO4:Tb3+ phosphor shows intense green emission under ultraviolet light excitation, which may find potential applications in fields of fluorescent lamps, display systems, and optoelectronic devices. Moreover, this simple synthesis route may be of great significance in the preparation of other well-defined tungstate functional materials.
    Science of Advanced Materials 04/2014; 6(4). DOI:10.1166/sam.2014.1770 · 2.91 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 9-Substituted berberine derivatives (4a–4f) with polyethylene glycol side chain and terminal group were synthesized and characterized by elemental (C, H, and N) and spectral analysis (NMR, HRMS and FTIR). These compounds were tested for their in vitro cytotoxic activity against four human tumor cell lines: granulocyte leukemia (HL-60), gastrocarcinoma (BGC-823), carcinoma (Bel-7402), and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (KB) by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The DNA-binding properties were investigated by UV–Vis absorption, fluorescence, CD spectroscopies, and thermal denaturation measurements. The results indicated that 4a–4f exerted cytotoxic effects with selectivity against tested cell lines. 4a exhibited higher cytotoxicity than cisplatin, berberine, and berberrubine against HL-60 and BGC-823 cell lines. The length of side chains and nature of terminal groups played an important role in the cytotoxicity. Berberine derivatives binded to CT-DNA in an intercalating mode. The binding affinities decreased with the increasing length of side chains. Compounds 4a–4c and 4e could change the DNA conformation from B to A-like form.
    Medicinal Chemistry Research 04/2014; 23(4). DOI:10.1007/s00044-013-0796-9 · 1.61 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In order to evaluate the biodistribution and toxicity of europium-doped Gd2O3 nanotubes, we synthesized Gd2O3:Eu3+ nanotubes via a simple wet-chemical route at ambient pressure. The as-obtained Gd2O3:Eu3+ sample is composed of uniform and well-dispersed nanotubes. The diameters and lengths of the nanotubes are about 50 and 300 nm, respectively. All mice of the experimental groups were administered by intraperitoneal injection everyday over a period of 60 days at doses ranging from 1.25 to 125 mg/kg. Haematological and biochemical parameters and histopathology were examined, and the biodistribution of Gd element in different organs was analyzed. The results indicate that the spleen shows significant higher coefficient than the control, and other organs have no obvious difference from the control in the middle-dose and high-dose groups. There was no significant difference in the blood-elements between the control group and the experimental groups, and no significant change of all parameters can be observed in both low-dose and middle-dose groups. However, in the high-dose group, the ALT, AST, the ratio of AST/ALT, UA, LDH, and HBDH levels was increased significantly in comparison with the control group. The pathology results show that the ischemia of myocardial cell, hemorrhage of lung tissue, hepatocyte necrosis, congestion of renal interstitium, mesangial cell proliferation, and congestion of spleen sinus were induced by high-dose Gd2O3:Eu3+ nanotubes. Biodistribution experiment exhibits that Gd mainly accumulates in spleen, lung, and liver. Therefore, it can be concluded that high-dose Gd2O3:Eu3+ nanotubes were toxic, but low-dose and middle-dose groups did not show significant toxicity. The results provide novel toxicology data of Gd2O3:Eu3+ nanotubes and may be helpful for more rational applications of Gd-based compounds in the future.
    Journal of Nanoparticle Research 03/2014; 16(3). DOI:10.1007/s11051-014-2303-8 · 2.28 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Oxidative damage is an important contributor to the morphological and the functional changes in the development of osteoporosis. In this reported work, the use of cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles as a potential therapeutic agent for osteoporosis is explored. By using the primary osteoblasts (OBs) exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), it is shown that the CeO2 nanoparticles relieve the H2O2-induced oxidative damage. The protective effects of the CeO2 nanoparticles were because of a reduction in the reactive oxygen species (ROS). The level of the antioxidant enzymes was increased after treatment with the CeO2 nanoparticles in the OBs exposed to H2O2. Moreover, the cell apoptosis rate was decreased after treatment with the CeO2 nanoparticles. The CeO2 nanoparticles protect the OBs against the H2O2-induced oxidative damage, suppression of the antioxidant enzymes depletion and cell apoptosis via its ROS scavenging mechanism. The findings suggest that the CeO2 nanoparticles may have a potentially therapeutic value for the diseases related to the ROS.
    Micro & Nano Letters 02/2014; 9(2):91-96. DOI:10.1049/mnl.2013.0586 · 0.80 Impact Factor
  • 01/2014; 44(4):423. DOI:10.1360/032013-325

Publication Stats

497 Citations
257.07 Total Impact Points


  • 2007–2015
    • Hebei University
      Pao-ting-shih, Hebei, China
  • 2008
    • The University of Hong Kong
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 2006
    • City University of Hong Kong
      • Department of Biology and Chemistry
      Chiu-lung, Kowloon City, Hong Kong
  • 2002
    • Zhejiang University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Hang-hsien, Zhejiang Sheng, China