Kevin A Fiala

The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States

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Publications (15)73.92 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA Polymerase IV (Dpo4), a prototype Y-family DNA polymerase, has been well characterized biochemically and biophysically at 37 °C or lower temperatures. However, the physiological temperature of the hyperthermophile S. solfataricus is approximately 80 °C. With such a large discrepancy in temperature, the in vivo relevance of these in vitro studies of Dpo4 has been questioned. Here, we employed circular dichroism spectroscopy and fluorescence-based thermal scanning to investigate the secondary structural changes of Dpo4 over a temperature range from 26 to 119 °C. Dpo4 was shown to display a high melting temperature characteristic of hyperthermophiles. Unexpectedly, the Little Finger domain of Dpo4, which is only found in the Y-family DNA polymerases, was shown to be more thermostable than the polymerase core. More interestingly, Dpo4 exhibited a three-state cooperative unfolding profile with an unfolding intermediate. The linker region between the Little Finger and Thumb domains of Dpo4 was found to be a source of structural instability. Through site-directed mutagenesis, the interactions between the residues in the linker region and the Palm domain were identified to play a critical role in the formation of the unfolding intermediate. Notably, the secondary structure of Dpo4 was not altered when the temperature was increased from 26 to 87.5 °C. Thus, in addition to providing structural insights into the thermal stability and an unfolding intermediate of Dpo4, our work also validated the relevance of the in vitro studies of Dpo4 performed at temperatures significantly lower than 80 °C.
    Chemical Research in Toxicology 06/2012; 25(7):1531-40. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Higher eukaryotes encode various Y-family DNA polymerases to perform global DNA lesion bypass. To provide complete mutation spectra for abasic lesion bypass, we employed short oligonucleotide sequencing assays to determine the sequences of abasic lesion bypass products synthesized by human Y-family DNA polymerases eta (hPolη), iota (hPolι) and kappa (hPolκ). The fourth human Y-family DNA polymerase, Rev1, failed to generate full-length lesion bypass products after 3 h. The results indicate that hPolι generates mutations with a frequency from 10 to 80% during each nucleotide incorporation event. In contrast, hPolη is the least error prone, generating the fewest mutations in the vicinity of the abasic lesion and inserting dAMP with a frequency of 67% opposite the abasic site. While the error frequency of hPolκ is intermediate to those of hPolη and hPolι, hPolκ has the highest potential to create frameshift mutations opposite the abasic site. Moreover, the time (t(50)(bypass)) required to bypass 50% of the abasic lesions encountered by hPolη, hPolι and hPolκ was 4.6, 112 and 1 823 s, respectively. These t(50)(bypass) values indicate that, among the enzymes, hPolη has the highest abasic lesion bypass efficiency. Together, our data suggest that hPolη is best suited to perform abasic lesion bypass in vivo.
    Nucleic Acids Research 01/2011; 39(2):609-22. · 8.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During DNA synthesis, most DNA polymerases and reverse transcriptases select against ribonucleotides via a steric clash between the ribose 2'-hydroxyl group and the bulky side chain of an active-site residue. In this study, we demonstrated that human DNA polymerase lambda used a novel sugar selection mechanism to discriminate against ribonucleotides, whereby the ribose 2'-hydroxyl group was excluded mostly by a backbone segment and slightly by the side chain of Y505. Such steric clash was further demonstrated to be dependent on the size and orientation of the substituent covalently attached at the ribonucleotide C2'-position.
    Journal of Molecular Biology 11/2009; 395(2):282-90. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As a widely used anticancer drug, cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cisplatin) reacts with adjacent purine bases in DNA to form predominantly cis-[Pt(NH(3))(2){d(GpG)-N7(1),-N7(2)}] intrastrand cross-links. Drug resistance, one of the major limitations of cisplatin therapy, is partially due to the inherent ability of human Y-family DNA polymerases to perform translesion synthesis in the presence of DNA-distorting damage such as cisplatin-DNA adducts. To better understand the mechanistic basis of translesion synthesis contributing to cisplatin resistance, this study investigated the bypass of a single, site-specifically placed cisplatin-d(GpG) adduct by a model Y-family DNA polymerase, Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4). Dpo4 was able to bypass this double-base lesion, although, the incorporation efficiency of dCTP opposite the first and second cross-linked guanine bases was decreased by 72- and 860-fold, respectively. Moreover, the fidelity at the lesion decreased up to two orders of magnitude. The cisplatin-d(GpG) adduct affected six downstream nucleotide incorporations, but interestingly the fidelity was essentially unaltered. Biphasic kinetic analysis supported a universal kinetic mechanism for the bypass of DNA lesions catalyzed by various translesion DNA polymerases. In conclusion, if human Y-family DNA polymerases adhere to this bypass mechanism, then translesion synthesis by these error-prone enzymes is likely accountable for cisplatin resistance observed in cancer patients.
