Menno Poot

Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States

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Publications (33)212.45 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we present a theory that predicts the phase noise characteristics of self-sustained optomechanical oscillators. By treating the cavity optomechanical system as a feedback loop consisting of an optical cavity and a mechanical resonator, we analytically derive the transfer functions relating the amplitude/phase noise of all the relevant dynamical quantities from the quantum Langevin equations, and obtain a closed-form expressions for the phase noise spectral densities contributed from thermomechanical noise, photon shot noise, and low-frequency technical laser noise. We numerically calculate the phase noise for various situations and perform a sample calculation for an experimentally demonstrated system. We also show that the presented model reduces to the well-known Leeson's phase noise model when the amplitude noise and the amplitude/phase noise inter-transfers are ignored.
    04/2014;
  • M. Poot, H.X. Tang
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    ABSTRACT: We demonstrate an optomechanical phase shifter. By electrostatically deflecting the nanofabricated mechanical structure, the effective index of a nearby waveguide is changed and the resulting phase shift is measured using an integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Comparing to thermo-optical phase shifters, our device does not consume power in static operation and also it can operate over large frequency, wavelength, and power ranges. Operation in the MHz range and sub-μs pulses is demonstrated.
    Applied Physics Letters 01/2014; 104(6):061101-061101-4. · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    Menno Poot, Hong. X. Tang
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    ABSTRACT: We demonstrate an optomechanical phase shifter. By electrostatically deflecting the nanofabricated mechanical structure, the effective index of a nearby waveguide is changed and the resulting phase shift is measured using an integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Comparing to thermo-optical phase shifters, our device does not consume power in static operation and also it can operate over large frequency, wavelength, and power ranges. Operation in the MHz range and sub-$\mu$s pulses are demonstrated.
    12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Synchronization in oscillatory systems is a frequent natural phenomenon and is becoming an important concept in modern physics. Nanomechanical resonators are ideal systems for studying synchronization due to their controllable oscillation properties and engineerable nonlinearities. Here we demonstrate synchronization of two nanomechanical oscillators via a photonic resonator, enabling optomechanical synchronization between mechanically isolated nanomechanical resonators. Optical backaction gives rise to both reactive and dissipative coupling of the mechanical resonators, leading to coherent oscillation and mutual locking of resonators with dynamics beyond the widely accepted phase oscillator (Kuramoto) model. In addition to the phase difference between the oscillators, also their amplitudes are coupled, resulting in the emergence of sidebands around the synchronized carrier signal.
    Physical Review Letters 11/2013; 111(21):213902. · 7.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the design and experimental comparison of femtogram L3-nanobeam photonic crystal cavities for optomechanical studies. Two symmetric nanobeams are created by placing three air slots in a silicon photonic crystal slab where three holes are removed. The nanobeams' mechanical frequencies are higher than 600 MHz with ultrasmall effective modal masses at approximately 20 femtograms. The optical quality factor (Q) is optimized up to 53,000. The optical and mechanical modes are dispersively coupled with a vacuum optomechanical coupling rate g<sub>0</sub>/2? exceeding 200 kHz. The anchor-loss-limited mechanical Q of the differential beam mode is evaluated to be greater than 10,000 for structures with ideally symmetric beams. The influence of variations on the air slot width and position is also investigated. The devices can be used as ultrasensitive sensors of mass, force, and displacement.
    Optics Express 11/2012; 20(24):26486-98. · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The maximum amplitude of mechanical oscillators coupled to optical cavities are studied both analytically and numerically. The optical backaction on the resonator enables self-sustained oscillations whose limit cycle is set by the dynamic range of the cavity. The maximum attainable amplitude and the phonon generation quantum efficiency of the backaction process are studied for both unresolved and resolved cavities. Quantum efficiencies far exceeding one are found in the resolved sideband regime where the amplitude is low. On the other hand the maximum amplitude is found in the unresolved system. Finally, the role of mechanical nonlinearities is addressed.
    Physical Review A 11/2012; 86(5). · 3.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We develop an all-integrated optoelectromechanical system that operates in the superhigh frequency band. This system is based on an ultrahigh-Q slotted photonic crystal (PhC) nanocavity formed by two PhC membranes, one of which is patterned with electrode and capacitively driven. The strong simultaneous electromechanical and optomechanical interactions yield efficient electrical excitation and sensitive optical transduction of the bulk acoustic modes of the PhC membrane. These modes are identified up to a frequency of 4.20 GHz, with their mechanical Q factors ranging from 240 to 1,730. Directly linking signals in microwave and optical domains, such optoelectromechanical systems will find applications in microwave photonics in addition to those that utilize the electromechanical and optomechanical interactions separately.