    Nucleic Acids Research 08/2008; 36(12):3867-78. · 8.81 Impact Factor
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    Jimson H Wong, Kevin A Fiala, Zucai Suo, Hong Ling
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    ABSTRACT: Y-family DNA polymerases catalyze translesion DNA synthesis over damaged DNA. Each Y-family polymerase has a polymerase core consisting of a palm, finger and thumb domain in addition to a fourth domain known as a little finger domain. It is unclear how each domain moves during nucleotide incorporation and what type of conformational changes corresponds to the rate-limiting step previously reported in kinetic studies. Here, we present three crystal structures of the prototype Y-family polymerase: apo-Dpo4 at 1.9 A resolution, Dpo4-DNA binary complex and Dpo4-DNA-dTMP ternary complex at 2.2 A resolution. Dpo4 undergoes dramatic conformational changes from the apo to the binary structures with a 131 degrees rotation of the little finger domain relative to the polymerase core upon DNA binding. This DNA-induced conformational change is verified in solution by our tryptophan fluorescence studies. In contrast, the polymerase core retains the same conformation in all three conformationally distinct states. Particularly, the finger domain which is responsible for checking base pairing between the template base and an incoming nucleotide retains a rigid conformation. The inflexibility of the polymerase core likely contributes to the low fidelity of Dpo4, in addition to its loose and solvent-accessible active site. Interestingly, while the binary and ternary complexes of Dpo4 retain an identical global conformation, the aromatic side chains of two conserved tyrosines at the nucleotide-binding site change orientations between the binary and ternary structures. Such local conformational changes may correspond to the rate-limiting step in the mechanism of nucleotide incorporation. Together, the global and local conformational transitions observed in our study provide a structural basis for the distinct kinetic steps of a catalytic cycle of DNA polymerization performed by a Y-family polymerase.
    Journal of Molecular Biology 06/2008; 379(2):317-30. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our previous publication shows that Sulfolobus solfataricus Dpo4 utilizes an 'induced-fit' mechanism to select correct incoming nucleotides at 37 degrees C. Here, we provide a comprehensive report elucidating the kinetic mechanism of a DNA polymerase at a reaction temperature higher than 37 degrees C in an attempt to determine the effect of temperature on enzyme fidelity and mechanism. The fidelity of Dpo4 did not change considerably with a 30 degrees C increase in reaction temperature, suggesting that the fidelity of Dpo4 at 80 degrees C is similar to that determined here at 56 degrees C. Amazingly, the incorporation rate for correct nucleotides increased by 18 900-fold from 2 degrees C to 56 degrees C, similar in magnitude to that observed for incorrect nucleotides, thus not perturbing fidelity. Three independent lines of kinetic evidence indicate that a protein conformational change limits correct nucleotide incorporations at 56 degrees C. Furthermore, the activation energy for the incorporation of a correct nucleotide was determined to be 32.9 kcal/mol, a value considerably larger than those values estimated for a rate-limiting chemistry step, providing a fourth line of evidence to further substantiate this conclusion. These results herein provide evidence that Dpo4 utilizes the 'induced-fit' mechanism to select a correct nucleotide at all temperatures.
    Nucleic Acids Research 05/2008; 36(6):1990-2001. · 8.81 Impact Factor
  • Kevin A Fiala, Cameron D Hypes, Zucai Suo
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    ABSTRACT: The 3 million-base pair genome of Sulfolobus solfataricus likely undergoes depurination/depyrimidination frequently in vivo. These unrepaired abasic lesions are expected to be bypassed by Dpo4, the only Y-family DNA polymerase from S. solfataricus. Interestingly, these error-prone Y-family enzymes have been shown to be physiologically vital in reducing the potentially negative consequences of DNA damage while paradoxically promoting carcinogenesis. Here we used Dpo4 as a model Y-family polymerase to establish the mechanistic basis for DNA lesion bypass. While showing efficient bypass, Dpo4 paused when incorporating nucleotides directly opposite and one position downstream from an abasic lesion because of a drop of several orders of magnitude in catalytic efficiency. Moreover, in disagreement with a previous structural report, Dpo4-catalyzed abasic bypass involves robust competition between the A-rule and the lesion loop-out mechanism and is governed by the local DNA sequence. Analysis of the strong pause sites revealed biphasic kinetics for incorporation indicating that Dpo4 primarily formed a nonproductive complex with DNA that converted slowly to a productive complex. These strong pause sites are mutational hot spots with the embedded lesion even affecting the efficiency of five to six downstream incorporations. Our results suggest that abasic lesion bypass requires tight regulation to maintain genomic stability.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2007; 282(11):8188-98. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Kevin A Fiala, Zucai Suo
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    ABSTRACT: DNA damage that eludes cellular repair pathways can arrest the replication machinery and stall the cell cycle. However, this damage can be bypassed by the Y-family DNA polymerases. Here, Dpo4, an archetypal Y-family member from the thermophilic Sulfolobus solfataricus, was used to extend our kinetic studies of the bypass of an abasic site, one of the most mutagenic and ubiquitous cellular lesions. A short oligonucleotide sequencing assay is developed to directly sequence DNA bypass products synthesized by Dpo4. Our results show that incorporation upstream of the abasic lesion is replicated error-free; yet dramatically, once Dpo4 encounters the lesion, synthesis became sloppy, with bypass products containing a myriad of mutagenic events. Incorporation of dAMP (29%) and dCMP (53%) opposite the abasic lesion at 37 degrees C correlates exceptionally well with our kinetic results and demonstrates two dominant bypass pathways via the A-rule and the lesion loop-out mechanism. Interestingly, the percentage of overall frameshift mutations increased from 71 (37 degrees C) to 87% (75 degrees C). Further analysis indicates that lesion bypass via the A-rule is strongly preferred over the lesion loop-out mechanism at higher temperatures and concomitantly reduces the occurrence of "-1 deletion" mutations observed opposite the lesion at lower temperatures. The bypass percentage via the latter pathway is confirmed by an enzymatic digestion assay, verifying the reliability of our sequencing assay. Our results demonstrate that an abasic lesion causes Dpo4 and possibly all Y-family members to switch from a normal to a very mutagenic mode of replication.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2007; 282(11):8199-206. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous template-dependent DNA polymerases are capable of catalyzing template-independent nucleotide additions onto blunt-end DNA. Such non-canonical activity has been hypothesized to increase the genomic hypermutability of retroviruses including human immunodeficiency viruses. Here, we employed pre-steady state kinetics and X-ray crystallography to establish a mechanism for blunt-end additions catalyzed by Sulfolobus solfataricus Dpo4. Our kinetic studies indicated that the first blunt-end dATP incorporation was 80-fold more efficient than the second, and among natural deoxynucleotides, dATP was the preferred substrate due to its stronger intrahelical base-stacking ability. Such base-stacking contributions are supported by the 41-fold higher ground-state binding affinity of a nucleotide analog, pyrene nucleoside 5'-triphosphate, which lacks hydrogen bonding ability but possesses four conjugated aromatic rings. A 2.05 A resolution structure of Dpo4*(blunt-end DNA)*ddATP revealed that the base and sugar of the incoming ddATP, respectively, stack against the 5'-base of the opposite strand and the 3'-base of the elongating strand. This unprecedented base-stacking pattern can be applied to subsequent blunt-end additions only if all incorporated dAMPs are extrahelical, leading to predominantly single non-templated dATP incorporation.