    Applied Physics Letters 10/2012; 101(22). · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have studied the elastic deformation of freely suspended atomically thin sheets of muscovite mica, a widely used electrical insulator in its bulk form. Using an atomic force microscope, we carried out bending test experiments to determine the Young's modulus and the initial pre-tension of mica nanosheets with thicknesses ranging from 14 layers down to just one bilayer. We found that their Young's modulus is high (190 GPa), in agreement with the bulk value, which indicates that the exfoliation procedure employed to fabricate these nanolayers does not introduce a noticeable amount of defects. Additionally, ultrathin mica shows low pre-strain and can withstand reversible deformations up to tens of nanometers without breaking. The low pre-tension and high Young's modulus and breaking force found in these ultrathin mica layers demonstrates their prospective use as a complement for graphene in applications requiring flexible insulating materials or as reinforcement in nanocomposites.
    Nano Research 08/2012; · 7.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the design of a femtogram L3-nanobeam photonic crystal cavity for optomechanical studies. Two symmetric nanobeams are created by placing three air slots in a silicon photonic crystal slab where three holes are removed. The optical quality factor (Q) is optimized up to 52,000. The nanobeams' mechanical frequencies are higher than 600 MHz due to their femtogram effective modal masses. The optical and mechanical modes are dispersively coupled with a vacuum optomechanical coupling rate g0/2pi exceeding 200 kHz. The anchor-loss-limited mechanical Q of the differential beam mode is evaluated to be greater than 10,000 for structures with ideally symmetric beams. The influence of variations on the air slot width and position is also investigated. The devices can be used as ultrasensitive sensors of mass, force, and displacement.
    06/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We fabricate freely suspended nanosheets of molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) which are characterized by quantitative optical microscopy and high-resolution friction force microscopy. We study the elastic deformation of freely suspended nanosheets of MoS2 using an atomic force microscope. The Young's modulus and the initial pre-tension of the nanosheets are determined by performing a nanoscopic version of a bending test experiment. MoS2 sheets show high elasticity and an extremely high Young's modulus (0.30 TPa, 50% larger than steel). These results make them a potential alternative to graphene in applications requiring flexible semiconductor materials.PACS, 73.61.Le, other inorganic semiconductors, 68.65.Ac, multilayers, 62.20.de, elastic moduli, 81.40.Jj, elasticity and anelasticity, stress-strain relations.
    Nanoscale Research Letters 04/2012; 7:233. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We demonstrate a new optomechanical device system which allows highly efficient transduction of femtogram nanobeam resonators. Doubly clamped nanomechanical resonators with mass as small as 25 fg are embedded in a high-finesse two-dimensional photonic crystal nanocavity. Optical transduction of the fundamental flexural mode around 1 GHz was performed at room temperature and ambient conditions, with an observed displacement sensitivity of 0.94 fm/Hz(1/2). Comparison of measurements from symmetric and asymmetric double-beam devices reveals hybridization of the mechanical modes where the structural symmetry is shown to be the key to obtain a high mechanical quality factor. Our novel configuration opens the way for a new category of "NEMS-in-cavity" devices based on optomechanical interaction at the nanoscale.
    Nano Letters 04/2012; 12(5):2299-305. · 13.03 Impact Factor
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    Advanced Materials 02/2012; 24(6):772-5. · 14.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ability to control mechanical motion with optical forces has made it possible to cool mechanical resonators to their quantum ground states. The same techniques can also be used to amplify rather than reduce the mechanical motion of such systems. Here, we study nanomechanical resonators that are slightly buckled and therefore have two stable configurations, denoted 'buckled up' and 'buckled down', when they are at rest. The motion of these resonators can be described by a double-well potential with a large central energy barrier between the two stable configurations. We demonstrate the high-amplitude operation of a buckled resonator coupled to an optical cavity by using a highly efficient process to generate enough phonons in the resonator to overcome the energy barrier in the double-well potential. This allows us to observe the first evidence for nanomechanical slow-down and a zero-frequency singularity predicted by theorists. We also demonstrate a non-volatile mechanical memory element in which bits are written and reset by using optomechanical backaction to direct the relaxation of a resonator in the high-amplitude regime to a specific stable configuration.