    Journal of Molecular Biology 02/2007; 365(3):590-602. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During short-patch base excision repair, the excision of a 5'-terminal 2-deoxyribose-5-phosphate moiety of the downstream strand by the 5'-2-deoxyribose-5-phosphate lyase activity of either DNA polymerase beta or lambda is believed to occur after each respective enzyme catalyzes gap-filling DNA synthesis. Yet the effects of this 5'-terminal 2-deoxyribose-5-phosphate moiety on the polymerase activities of these two enzymes have never been quantitatively determined. Moreover, x-ray crystal structures of truncated polymerase lambda have revealed that the downstream strand and its 5'-phosphate group of gapped DNA interact intensely with the dRPase domain, but the kinetic effect of these interactions is unclear. Here, we utilized pre-steady state kinetic methods to systematically investigate the effect of a downstream strand and its 5'-moieties on the polymerase activity of the full-length human polymerase lambda. The downstream strand and its 5'-phosphate were both found to increase nucleotide incorporation efficiency (kp/Kd) by 15 and 11-fold, respectively, with the increase procured by the effect on the nucleotide incorporation rate constant kp rather than the ground state nucleotide binding affinity Kd. With 4 single nucleotide-gapped DNA substrates containing a 1,2-dideoxyribose-5-phosphate moiety, a 2-deoxyribose-5-phosphate mimic, we measured the incorporation efficiencies of 16 possible nucleotides. Our results demonstrate that although this 5'-terminal 2-deoxyribose-5-phosphate mimic does not affect the fidelity of polymerase lambda, it moderately decreased the polymerase efficiency by 3.4-fold. Moreover, this decrease in polymerase efficiency is due to a drop of similar magnitude in kp rather than Kd. The implication of the downstream strand and its 5'-moieties on the kinetics of gap-filling synthesis is discussed.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2006; 281(47):35649-55. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Kevin A Fiala, Wade W Duym, Jun Zhang, Zucai Suo
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    ABSTRACT: DNA repair pathways are essential for maintaining genome stability. DNA polymerase beta plays a critical role in base-excision repair in vivo. DNA polymerase lambda, a recently identified X-family homolog of DNA polymerase beta, is hypothesized to be a second polymerase involved in base-excision repair. The full-length DNA polymerase lambda is comprised of three domains: a C-terminal DNA polymerase beta-like domain, an N-terminal BRCA1 C-terminal domain, and a previously uncharacterized proline-rich domain. Strikingly, pre-steady-state kinetic analyses reveal that, although human DNA polymerase lambda has almost identical fidelity to human DNA polymerase beta, the C-terminal DNA polymerase beta-like domain alone displays a dramatic, up to 100-fold loss in fidelity. We further demonstrate that the non-enzymatic proline-rich domain confers the increase in fidelity of DNA polymerase lambda by significantly lowering incorporation rate constants of incorrect nucleotides. Our studies illustrate a novel mechanism, in which the DNA polymerase fidelity is controlled not by an accessory protein or a proofreading exonuclease domain but by an internal regulatory domain.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2006; 281(28):19038-44. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DNA polymerase mu (Polmu), an X-family DNA polymerase, is preferentially expressed in secondary lymphoid tissues with yet unknown physiological functions. In this study, Polmu was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The purified enzyme had a lifetime of <20 min at 37 degrees C, but was stable for over 3 h at 25 degrees C in an optimized reaction buffer. The fidelity of human Polmu was thus determined using pre-steady-state kinetic analysis of the incorporation of single nucleotides into undamaged DNA 21/41-mer substrates at 25 degrees C. Single-turnover saturation kinetics for all 16 possible deoxynucleotide (dNTP) incorporations and for four matched ribonucleotide (rNTP) incorporations were measured under conditions where Polmu was in molar excess over DNA. The polymerization rate (k(p)), binding affinity (K(d)), and substrate specificity (k(p)/K(d)) are 0.006-0.076 s(-1), 0.35-1.8 microM, and (8-64) x10(-3) microM(-1) s(-1), respectively, for matched incoming dNTPs, (2-30) x 10(-5) s(-1), 7.3-135 microM, and (4-61) x 10(-7) microM(-1) s(-1), respectively, for mismatched incoming dNTPs, and (2-73) x 10(-4) s(-1), 45-302 microM, and (7-1300) x 10(-7) microM(-1) s(-1), respectively, for matched incoming rNTPs. The overall fidelity of Polmu was estimated to be in the range of 10(-3)-10(-5) for both dNTP and rNTP incorporations and was sequence-independent. The sugar selectivity, defined as the substrate specificity ratio of a matched dNTP versus a matched rNTP, was measured to be in the range of 492-10959. In addition to a slow and distributive DNA polymerase activity, Polmu was identified to possess a weak strand-displacement activity. The potential biological roles of Polmu are discussed.
    Biochemistry 12/2004; 43(43):13827-38. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    Kevin A Fiala, Wissam Abdel-Gawad, Zucai Suo
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    ABSTRACT: DNA polymerase lambda (Pollambda), a member of the X-family DNA polymerases, possesses an N-terminal BRCT domain, a proline-rich domain, and a C-terminal polymerase beta-like domain (tPollambda). In this paper, we determined a minimal kinetic mechanism and the fidelity of tPollambda using pre-steady-state kinetic analysis of the incorporation of a single nucleotide into a one-nucleotide gapped DNA substrate, 21-19/41-mer (primer-primer/template). Our kinetic studies revealed an incoming nucleotide bound to the enzyme.DNA binary complex at a rate constant of 1.55 x 10(8) M(-1) s(-1) to form a ground-state ternary complex while the nucleotide dissociated from this complex at a rate constant of 300 s(-1). Since DNA dissociation from tPollambda (0.8 s(-1)) was less than 3-fold slower than polymerization, we measured saturation kinetics for all 16 possible nucleotide incorporations under single turnover conditions to eliminate the complication resulting from multiple turnovers. The fidelity of tPollambda was estimated to be in the range of 10(-2)-10(-4) and was sequence-dependent. Surprisingly, the ground-state binding affinity of correct (1.1-2.4 microM) and incorrect nucleotides (1.4-8.4 microM) was very similar while correct nucleotides (3-6 s(-1)) were incorporated much faster than incorrect nucleotides (0.001-0.2 s(-1)). Interestingly, the misincorporation of dGTP opposite a template base thymine (0.2 s(-1)) was more rapid than all other misincorporations, leading to the lowest fidelity (3.2 x 10(-2)) among all mismatched base pairs. Additionally, tPollambda was found to possess weak strand-displacement activity during polymerization. These biochemical properties suggest that Pollambda likely fills short-patched DNA gaps in base excision repair pathways and participates in mammalian nonhomologous end-joining pathways to repair double-stranded DNA breaks.
    Biochemistry 07/2004; 43(21):6751-62. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    Kevin A Fiala, Zucai Suo
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    ABSTRACT: Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4) is a thermostable archaeal enzyme and a member of the error-prone and lesion-bypass Y-family. In this paper, for the first time, the fidelity of a Y-family polymerase, Dpo4, was determined using pre-steady-state kinetic analysis of the incorporation of a single nucleotide into an undamaged DNA substrate 21/41-mer at 37 degrees C. We assessed single-turnover (with Dpo4 in molar excess over DNA) saturation kinetics for all 16 possible nucleotide incorporations. The fidelity of Dpo4 was estimated to be in the range of 10(-3)-10(-4). Interestingly, the ground-state binding affinity of correct nucleotides (70-230 microM) is 10-50-fold weaker than those of replicative DNA polymerases. Such a low affinity is consistent with the lack of interactions between Dpo4 and the bound nucleotides as revealed in the crystal structure of Dpo4, DNA, and a matched nucleotide. The affinity of incorrect nucleotides for Dpo4 is approximately 2-10-fold weaker than that of correct nucleotides. Intriguingly, the mismatched dCTP has an affinity similar to that of the matched nucleotides when it is incorporated against a pyrimidine template base flanked by a 5'-template guanine. The incoming dCTP likely skips the first available template base and base pairs with the 5'-template guanine, as observed in the crystal structure of Dpo4, DNA, and a mismatched nucleotide. The mismatch incorporation rates, regardless of the 5'-template base, were approximately 2-3 orders of magnitude slower than the incorporation rates for matched nucleotides, which is the predominant contribution to the fidelity of Dpo4.
    Biochemistry 03/2004; 43(7):2106-15. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    Kevin A Fiala, Zucai Suo
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    ABSTRACT: The kinetic mechanism of DNA polymerization catalyzed by Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4) is resolved by pre-steady-state kinetic analysis of single-nucleotide (dTTP) incorporation into a DNA 21/41-mer. Like replicative DNA polymerases, Dpo4 utilizes an "induced-fit" mechanism to select correct incoming nucleotides. The affinity of DNA and a matched incoming nucleotide for Dpo4 was measured to be 10.6 nM and 230 microM, respectively. Dpo4 binds DNA with an affinity similar to that of replicative polymerases due to the presence of an atypical little finger domain and a highly charged tether that links this novel domain to its small thumb domain. On the basis of the elemental effect between the incorporations of dTTP and its thio analogue S(p)-dTTPalphaS, the incorporation of a correct incoming nucleotide by Dpo4 was shown to be limited by the protein conformational change step preceding the chemistry step. In contrast, the chemistry step limited the incorporation of an incorrect nucleotide. The measured dissociation rates of the enzyme.DNA binary complex (0.02-0.07 s(-1)), the enzyme.DNA.dNTP ternary complex (0.41 s(-1)), and the ternary complex after the protein conformational change (0.004 s(-1)) are significantly different and support the existence of a bona fide protein conformational change step. The rate-limiting protein conformational change was further substantiated by the observation of different reaction amplitudes between pulse-quench and pulse-chase experiments. Additionally, the processivity of Dpo4 was calculated to be 16 at 37 degrees C from analysis of a processive polymerization experiment. The structural basis for both the protein conformational change and the low processivity of Dpo4 was discussed.
    Biochemistry 03/2004; 43(7):2116-25. · 3.38 Impact Factor