    Nature Nanotechnology 11/2011; 6(11):726-32. · 31.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cavity optomechanics enables active manipulation of mechanical resonators through backaction cooling and amplification. This ability to control mechanical motion with retarded optical forces has recently spurred a race towards realizing a mechanical resonator in its quantum ground state. Here, instead of quenching optomechanical motion, we demonstrate high amplitude operation of nanomechanical resonators by utilizing a highly efficient phonon generation process. In this regime, the nanomechanical resonators gain sufficient energy from the optical field to overcome the large energy barrier of a double well potential, leading to nanomechanical slow-down and zero frequency singularity, as predicted by early theories . Besides fundamental studies and interests in parametric amplification of small forces, optomechanical backaction is also projected to open new windows for studying discrete mechanical states, and to foster applications. Here we realize a non-volatile mechanical memory element, in which bits are written and reset via optomechanical backaction by controlling the mechanical damping across the barrier. Our study casts a new perspective on the energy dynamics in coupled mechanical resonator - cavity systems and enables novel functional devices that utilize the principles of cavity optomechanics.
    09/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: We have employed a feedback cooling scheme, which combines high-frequency mixing with digital signal processing. The frequency and damping rate of a 2 MHz micromechanical resonator embedded in a dc SQUID are adjusted with the feedback, and active cooling to a temperature of 14.3 mK is demonstrated. This technique can be applied to GHz resonators and allows for flexible control strategies.
    Applied Physics Letters - APPL PHYS LETT. 06/2011; 99.
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    ABSTRACT: Mechanical systems are ideal candidates for studying quantumbehavior of macroscopic objects. To this end, a mechanical resonator has to be cooled to its ground state and its position has to be measured with great accuracy. Currently, various routes to reach these goals are being explored. In this review, we discuss different techniques for sensitive position detection and we give an overview of the cooling techniques that are being employed. The latter include sideband cooling and active feedback cooling. The basic concepts that are important when measuring on mechanical systems with high accuracy and/or at very low temperatures, such as thermal and quantum noise, linear response theory, and backaction, are explained. From this, the quantum limit on linear position detection is obtained and the sensitivities that have been achieved in recent opto and nanoelectromechanical experiments are compared to this limit. The mechanical resonators that are used in the experiments range from meter-sized gravitational wave detectors to nanomechanical systems that can only be read out using mesoscopic devices such as single-electron transistors or superconducting quantum interference devices. A special class of nanomechanical systems are bottom-up fabricated carbon-based devices, which have very high frequencies and yet a large zero-point motion, making them ideal for reaching the quantum regime. The mechanics of some of the different mechanical systems at the nanoscale is studied. We conclude this review with an outlook of how state-of-the-art mechanical resonators can be improved to study quantum {\it mechanics}.
    06/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) can detect tiny amounts of magnetic flux and are also used to study macroscopic quantum effects. We employ a dc SQUID as a linear detector of the displacement of an embedded micromechanical resonator with a femtometer sensitivity. We discuss the measurement method, including operation in high magnetic field and a cryogenic amplification scheme which allows us to reach a resolution which is only a factor 4.4 above the standard quantum limit.
    Comptes Rendus Physique - C R PHYS. 01/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: We have measured the backaction of a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) position detector on an integrated 1 MHz flexural resonator. The frequency and quality factor of the micromechanical resonator can be tuned with bias current and applied magnetic flux. The backaction is caused by the Lorentz force due to the change in circulating current when the resonator displaces. The experimental features are reproduced by numerical calculations using the resistively and capacitively shunted junction model.
    Physical Review Letters 11/2010; 105(20):207203. · 7.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A theoretical and experimental investigation is presented on the intermodal coupling between the flexural vibration modes of a single clamped-clamped beam. Nonlinear coupling allows an arbitrary flexural mode to be used as a self-detector for the amplitude of another mode, presenting a method to measure the energy stored in a specific resonance mode. The observed complex nonlinear dynamics are quantitatively captured by a model based on coupling of the modes via the beam extension; the same mechanism is responsible for the well-known Duffing nonlinearity in clamped-clamped beams.
    Physical Review Letters 09/2010; 105(11):117205. · 7.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: By first lithographically fabricating contact electrodes and then as last step growing carbon nanotubes with chemical vapour deposition across the ready-made chip, many potential contamination mechanisms for nanotube devices can be avoided. Combining this with pre-defined trenches on the chip, such that the nanotubes are freely suspended above the substrate, enables the formation of highly regular electronic systems. We show that, in addition, such suspended ultra-clean nanotubes provide excellent high-frequency and low-dissipation mechanical resonators. The motion detection mechanism of our experiment is discussed, and we measure the effect of Coulomb blockade and the back-action of single electron tunneling on the mechanical motion. In addition data on the mechanical higher modes is presented.
    physica status solidi (b) 08/2010; 247(11‐12):2974 - 2979. · 1.49 Impact Factor